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İLKÇAĞLARDA VERGİYE KARŞI DİRENİŞ VE İSYANLAR İLK VERGİ REFORMU ve VERGİ AFFI: SÜMERLER, M.Ö. 2350 KİDDİNUTU (VERGİDEN MUAF ŞEHİRLER): BABİL ve ASURLAR, M.Ö. 2000-500 SOLON’UN ANAYASASI ve VERGİ REFORMU, M.Ö. 594-591 ETRÜSKLERİN SONU ve ROMA’NIN YENİDEN FETHİ: ANTİK ROMA, M.Ö. 509 ANTİK ÇAĞDA BİR DÜNYA SAVAŞI: ANTİK YUNAN, M.Ö. 478-404 RODOS - BİZANS SAVAŞI: ANTİK YUNAN, M.Ö. 220 MISIRLILARIN BÜYÜK İSYANI: ANTİK MISIR, M.Ö. 206-185 TRİUMVİRLİK VERGİLERİ ve İSYANLAR: ROMA CUMHURİYETİ, M.Ö. 44, 42, 31, 2
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Vergiler devletin egemenlik gücüne dayanarak halktan talep ettiği meşru gelirleridir. Vergi devletin sahip olması gereken önemli bir gelir kaynağı, halk için ise harcanacak gelirden kayıptır. Bu nedenle devletler ile vatandaş arasında vergi nedeniyle pek çok kez kavga ve çekişmeler meydana gelmiştir. Ancak vergiler olmadan bir devletin ayakta kalmasına imkân yoktur. Vergi, maddi zora dayalı karşılıksız bir değer olduğundan vergiye karşı bir direnç oluşması olasıdır. Çünkü devlet egemenlik hakkını kullanarak, vergilemede hukuki ve maddi zor kullanmaktadır. Devletin zorunlu giderlerinin finansörleri olan vergi mükellefleri ise gelirlerinin bir bölümünü kaybettikleri için vergiye karşı tepki göstermektedirler. Bu durumda istenen şey devletin vergilemede adil olması ve vergi mükelleflerinin de bu duruma gönüllü uyum sağlamasıdır. Bu çalışmada vergi direncini etkileyen bazı faktörler ve vergi direncinin neden olduğu bazı isyanlar incelenmiştir.
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Taxes, which are the basic public income, can cause disputes between individuals and the state over time. Individuals engage in collective responses to taxes. This reaction could turn into tax riots. Historically, tax revolts can occur based on elements of taxation, such as the tax rate, burden, and form of collection, while the state can be a manifestation of general discontent with the government. The fact that the components of tax riots are different requires that each tax Riot be examined separately. The aim of this study is to examine the characteristics and consequences of tax revolts in the Ottoman state. In this context, the tax revolts that took place in the Ottoman Empire in the Central Anatolia region (Ayaş, Çamardı, Bala and Burdur towns) in the 1840-1841 were examined with examples obtained from the Ottoman archives. As a result of the examination, it was determined that not all of the people participated in the tax revolts and these revolts did not spread to the whole society.