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Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is consistently seen as a top priority; however, STEM programs often suffer from low retention. Students who start in STEM degree programs often lose interest or face obstacles that cause them to leave. Here, we describe a non‐traditional approach meant to encourage a range of students to pursue or continue their STEM education. Active learning approaches have long been touted to stimulate long‐term interest and prepare students for a career in natural science. We provide a case study of an interdisciplinary, cohort‐centric, mentor‐guided summer research internship. By establishing an understanding of how science is currently conducted in agriculture, through several faculty mentors, the program allowed students to embrace their core interests while being able to fit into larger interdisciplinary narratives which provided motivation to continue their path in STEM education. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved A cohort‐based undergraduate research experience differs from the typical apprentice‐based models. Generating data together and asking questions from diverse perspectives allows students to work across scales. Creating interdisciplinary teams allows students to participate in more realistic research to tackle complex problems. Designing a dynamic, cohort‐based summer undergraduate research experience provides enriching activities that occur along the active learning continuum.
The concept of productive failure posits that a problem-solving phase prior to explicit instruction is more effective than explicit instruction followed by problem-solving. This prediction was tested with Year 5 primary school students learning about light energy efficiency. Two, fully randomised, controlled experiments were conducted. In the first experiment (N = 64), explicit instruction followed by problem-solving was found to be superior to the reverse order for performance on problems similar to those used during instruction, with no difference on transfer problems. In the second experiment, where element interactivity was increased (N = 71), explicit instruction followed by problem-solving was found to be superior to the reverse order for performance on both similar and transfer problems. The contradictory predictions and results of a productive failure approach and cognitive load theory are discussed using the concept of element interactivity. Specifically, for learning where element interactivity is high, explicit instruction should precede problem-solving.
STEM undergraduate classrooms are increasingly adopting instructional methods to enhance student engagement and improve learning outcomes. For example, in exploratory learning, students explore novel problems before they are taught the underlying concepts and procedures. The current studies examined the benefits of exploratory learning in undergraduate physics instruction. In Studies 1 and 2, students worked collaboratively in groups to complete a learning activity before lecture (explore-first condition) or after (instruct-first condition). The two studies were conducted in different semesters, with different physics courses and instructors of record. Students’ conceptual understanding and procedural knowledge (problem-solving accuracy) were assessed using an instructor-created quiz. Performance on the learning activity indicated that students in the explore-first condition struggled as much as (Study 2) or more than (Study 1) students in the instruct-first condition. However, on the quiz, students in the explore-first condition exhibited better conceptual understanding and equal procedural knowledge, compared to students in the instruct-first condition. In addition, self-reported interest and enjoyment were either equal (Study 1) or greater (Study 2) in the explore-first condition. Study 3 tested the effects of exploring alone versus in a collaborative group. Learning outcomes were equal across conditions, suggesting that there is no added learning benefit of exploring collaboratively compared to individually. However, interest and enjoyment were higher when students explored collaboratively, which may have long-term educational benefits. Exploratory learning, with or without collaboration, offers a useful method to improve student engagement and performance in essential undergraduate STEM courses.
The objective of this study is to explore the student's perspectives toward the interactive lectures as a teaching and learning method in an integrated curriculum.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1st, 2nd and 3rd year male medical students (n = 121). A self-administered questionnaire based on the Visual, Auditory, Reader, Kinesthetic learning styles, learning theories, and role of feedback in teaching and learning on five-point Likert rating scale was used. The questionnaire was constructed after extensive literature review.
There was an 80% response rate in this study. The total number of undergraduate medical students responded in the study were n = 97, 34 students of 1st year, n = 30 students of 2nd year and n = 33 student were in 3rd year, the mean scores of the student responses were calculated using Independent samples Kruskal–Wallis. There was no significant difference in the responses of the students of different years except for the question “The Interactive lectures facilitate effective use of learning resources.” Which showed significant difference in the responses of the 3 years students by Independent samples Kruskal–Wallis test. No significant association was found between the year of study and items of the questionnaire except for the same item, “ The Interactive lectures facilitates effective use of learning resources” by Spearman rank correlation test.
The students perceive interactive lecture as an effective tool for facilitating visual and auditory learning modes, and for achieving curricular strategies. The student find the feedback given during the interactive lectures is effective in modifying learning attitude and enhancing motivation toward learning.
Interdisciplinary competence is important in academia for both employability and sustainable development. However, to date, there are no specific interdisciplinary education models and, naturally, no empirical studies to assess them. Since problem- based learning (PBL) and project-based learning (PjBL) are learning approaches that emphasize students’ collaboration, both pedagogies seem suitable to enhance students’ interdisciplinary competence. Based on the principle of constructive alignment and four instructional principles on interdisciplinary learning, this paper proposes that students profit more from interdisciplinary PBL (iPBL) than interdisciplinary PjBL (iPjBL). A pre-post study was conducted with a sample of 95 students participating in iPBL and 183 students participating in iPjBL. As expected, multilevel models on students’ development in (a) interdisciplinary skills, (b) reflective behavior, and (c) recognizing disciplinary perspectives show that iPBL enhances students’ interdisciplinary competence more than iPjBL.
Low student enrollment and high attrition rates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education are major challenges in higher education. Many STEM entrants end-up switching their majors to non-STEM fields, perform poorly relative to their peers in other programs, and/or drop out of college without earning any academic qualification. Therefore, it is important to examine strategies for reducing attrition in STEM programs. This paper reviews the major factors impeding student interest, success, and persistence in STEM programs, and current institutional practices aimed at addressing these issues. Suggested institutional strategies to improve persistence in STEM programs and their implications that are discussed in this paper include: provision of orientation programs, adoption of early warning systems, Mathematics review sessions, creation of student learning communities, professional development of faculty, as well as collaborative and outreach programs. It is hoped that this review will encourage debate toward solving the major challenges facing STEM education.
Recently, there has been a growing interest in learning approaches that combine two phases: an initial problem-solving phase followed by an instruction phase (PS-I). Two often cited examples of instructional approaches following the PS-I scheme include Productive Failure and Invention. Despite the growing interest in PS-I approaches, to the best of our knowledge, there has not yet been a comprehensive attempt to summarize the features that define PS-I and to explain the patterns of results. Therefore, the first goal of this paper is to map the landscape of different PS-I implementations, to identify commonalities and differences in designs, and to associate the identified design features with patterns in the learning outcomes. The review shows that PS-I fosters learning only if specific design features (namely contrasting cases or building instruction on student solutions) are implemented. The second goal is to identify a set of interconnected cognitive mechanisms that may account for these outcomes. Empirical evidence from PS-I literature is associated with these mechanisms and supports an initial theory of PS-I. Finally, positive and negative effects of PS-I are explained using the suggested mechanisms.
Leaves are vital organs for biomass and seed production because of their role in the generation of metabolic energy and organic compounds. A better understanding of the molecular networks underlying leaf development is crucial to sustain global requirements for food and renewable energy. Here, we combined transcriptome profiling of proliferative leaf tissue with in-depth phenotyping of the fourth leaf at later stages of development in 197 recombinant inbred lines of two different Zea mays populations. Previously, correlation analysis in a classical bi-parental mapping population identified 1740 genes correlated with at least one of fourteen traits (Baute et al., 2015). Here, we extended these results with data from a MAGIC population. As expected, the phenotypic variability was found to be larger in the latter population than in the bi-parental population, although general conclusions on the correlations amongst the traits are comparable. Data integration from the two diverse populations allowed us to identify a set of 226 genes that are robustly associated with diverse leaf traits. This set of genes is enriched for transcriptional regulators and genes involved in protein synthesis and cell wall metabolism. In order to investigate the molecular network context of the candidate gene set, we integrated our data with publicly available functional genomics data and identified a growth regulatory network of 185 genes. Our results illustrate the power of combining in-depth phenotyping with transcriptomics in mapping populations to dissect the genetic control of complex traits and present a set of candidate genes for use in biomass improvement.
The use of case-based learning (CBL) provides students with diverse experiences in the classroom, including problem-solving, knowledge co-construction, communication, and group collaboration. Through these activities, students can explore and develop new knowledge, and acquire relevant skills that have application both in the classroom and beyond. While the majority of studies support the use of CBL as an active learning technique that confers positive pedagogical outcomes, most commonly the investigations compare CBL to a lecture-based method of course delivery. To address this issue, we investigated the pedagogical impact of CBL as compared to a non-CBL " mixture " of other active learning activities in an undergraduate biochemistry course, thereby allowing for a more detailed consideration of the case-specific elements of CBL. It was observed that use of CBL prevented the increase in surface approach to learning that occurred across the semester in the non-CBL group, and improved performance in the course, most notably at the knowledge level of Bloom's taxonomy. As well, there was an improvement in student perception of the appropriateness of the course workload. Overall, these findings support the use of CBL as a preferred active learning technique, and provide valuable insight into the outcomes associated with its use.
Today’s engineering graduates face an evolution of global priorities that places a greater emphasis upon sustainability, community, and well being. Overcoming the complex challenges of this shift will require engineers to display agility, resilience, intrinsic drive, and an ability to continually grow and develop—capacities that are currently underemphasized in engineering degree programs. Despite a growing recognition of the importance of socially responsible technological development, many engineering programs continue to prioritize decontextualized technical content learning over broad competency development. As a result, students may have difficulty identifying either personal or societal value in their engineering activities.Wesuggest that the integration of engineering and humanities perspectives can help students situate their technical studies within the larger human system while simultaneously offering measurable improvements in students’ motivations and lifelong learning skills. In this paper, we report findings from an investigation of the effects of disciplinary integration on student motivation and learning engagement in introductory materials science courses. The quantitative results show that integrating materials science with humanities through a project-based course effectively supports
increased student motivation and engagement in self-regulated learning strategies. Compared to students in nonintegrated project-based courses, students in integrated project-based courses show higher intrinsic motivation and task value. Students in the integrated materials science-history course also report significantly higher use of critical thinking strategies in their project work, indicating that an emphasis on societal context may help students cognitively engage in their engineering studies. Findings also indicate that disciplinary integration offers particular benefits to women engineering students. Compared with the non-integrated course, women in the integrated course report more significant motivational and self-regulated learning gains. This research suggests that putting human contexts at the center of engineering learning can help all engineering students, and especially women engineering students, build a sense of societal relatedness that promotes better learning.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participating in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) project-based learning (PBL) activities effected students who had varied performance levels and to what extent students’ individual factors influenced their mathematics achievement. STEM PBL has been a critical challenge to be embedded in schools, thus the effect of STEM PBL should to be examined. Teachers in 3 high schools attended sustained professional developments provided by 1 STEM center based in a Southwestern university and were required to implement STEM PBLs once in every 6 weeks for 3 years (2008 through 2010). The participants were 836 high school students in these 3 schools who took the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test and had scores at least in the initial year. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the data using student’s mathematics TAKS scores and demographic information for the longitudinal study. STEM PBL instruction influenced student achievement in mathematics by both student demographic backgrounds and performance levels. Low performing students showed statistically significantly higher growth rates on mathematics scores than high and middle performing students over the 3 years. In addition, student’s ethnicity and economic status were good predictors of academic achievement. Results of the present study implied that STEM PBLs in schools benefitted low performing students to a greater extent and decreased the achievement gap.
In grasses, leaf growth is often monitored to gain insights in growth processes, biomass accumulation, regrowth after cutting, etc. To study the growth dynamics of the grass leaf, its length is measured at regular time intervals to derive the leaf elongation rate (LER) profile over time. From the LER profile, parameters such as maximal LER and leaf elongation duration (LED), which are essential for detecting inter-genotype growth differences and/or quantifying plant growth responses to changing environmental conditions, can be determined. As growth is influenced by the circadian clock and, especially in grasses, changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and evaporative demand, the LER profiles show considerable experimental variation and thus often do not follow a smooth curve. Hence it is difficult to quantify the duration and timing of growth. For these reasons, the measured data points should be fitted using a suitable mathematical function, such as the beta sigmoid function for leaf elongation.
In the context of high-throughput phenotyping, we implemented the fitting of leaf growth measurements into a user-friendly Microsoft Excel-based macro, a tool called LEAF-E. LEAF-E allows to perform non-linear regression modeling of leaf length measurements suitable for robust and automated extraction of leaf growth parameters such as LER and LED from large datasets. LEAF-E is particularly useful to quantify the timing of leaf growth, which forms an important added value for detecting differences in leaf growth development. We illustrate the broad application range of LEAF-E using published and unpublished data sets of maize, Miscanthus spp. and Brachypodium distachyon, generated in independent experiments and for different purposes. In addition, we show that LEAF-E could also be used to fit datasets of other growth-related processes that follow the sigmoidal profile, such as cell length measurements along the leaf axis.
Given its user-friendliness, ability to quantify duration and timing of leaf growth and broad application range, LEAF-E is a tool that could be routinely used to study growth processes following the sigmoidal profile.
In today's technologically advanced healthcare world, nursing students should be active learners and think critically to provide safe patient care. A strategy that promotes students' active learning is case-based learning (CBL). The purpose of this study was to examine critical thinking (CT) abilities of nursing students from two different curricular approaches, CBL and didactic teaching. The design used in this research was a comparative descriptive survey. The sample included 103 participants; 65 students from the CBL nursing program and 38 students from the didactic nursing program offered by the MOH Schools of Nursing in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Data were collected using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) Form B to measure the CT abilities of the participants. The data were analyzed using the SPSS. The independent t-test results revealed that the CBL participants performed better in the total CT score and all CT subscales than the didactic program participants.
In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as homework is switched or "flipped." Instead of students listening to a lecture in class and then going home to work on a set of assigned problems, they read material and view videos on, say, genetics before coming to class and then engage in class in active learning using case studies, labs, games, simulations, or experiments.
Calls for educational reform emphasize the need for students to develop a capacity for lifelong learning. Lifelong learners may be characterized as curious, motivated, reflective, analytical, persistent, flexible, and independent-traits that are critical for success in today's globalized economy. Stakeholders in engineering education recognize that students' development of the capacity for lifelong learning is vital for their success and that instructors play a critical role in influencing such outcomes. However, there is a critical lack of research in this area. This research investigates how instructor choices of active learning pedagogies affect student outcomes related to their development as lifelong learners at four institutions. We measure student self-regulated learning (SRL) in response to a range of active learning pedagogies and suggest that SRL is a proxy for lifelong learning in the context of the formal classroom. We consider the research question 'In what ways do pedagogical choices made by engineering instructors assist students to develop attitudes and behaviors associated with self-regulated learners?' The results of this mixed-method design suggest that students' development as self-regulated learners involves a complex interplay between many factors that are influenced by faculty choices in the course design.
To determine the effect of a pausing procedure (three 2-minute pauses spaced at logical breaks during lecture presentations) on two dependent variables (free recall of facts and performance on objective tests), a separate 2 (class) x 2 (procedure) factorial analysis of variance was used. Seventy-two undergraduate students enrolled in either a course on educating the learning disabled or a course on educating the emotionally disturbed. Each semester, one class served as the control group and the second as the experimental group. Students in the experimental condition scored significantly higher on both dependent variables than did the control groups.
Interactive lecturing involves an increased interchange between teachers, students and the lecture content.The use of interactive lectures can promote active learning, heighten attention and motivation, give feedback to the teacher and the student, and increase satisfaction for both.This article describes a number of interactive techniques that can be used in large group presentations as well as general strategies that can promote interactivity during lectures.
Working across knowledge-based research programmes,
rather than institutional structures, should
be central to interdisciplinary research. In this
paper, a novel framework is proposed to facilitate
interdisciplinary research, with the goals of promoting
communication, understanding and collaborative
work. Three core elements need to be addressed
to improve interdisciplinary research: the types
(forms and functions) of theories, the underlying
philosophies of knowledge and the combination of
research styles; these three elements combine to
form the research programme. Case studies from
sustainability science and environmental security
illustrate the application of this research programmebased
framework. This framework may be helpful
in overcoming often oversimplified distinctions,
such as qualitative/quantitative, deductive/inductive,
normative/descriptive, subjective/objective and theory/
practice. Applying this conceptual framework to
interdisciplinary research should foster theoretical
advances, more effective communication and better
problem-solving in increasingly interdisciplinary
Interdisciplinary higher education aims to develop boundary-crossing skills, such as interdisciplinary thinking. In the present
review study, interdisciplinary thinking was defined as the capacity to integrate knowledge of two or more disciplines to
produce a cognitive advancement in ways that would have been impossible or unlikely through single disciplinary means. It
was considered as a complex cognitive skill that constituted of a number of subskills. The review was accomplished by means
of a systematic search within four scientific literature databases followed by a critical analysis. The review showed that,
to date, scientific research into teaching and learning in interdisciplinary higher education has remained limited and explorative.
The research advanced the understanding of the necessary subskills of interdisciplinary thinking and typical conditions for
enabling the development of interdisciplinary thinking. This understanding provides a platform from which the theory and practice
of interdisciplinary higher education can move forward.
Evidence for the superiority of guided instruction is explained in the context of our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, expert–novice differences, and cognitive load. Although unguided or minimally guided instructional approaches are very popular and intuitively appealing, the point is made that these approaches ignore both the structures that constitute human cognitive architecture and evidence from empirical studies over the past half-century that consistently indicate that minimally guided instruction is less effective and less efficient than instructional approaches that place a strong emphasis on guidance of the student learning process. The advantage of guidance begins to recede only when learners have sufficiently high prior knowledge to provide “internal” guidance. Recent developments in instructional research and instructional designmodels that support guidance during instruction are briefly described.
Leaves are a significant component of the shoot system in grasses, functioning in light capture and photosynthesis. Leaf width, length, and angle are expressions of development that collectively define canopy architecture. Thus, the distinctive morphology of grass leaves is an interdependent readout of developmental patterning and growth along the proximal-distal, medial-lateral, and adaxial-abaxial axes. Here, we review the chronology of patterning and growth, namely along the proximal-distal axis, during maize leaf development. We underscore that patterning and growth occur simultaneously, making use of shared developmental gradients and molecular pathways.
There is a wide range of genetic diversity of dry bean which is the most produced one among the edible legume crops in the world. Seed quality is definitely influential in crop production. Therefore, seed classification is essential for both marketing and production to provide the principles of sustainable agricultural systems. The primary objective of this study is to provide a method for obtaining uniform seed varieties from crop production, which is in the form of population, so the seeds are not certified as a sole variety. Thus, a computer vision system was developed to distinguish seven different registered varieties of dry beans with similar features in order to obtain uniform seed classification. For the classification model, images of 13,611 grains of 7 different registered dry beans were taken with a high-resolution camera. A user-friendly interface was designed using the MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI). Bean images obtained by computer vision system (CVS) were subjected to segmentation and feature extraction stages, and a total of 16 features; 12 dimension and 4 shape forms, were obtained from the grains. Multilayer perceptron (MLP), Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN), Decision Tree (DT) classification models were created with 10-fold cross validation and performance metrics were compared. Overall correct classification rates have been determined as 91.73%, 93.13%, 87.92% and 92.52% for MLP, SVM, kNN and DT, respectively. The SVM classification model, which has the highest accuracy results, has classified the Barbunya, Bombay, Cali, Dermason, Horoz, Seker and Sira bean varieties with 92.36%, 100.00%, 95.03%, 94.36%, 94.92%, 94.67% and 86.84%, respectively. With these results, the demands of the producers and the customers are largely met about obtaining uniform bean varieties.
Especially, during the first year in university, absenteeism can have detrimental effects on grades and social integration of the student in the university community. According to pedagogical literature, altering teaching methods from lecturing toward engaging teaching, which applies various active teaching methods in the university classroom, can enhance learning, student participation, decrease absenteeism, and improve critical thinking and problem solving skills. In this research study, I used active learning and engaging teaching to prevent absenteeism in an attempt to improve grades, and to enhance interest in Biology among students in large first-year Introductory Biology classes. Results show that students were less absent from the class that used engaging teaching methods (Engaging Class) compared to classes that were taught by traditional lecturing without class engagement (Lecture Class). Also, the concept inventory test showed a significant increase in post-test quiz grades in the Engaging Class compared to the Lecture Class at the end of the semester. The student CLASSE survey indicated more interaction between faculty and students in the section that was taught using engaging methods. According to student focus group interviews, students in the Engaging Class appreciated the class activities and reported benefits for learning.
Over the course of one year, we systematically observed instruction in nearly all large gateway STEM courses at the University of California, Irvine to assess the prevalence of promising instructional practices and their implications for student success. More than half of the courses included promising instructional practices. Our most conservative student fixed-effects models suggest that students earn slightly higher grades in courses where instructors use explicit epistemological instruction, frequent assessment, and interactive instruction. Although we find no evidence to suggest that these strategies have lasting effects for the average UC Irvine student, we do find they have unique positive effects on the achievement of first-generation college students.
Learning and performance are not always commensurable. Conditions that maximize performance in the initial learning may not maximize learning in the longer term. I exploit this incommensurability to theoretically and empirically interrogate four possibilities for design: productive success, productive failure, unproductive success, and unproductive failure. Instead of only looking at extreme comparisons between discovery learning and direct instruction, an analysis of the four design possibilities suggests a vast design space in between the two extremes that may be more productive for learning than the extremes. I show that even though direct instruction can be conceived as a productive success compared to discovery learning, theoretical and empirical analyses suggests that it may well be an unproductive success compared with examples of productive failure and productive success. Implications for theory and the design of instruction are discussed.
To increase the numbers of underrepresented racial minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), federal and private agencies have allocated significant funding to undergraduate research programs, which have been shown to students' intentions of enrolling in graduate or professional school. Analyzing a longitudinal sample of 4,152 aspiring STEM majors who completed the 2004 Freshman Survey and 2008 College Senior Survey, this study utilizes multinomial hierarchical generalized linear modeling (HGLM) and propensity score matching techniques to examine how participation in undergraduate research affects STEM students' intentions to enroll in STEM and non-STEM graduate and professional programs. Findings indicate that participation in an undergraduate research program significantly improved students' probability of indicating plans to enroll in a STEM graduate program.
Writing is an essential part of a successful career in science. As such, many undergraduate science courses have begun to implement writing assignments that reflect “real-world” applications and focus on a critical analysis of current literature; these assignments are often in the form of a review or a research proposal. The semester-long project described herein is a unique marriage of these two ideas: students first select a topic and conduct a literature review, and then choose an area of that same topic to investigate further in a peer-reviewed grant proposal. A modified version of this project, which incorporates peer-reviewed oral presentations, is also discussed. This project is designed for an upper-level undergraduate course, typically having 15–20 students, and the approach (or parts of the approach) has been successfully incorporated in an advanced organic chemistry course, a biochemistry capstone course, and courses in endocrinology, as well as ecophysiology.
– The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice. These boundary crossing skills are needed to develop sustainable solutions for complex environmental problems.
– The paper evaluates the course based on recommendations for successful collaborative interdisciplinary research found in literature. Reflections of two cohorts of 30 students are used to analyse the four components that make up the didactic model of the course: organizational “matrix structure” in which students work, two week field‐trip, customized SharePoint web site, and teachers as facilitators rather than providers of information.
– The course enhanced the students' awareness of disciplinary and cultural boundaries and added to their appreciation of using different disciplinary and cultural perspectives in developing sustainable solutions. Students learnt to deal with uncertainty in scientific research and realized that decisions in environmental management are based on partial knowledge. They also learnt how to overcome barriers in the design and implementation of interdisciplinary research projects.
– The paper presents an innovative didactic model that proved to be successful in educating boundary crossing skills. It contributes to understanding how educational programmes at universities can better equip students to find sustainable solutions.
This study examines the evidence for the effectiveness of active learning. It defines the common forms of active learning most relevant for engineering faculty and critically examines the core element of each method. It is found that there is broad but uneven support for the core elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning.
Project‐based learning: An integrated science, technology, engineering, and technology (STEM) approach
R. M. Capraro
S. W. Slough
Creating effective research programs in science: The transformation from student to scientist
Creating effective research programs in science: The transformation from student to scientist
S. H. Russell
Seethepalli, A., Dhakal, K., Griffiths, M., Guo, H., Freschet, G. T., & York, L. M. (2021). RhizoVision Explorer: Open‐source software for root image analysis and measurement standardization. <https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.11.439359>
Project‐based learning: An integrated science, technology, engineering, and technology (STEM) approach
M. M. Capraro
Drop that chalk!: A guide to better teaching at universities and colleges
M. K. Iding
R. M. Thomas
Learning science through research apprenticeships: A critical review of the literature
T. D. Sadler
An online learning module for plant growth analysis using high‐throughput phenotyping data