ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

We present a taxonomic treatment of the species of Droseraceae in Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Droseraceae is represented in the state by two species: Drosera intermedia, found in marshlands in the restingas (pioneer formations), and Drosera latifolia, which occurs in the campos de altitude (ecological refuges) and on granitic inselbergs in areas of ombrophilous forest in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo. We provide an identification key, morphological descriptions, and commentaries on taxonomy, ecology, conservation, and geographical distribution.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Rodriguésia 73: e00312021. 2022
We present a taxonomic treatment of the species of Droseraceae in Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Droseraceae
is represented in the state by two species: Drosera intermedia, found in marshlands in the restingas (pioneer
formations), and Drosera latifolia, which occurs in the campos de altitude (ecological refuges) and on
granitic inselbergs in areas of ombrophilous forest in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo. We provide
an identification key, morphological descriptions, and commentaries on taxonomy, ecology, conservation,
and geographical distribution.
Key words: Atlantic Forest, carnivorous plants, Drosera, inselbergs, restingas.
Apresentamos o tratamento taxonômico das espécies de Droseraceae para o Espírito Santo. Droseraceae está
representada no estado por duas espécies: Drosera intermedia, encontrada em locais brejosos nas restingas
(formações pioneiras), e Drosera latifolia, que ocorre nos campos de altitude (refúgios ecológicos) e em
inselbergues graníticos inseridos em áreas de floresta ombrófila da região serrana do Espírito Santo. Fornecemos
chave de identificação, descrições morfológicas, comentários taxonômicos, ecológicos, de conservação e de
distribuição geográfica.
Palavras-chave: Mata Atlântica, plantas carnívoras, Drosera, inselbergs, restingas.
Flora of Espírito Santo, Brazil
Flora of Espírito Santo: Droseraceae
Paulo Minatel Gonella1,5, Sabrina Vasconcelos Caram2,3 & Valquíria Ferreira Dutra2,4
1 Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Sete Lagoas, Depto. Ciências Exatas e Biológicas, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brasil. ORCID: <https://orcid.
2 Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Depto. Ciências Biológicas, Vitória, ES, Brasil.
3 ORCID: <>.
4 ORCID: <>.
5 Author for correspondence:
Droseraceae (non-core Caryophyllales,
Eudicots) is a family of carnivorous herbs
composed of three genera and around 250 species
(Fleischmann et al. 2018). Dionaea and Aldrovanda
are monotypic and do not occur naturally in Brazil
but are cultivated in the country by enthusiasts. On
the other hand, Drosera is a cosmopolitan genus
that contributes most species to the family, with
centers of diversity in Australia, Brazil, and South
Africa. Brazil, in particular, is home to 31 species,
one nothospecies, and two varieties, of which 19
species are endemic to the country (Gonella 2020;
Flora do Brasil 2020).
The genus is characteristic of open formations
and is often associated with quartzitic and
oligotrophic soils that are, at least, seasonally wet
(Juniper et al. 1989; Fleischmann et al. 2018).
Drosera is a characteristic element of the endemic
flora of the Brazilian montane grasslands called
campos rupestres (Colli-Silva et al. 2019) and is
usually absent from forest formations, except for a
few species that can be found occurring in riverine
forests (Gonella 2020).
The state of Espírito Santo is entirely located
within the Atlantic Forest Domain, with an original
cover of ombrophilous and seasonal semideciduous
forests, in addition to pioneer formations such as
vegetation in the coastal plains (restingas) and
ecological refuges for higher-altitude flora in the
montane grasslands of Serra do Caparaó (Garbin et
al. 2017). Despite having some of the greatest
floristic diversity of any Brazilian state (Dutra et
al. 2015; BFG 2018), only 12.6% of its original
Gonella PM, Caram SV & Dutra VF
2 de 9
Rodriguésia 73: e00312021. 2022
vegetation cover remained (Fundação SOS Mata
Atlântica & INPE 2019), highlighting the relevance
and urgency of floristic inventories, taxonomic
treatments, and conservation efforts.
This study is part of the Flora of Espírito
Santo Project and aims at presenting a taxonomic
treatment for the Droseraceae occurring in
the state and to provide an identification key
and descriptions, along with commentaries on
taxonomy, ecology, conservation, and geographical
Material and Methods
Descriptions and phenological data were based
on specimens studied in the field and herbarium
specimens, complemented by information in the
literature. Specimens held at the herbaria HB,
MBML, MO, NY, R, RB, US, and VIES were
studied in person, while one specimen from the GH
herbarium was analyzed at the institution’s virtual
herbarium, available at <https://kiki.huh.harvard.
edu/databases/specimen_index.html> (acronyms
according to Thiers, continuously updated). The
morphological terminology used in the species
descriptions follows Gonella et al. (2014, 2015),
Rivadavia et al. (2014), and Fleischmann et al.
Following a recent reassessment of the
Red List conservation status of the species in
Espírito Santo (Fraga et al. 2019), the Droseraceae
species discussed in this paper had their regional
conservation status newly assessed based on new
data on their geographical distribution in the
state. The assessment follows the IUCN (2012a)
categories and criteria, including the IUCN (2012b)
guidelines for regional assessments. We used the
conservation assessment tool GeoCAT (available at
<>) to calculate the extent of
occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO)
as described in Bachman et al. (2011) using the
standard IUCN cell size of 4 km2 for the AOO
Results and Discussion
In Espírito Santo, Droseraceae are represented
only by two species of the genus Drosera. Drosera
intermedia Hayne in Dreves & Hayne (1798: 18)
occurs in wet areas of the restingas (Fig. 1). In
contrast, D. latifolia (Eichler 1872: 395) Gonella
& Rivadavia in Gonella et al. (2014: 20) is a
rupicolous species found in montane grasslands
and on granitic rock outcrops (inselbergs; Fig. 1).
Three Drosera species have been previously
reported for Espírito Santo. Valadares et al. (2020)
recorded D. intermedia in an area of marshland in
the restinga. Silva & Giulietti (1997) and Correa
& Silva (2005) reported D. villosa A.Saint-
Hilaire (1824: 2607), though these records were
reclassified as D. latifolia by Gonella et al. (2014).
A record of D. montana A.Saint-Hilaire (1824:
260) was listed by Dutra et al. (2015) based on the
voucher Ynês Mexia 40251 (GH, MO), but that is
also D. latifolia.
Drosera montana is recorded from the Minas
Gerais side of the Serra do Caparaó (Rivadavia
et al. 2014; Moreira et al. 2020). However, no
specimens have been found on the Espírito Santo
side thus far.
Droseraceae Salisb.
Annual or perennial carnivorous herbs.
Stem inconspicuous or elongated. Leaves simple,
stipules present or absent, vascularized glandular
Figure 1 – Geographic distribution of Drosera species
in the state of Espírito Santo. = Drosera intermedia;
= Drosera latifolia.
Droseraceae of Espírito Santo 3 de 9
Rodriguésia 73: e00312021. 2022
emergences present on the adaxial lamina
surface, or lamina modified into a bilobed snap
trap with sensitive trichomes over the adaxial
surface. Inflorescence cymose, multi-flowered
(rarely uniflorous). Flowers 5-merous (rarely
4-merous), actinomorphic; stamens 5(–many),
anthers longitudinally dehiscent; ovary superior,
3–5-carpellar; styles 1–5 (usually 3), usually
bifurcated at the base (rarely entire); ovary with
parietal placentation (rarely basal), pluriovulated.
Fruit a loculicidal capsule; seeds numerous.
Drosera L. (description based solely on the species
occurring in Espírito Santo).
Terrestrial or rupicolous herbs. Leaves
rosetted or spirally arranged, stipulate, petiolate,
red to green in color, with sessile glands; stipules
intrapetiolar, membranaceous, with apex laciniate;
petiole linear, glabrous or eglandular-pilose at least
abaxially; lamina oblong, lanceolate or spatulate,
with vascularized glandular emergences (tentacles)
on the adaxial surface, abaxial surface glabrous or
eglandular-pilose. Inflorescence a scorpioid cyme,
multiflorous (rarely uniflorous), 1–few per plant,
with sessile glands; scape glabrous or eglandular
and glandular-pilose. Flowers ephemeral, anthesis
lasting for a few hours; sepals fused at the base,
glabrous or glandular-pilose; petals white or pink;
stamens 5; ovary 1-locular; styles bifurcated at the
base. Petals, sepals and stamens persistent in fruit.
Seeds with papillose or reticulate testa.
Drosera is the largest genus in the family,
comprising about 250 species distributed
worldwide and concentrated in the Southern
Hemisphere. The main center of diversity of the
genus is in the southwest of Western Australia,
followed by northern Australia, the Cape Province
of South Africa, and the mountains of east-central
Brazil (Fleischmann et al. 2018). The genus is
immediately identified by the presence of glandular
emergences (tentacles) over the adaxial leaf lamina
surface (Figs. 2-4). In Espírito Santo, Drosera is
represented by two species, which are described
Identication key to the species of Drosera from the Espírito Santo state
1. Leaves, scape and sepals glabrous. Lamina 5.2–8.1 mm long, spatulate. Sepals 3–3.5 mm long; petals
white. Seeds ovoid, testa surface papillose ..........................................................1. Drosera intermedia
1’. Leaves eglandular-pilose, at least on the abaxial surface, scape and sepals glandular and eglandular-
pilose. Lamina 8.4–9.75 mm long, lanceolate to oblong. Sepals 5–5.5 mm long; petals pink. Seeds
fusiform, testa surface reticulate .............................................................................. 2. Drosera latifolia
1. Drosera intermedia Hayne in Dreves & Hayne,
Bot. Bilderb. 3: 18, t. 3B. 1798. Figs. 1; 2a-d; 3
Perennial rosetted herb. Subglabrous
indumentum consisting solely of minute sessile
glands, red in color (black in dry specimens), on
both leaf surfaces, scapes and sepals abaxially.
Leaves persistent when old, reddish; petiole 15–30
mm long; lamina 5.2–8.1 mm long, spatulate, apex
rounded, adaxial surface covered with numerous
red, carnivorous, capitate tentacles, 0.1–3.4 mm
long, and minute sessile glands, abaxial surface
covered with minute sessile glands; stipules
2.6–4.1 mm long, rectangular, membranaceous,
the apical divided into several laciniate segments.
Scapes 2–4 per plant, 9–14 cm long (including
floriferous part), flattened, base curved, green
to red in color; inflorescence a scorpioid cyme,
bearing 6–10 flowers; sepals 5, 3–3.5 mm long,
lanceolate, minute sessile glands, apex acute;
petals 5, 4.5–5 mm long, whitish; stamens 5,
3.5–4 mm long, anthers 0.53–0.74 mm long; ovary
3-carpellate, fused, ca. 2.5 mm long, globose,
3-lobed in outline; styles 3, forked at the base; fruit
a dry dehiscent capsule, ca. 6 mm long, globose,
3-valvate; seeds ovoid, 0.4–0.82 mm long, testa
Specimens examined: Conceição da Barra,
Parque Estadual de Itaúnas, 18.5932oS, 39.7322oW,
24.VIII.2002, O.J. Pereira et al. 6997 (VIES). Guarapari,
Parque Estadual Paulo César Vinha, 20.5994oS,
40.4108oW, 6.VIII.2020, J.C. Guarnier et al. 467 (VIES);
18.VIII.2020, fl. and fr., S.V. Caram et al. 01 (VIES).
Vitória, área da C.V.R.D., 20.3194oS, 40.3377oW,
15.VIII.2007, fl., O.J. Pereira & G. Lübe 7517 (VIES).
Vila Velha, PEPCN, 20.3297oS, 40.2924oW, 29.IX.2007,
fl., R.T. Valadares et al. 578 (HURB).
Drosera intermedia has a wide distribution,
occurring in central and western Europe, Asia
Minor, East Africa, and North, Central, and
South America, including Brazil (Fleischmann
& Gonella 2020; Gonella 2020). The species was
Gonella PM, Caram SV & Dutra VF
4 de 9
Rodriguésia 73: e00312021. 2022
recently recorded in Espírito Santo for the first
time (Valadares et al. 2020), expanding its known
distribution in Brazil, where it has also been
recorded in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Bahia,
Amapá, and Roraima (Gonella 2020). In Espírito
Santo, the species occurs in the restingas (Fig. 1),
in areas of herbaceous marshland. It has been found
in the protected areas of the Parque Estadual Paulo
César Vinha (PEPCV) and the Parque Estadual de
Itaúnas. In the wet areas of the PEPCV, which are
a structurally dynamic environment, D. intermedia
is always found associated with flat and stabilized
sedimentary zones (humid fields), protected
from natural and dynamic drainage channels that
constantly modify the structure of the vegetation
(Valadares et al. 2020). It was collected in flower
in August and September and with fruits in August.
The species is characterized by glabrous
leaves (only presenting sessile glands; Fig. 3),
spatulate (Figs. 2b; 3b), with a petiole narrower and
Figure 2 – a-d. Drosera intermedia – a. habit; b. detail of the leaf; c. flower; d. fruits (all photos taken at PEPCV).
e-f. Drosera latifolia – e. habit; f. detail of the leaf (all photos taken at PN Caparaó). (a-d. by VF Dutra; e. by HL
Silva; f. by AV Scatigna).
Droseraceae of Espírito Santo 5 de 9
Rodriguésia 73: e00312021. 2022
Figure 3 – a-c. Drosera intermedia – a. habit; b. leaf lamina, adaxial surface; c. tentacle head. (All based on Caram
et al. 01).
1.5 cm
1.5 cm
0.02 cm
at least three times longer than the lamina (Figs. 2b;
3a), stipules fimbriate from the base, inflorescence
and sepals glabrous, white petals (Fig. 2c), and
ovoid seeds with a papillose testa.
Drosera intermedia was not assessed for the
Espírito Santo Red List (Fraga et al. 2019) as no
records had been identified in the state at the time
of its elaboration. While the species is globally
Gonella PM, Caram SV & Dutra VF
6 de 9
Rodriguésia 73: e00312021. 2022
classified as Least Concern (Cross et al. 2020), its
occurrence in the state is restricted to an AOO of
16 km2 (criterion B2; IUCN 2012a). In addition,
it is limited to fewer than five known locations
(sub-criterion B2a), and its habitat is in a state of
continuous decline (sub-criterion B2biii) since
the state’s coast is considered to be under high
anthropic pressure due to pollution, fires, and urban
expansion over the restingas (Maciel 1990; MMA
2002; Fraga et al. 2019). Therefore, we assess the
species as Endangered (EN) in Espírito Santo.
2. Drosera latifolia (Eichler) Gonella & Rivadavia,
Phytotaxa 156: 21. 2014. Figs. 1; 2e-f; 4
Perennial rosetted herb. Indumentum
consisting of white eglandular trichomes (brown
in dry specimens), present on the abaxial leaf
surface and petiole; glandular capitate trichomes
- the stalk light red and translucent, the head
dark red - present on scapes and sepals abaxially;
minute sessile glands red in color (black in dry
specimens), on both leaf surfaces, scapes, pedicels,
bracts and sepals abaxially. Leaves persistent,
green to red; petiole 4.6–5.3(–10) mm long;
lamina 8.4–9.75(–25) mm long, lanceolate to
oblong, apex rounded, adaxial surface covered
with numerous red, carnivorous, capitate tentacles,
2.28–3.54 mm long, and minute sessile glands,
abaxial surface with eglandular trichomes, and
minute sessile glands; stipules 2.48–3.51 mm
long, square, membranaceous, the apical divided
into several laciniate segments. Scapes 1–3 per
plant, 9–18(–34.7) cm long (including floriferous
part), cylindrical, base erect, green in color;
inflorescence a scorpioid cyme, often bifurcating,
bearing 2–9(–27) flowers; sepals 5, 5–5.5 mm long,
lanceolate, with glandular capitate trichomes, and
few eglandular trichomes, apex acute or obtuse;
petals 5, 7–7.5 mm long, pink; stamens 5, 2.5–3.5
mm long, anthers ca. 1 mm long; ovary 3-carpellate,
fused, 2–3 mm in diam., globose, 3-lobed in outline;
styles 3, forked at the base; fruit a dry dehiscent
capsule, ca. 3 mm long, globose, 3-valvate; seeds
fusiform, ca. 0.8 mm long, testa reticulate.
Specimens examined: Alegre, Serra Caparaó, Pico da
Bandeira, 20.4340oS, 41.7966oW, 3.III.1959, fl., H.S.
Irwin 2804 (NY, US). Castelo, Forno Grande, 8.XII.1948,
A.C. Brade 19249 (RB). Domingos Martins, topo da
Pedra Azul, 19.XI.1975, Kautsky 517 (HB). Ibitirama,
Parque Nacional do Caparaó, entre o Acampamento
Macieira e o Pico da Bandeira, 18.I.2019, fl., H.L. Silva
& L.J. Lieven 257 (VIES). São Roque do Canaã, Alto
Misterioso, 19.7969oS, 40.7752oW, 11.V.2007, fr., C.
Esgario et al. 171 (MBML); 19.7972oS, 40.7750oW,
15.XI.2004, fl., A.P. Fontana et al. 1072 (MBML). Serra
da Caparaó, 25.XI.1929, fl., Y. Mexia 40251 (GH, MO).
Drosera latifolia is endemic to Brazil,
occurring in the mountain ranges of Serra do
Mar, Serra da Mantiqueira, and the Espinhaço
Range in the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, São
Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and Espírito
Santo (Gonella et al. 2014). In Espírito Santo, the
species is rupicolous (Fig. 2e), occurring in areas
of ecological refuges and ombrophilous forests
(Fig. 1). It is found on the summits of the state’s
larger granitic inselbergs, which are considered to
be a transition between the sugar loaf inselbergs
and campos de altitude (montane grasslands) by de
Paula et al. (2020), such as in the Parque Estadual
da Pedra Azul, Parque Estadual do Forno Grande,
and Alto Misterioso, and the campos de altitude
of the Parque Nacional do Caparaó. According to
Gonella et al. (2014), the individuals collected at
Caparaó represent the smallest sized morphotype
of D. latifolia, as well as the one that occurs at the
highest elevation (up to 2,550 m). The remaining
populations in the state represent the typical
morphotype described by Gonella et al. (2014).
The species was previously recorded in the floristic
inventory of Alto Misterioso (Esgario et al. 2009)
and Parque Nacional do Caparaó (Moreira et al.
2020) as D. villosa. Drosera latifolia was recorded
with flowers in January, March, and November and
with fruits in May.
The species is characterized by its lanceolate
to oblong leaves (Figs. 2f; 4), a petiole shorter
than or equaling the lamina, eglandular trichomes
present on the abaxial leaf surface and eventually
on the adaxial petiole surface, glandular-pilose
inflorescence and sepals, pink petals, and fusiform
seeds with reticulate testa.
Drosera latifolia is listed as Data Deficient
in the Espírito Santo Red List (Fraga et al. 2019)
and globally assessed as Least Concern (Cross et al.
2020). The new information on its distribution in the
state presented here allows its regional assessment
to be updated to Near Threatened (NT) in the state
of Espírito Santo. While the species has an AOO of
16 km2 (criterion B2) and a naturally fragmented
distribution due to its occurrence in mountaintops,
with fewer than five locations (sub-criterion B2a),
no continuing decline has been observed to affect
the subpopulations (sub-criterion B2b). Three of the
four known locations in the state are found within
protected areas, except for the Alto Misterioso, a
priority conservation area (Esgario et al. 2009).
Droseraceae of Espírito Santo 7 de 9
Rodriguésia 73: e00312021. 2022
Figure 4 – a-b. Drosera latifolia – a. habit; b. leaf, adaxial surface. (All based on Irwin 2804).
0.8 cm
0.3 cm
The authors are grateful to the curators of the
herbaria they visited. They also thank Lidyanne
Aona, for sending images of the specimens at
HURB; André Vito Scatigna and Hiago Lourenço
da Silva, for in situ photographs of D. latifolia;
Gonella PM, Caram SV & Dutra VF
8 de 9
Rodriguésia 73: e00312021. 2022
and Andreas Fleischmann and Rodrigo Valadares,
for valuable suggestions for the improvement of
the manuscript.
Bachman S, Moat J, Hill A, de la Torre J & Scott B
(2011) Supporting Red List threat assessments
with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment
tool. ZooKeys 150: 117-126. DOI: 10.3897/
BFG - The Brazil Flora Group (2018) Brazilian Flora
2020: innovation and collaboration to meet Target
1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation
(GSPC). Rodriguésia 69: 1513-1527.
Colli-Silva M, Vasconcelos TNC & Pirani JR (2019)
Outstanding plant endemism levels strongly support
the recognition of campo rupestre provinces in
mountaintops of eastern South America. Journal of
Biogeography 2019: 111. DOI: 10.1111/jbi.13585
Correa AMD & Silva TRS (2005) Drosera (Droseraceae).
Flora Neotropica Monograph 96. The New York
Botanical Garden Press, New York. 65p.
Cross AT, Krueger TA, Gonella PM, Robinson AS
& Fleischmann AS (2020) Conservation of
carnivorous plants in the age of extinction. Global
Ecology and Conservation 24: e01272. DOI:
de Paula LFA, Azevedo LO, Mauad LP, Cardoso LJT,
Braga JMA, Kollmann LJC, Fraga CN, Menini
Neto L, Labiak PH, Mello-Silva R, Porembski S &
Forzza RC (2020) Sugarloaf land in south-eastern
Brazil: a tropical hotspot of lowland inselbergs plant
diversity. Biodiversity Data Journal 8: e53135. DOI:
Dreves F & Hayne FG (1798) Botanisches Bilderbuch
für die Jugend und Freunde der Panzenkunde, vol.
3 [= Getreue Abbildungen und Zergliederungen
deutscher Gewächse, vol. 1]. Leipzig: bei Voss
& Compagnie. Available at <http://digital.slub->. Access on 17 February
Dutra VF, Alves-Araújo A & Carrijo TT (2015)
Angiosperm Checklist of Espírito Santo: using
electronic tools to improve the knowledge of an
Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot. Rodriguésia
66: 11451152. DOI: 10.1590/2175-7860201566414
Eichler AG (1872) Droseraceae. In: Martius CFP &
Eichler AG (eds.) Flora brasiliensis. Typographia
Regia, Munich. Vol. 14, pars 2, pp. 385-398.
Esgario CP, Fontana AP & Silva AG (2009) A ora
vascular sobre rocha no Alto Misterioso, uma área
prioritária para a conservação da Mata Atlântica
no Espírito Santo, Sudeste do Brasil. Natureza on
line 7: 80-91.
Fleischmann A, Cross AT, Gibson R, Gonella PM &
Dixon KW (2018) Systematics and evolution of
Droseraceae. In: Ellison A & Adamec L (eds.)
Carnivorous plants: physiology, ecology and
evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Pp.
45-57. DOI: 9780198779841.001.0001
Fleischmann A & Gonella PM (2020) Typication and
authorship of Drosera intermedia (Droseraceae).
Taxon 69: 153160. DOI: 10.1002/tax.12158
Flora do Brasil (2020) Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim
Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Available at <http://
>. Access on 14 July 2020.
Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica & Instituto Nacional
de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE (2019) Atlas dos
remanescentes orestais da Mata Atlântica - Período
2016-2017 - Relatório técnico. Fundação SOS Mata
Atlântica e INPE, São Paulo. 63p.
Fraga CN, Formigoni MH & Chaves FG (2019) Fauna
e ora ameaadas de extino no estado do Espírito
Santo. Instituto Nacional da Mata Atlântica, Santa
Teresa. 432p.
Garbin ML, Saiter FZ, Carrijo TT & Peixoto AL (2017)
Breve histórico e classificação da vegetação
capixaba. Rodriguésia 68: 1883-1894. DOI:
Gonella PM (2020) Droseraceae in Flora do Brasil
2020. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do
Rio de Janeiro. Available at <http://oradobrasil.ora/oradobrasil/FB105>. Access
on 14 July 2020.
Gonella PM, Rivadavia F, Sano PT & Fleischmann A
(2014) Exhuming Saint-Hilaire: revision of the
Drosera villosa complex (Droseraceae) supports
200 year-old neglected species concepts. Phytotaxa
156: 1-40. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.156.1.1
Gonella PM, Rivadavia F & Fleischmann A (2015)
Drosera magnica (Droseraceae): the largest New
World sundew, discovered on Facebook. Phytotaxa
220: 257-267. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.220.3.4
IUCN (2012a) IUCN Red List categories and criteria.
Version 3.1. 2nd ed. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
IUCN (2012b) Guidelines for application of IUCN Red
List criteria at regional and national levels. Version
4.0. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge. 41p.
Juniper BE, Robins RJ & Joel DM (1989) The
carnivorous plants. Academic Press, London. 353p.
Maciel NC (1990) Praias, dunas e restingas: unidades
de conservação da natureza no Brasil. In: ACIESP
(org.) Anais do II Simpósio de Ecossistemas da
Costa Sul e Sudeste Brasileira: estrutura, função e
manejo. Vol. 3. ACIESP, São Paulo. Pp. 326-351.
MMA (2002) Avaliao e identicao de áreas e aões
prioritárias para a conservação, utilização sustentável
e repartição dos benefícios da biodiversidade nos
biomas brasileiros. MMA/SBF, Brasília. 404p.
Moreira MM, Carrijo TT, Alves-Araújo AG, Rapini A,
Salino A, Firmino AD, Chagas AP, Versiane AFA,
Amorim AMA, Silva AVS, Tuler AC, Peixoto AL,
Soares BS, Cosenza BAP, Delgado CN, Lopes
CR, Silva C, Barbosa DEF, Monteiro D, Marques
Droseraceae of Espírito Santo 9 de 9
Rodriguésia 73: e00312021. 2022
D, Couto DR, Gonzaga DR, Dalcin E, Lirio EJ,
Meyer FS, Salimena FRG, Oliveira FA, Souza FS,
Matos FB, Depiantti G, Antar GM, Heiden G, Dias
HM, Sousa HCF, Lopes ITFV, Rollim IM, Luber
J, Prado J, Nakajima JN, Lanna J, Zorzanelli JP,
Freitas J, Baumgratz JFA, Pereira JBS, Oliveira
JRPM, Antunes K, Sylvestre LS, Pederneiras LC,
Freitas L, Giacomin LL, Meireles LD, Silva LN,
Pereira LC, Silva LAE, Menini Neto L, Monge M,
Trovó MLO, Reginato M, Sobral MEG, Gomes M,
Garbin ML, Morim MP, Soares ND, Labiak PHE,
Viana PL, Cardoso PH, Moraes PLR, Schwartsburd
PB, Moraes QS, Zorzanelli RF, Nichio-Amaral R,
Goldenberg R, Furtado SG, Feletti T, Dutra VF,
Bueno VF, Dittrich VAO, Forzza RC (2020) A list of
land plants of Parque Nacional do Caparaó, Brazil,
highlights the presence of sampling gaps within this
protected área. Biodiversity Data Journal 8: e59664.
DOI: 10.3897/BDJ.8.e59664
Rivadavia F, Gonella PM, Sano PT & Fleischmann
A (2014) Elucidating the controversial Drosera
montana complex (Droseraceae): a taxonomic
revision. Phytotaxa 172: 141-175. DOI: 10.11646/
Saint-Hilaire AFCP (1824) Histoire des plantes les plus
remarquables du Brésil et du Paraguay: comprenant
leur description, et des dissertations sur leurs
rapports, leurs usages, etc., avec des planches, en
partie coloriées: tomo premier. A. Belin, Paris. 355p.
Silva TRS & Giulietti AM (1997) Levantamento das
Droseraceae do Brasil. Boletim de Botânica da
Universidade de São Paulo 16: 75-105.
Thiers B [continuously updated] Index Herbariorum: a
global directory of public herbaria and associated
staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual
Herbarium. Available at <
science/ih/>. Access on 3 March 2021.
Valadares RT, Koski DA, Silva BF, Sarnaglia-Júnior, VB
& Martins MLL (2020) Assinatura orística de uma
área úmida prioritária para a conservação no Leste
do Brasil. Revista de Biologia Neotropical 17: 130-
144. DOI: 10.5216/rbn.v17i2.62396
Area Editor: Dr. Anderson Alves-Araújo
Received in March 03, 2021. Accepted in April 28, 2021.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
... Drosera intermedia is widely distributed and found in dense populations (Brazil: AOO=56 km 2 , EOO=2,039,258 km 2 ; global: AOO=2,436 km 2 , EOO=62,232,609 km 2 ). In Brazil, the species occurs in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (RJ) and the State Parks of Itaúnas and Paulo César Vinha (ES; Gonella et al. 2022). ...
A synopsis of the Drosera (Droseraceae) species occurring in Brazil is here presented, providing tools for taxonomic identification and summarizing data as a basis for future studies on diversity and conservation of the genus in the country. Thirty-three taxa, comprising 32 species and a nothotaxon, are recognized for the Brazilian territory. We present an identification key, and, for each taxon, we provide a succinct description, a differential diagnosis, notes on distribution, habitat, phenology, conservation status, and a list of representative specimens. Drosera hirtella var. lutescens is lectotypified and raised to species status, lectotypes are further designated for other 18 names, and a neotype is designated for D. intermedia var. tenuis. Drosera species are recorded from all Brazilian states, Minas Gerais being the richest with a total of 21 species. The campos rupestres of eastern Brazil are recognized as the main center of Drosera species diversity in the Neotropics, with 23 species, 13 of which are endemic. Twelve out of the 32 recognized species are considered threatened with extinction (37.5%), reinforcing the Brazilian responsibility for the conservation of global Droseraceae diversity.
Full-text available
Brazilian protected areas are essential for plant conservation in the Atlantic Forest domain, one of the 36 global biodiversity hotspots. A major challenge for improving conservation actions is to know the plant richness, protected by these areas. Online databases offer an accessible way to build plant species lists and to provide relevant information about biodiversity. A list of land plants of “Parque Nacional do Caparaó” (PNC) was previously built using online databases and published on the website "Catálogo de Plantas das Unidades de Conservação do Brasil." Here, we provide and discuss additional information about plant species richness, endemism and conservation in the PNC that could not be included in the List. We documented 1,791 species of land plants as occurring in PNC, of which 63 are cited as threatened (CR, EN or VU) by the Brazilian National Red List, seven as data deficient (DD) and five as priorities for conservation. Fifity-one species were possible new ocurrences for ES and MG states. "Parque Nacional do Caparaó" houses 8% of the land plant species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, including 6% of its angiosperms, 31% of its lycophytes and ferns and 14% of its avascular plants. Twelve percent of the threatened species listed for the State of Espírito Santo and 7% listed for the State of Minas Gerais are also protected by PNC. Surprisingly, 79% of the collections analysed here were carried out in Minas Gerais, which represents just 21% of the total extension of the Park. The compiled data uncover a huge botanical collection gap in this federally-protected area.
Full-text available
Áreas úmidas fornecem inúmeros benefícios à sociedade, mas constituem ecossistemas extremamente ameaçados, principalmente quando associados aos grandes centros urbanos. A reconhecida escassez de pesquisa nesses ambientes é alarmante e deve ser considerada uma meta frente às mudanças climáticas. Aqui nós avaliamos a riqueza florística de uma área úmida do Parque Estadual Paulo César Vinha, Espírito Santo. Nossos dados indicaram riqueza expressiva em relação a outras áreas úmidas do sudeste do Brasil. Paralelamente, uma comparação com outras áreas semelhantes indicou a formação de grupos influenciados por elementos típicos de áreas secas a sazonalmente secas que atingem a costa brasileira. Do ponto de vista regional, o Parque Estadual Paulo Cesar Vinha possui uma assinatura florística distinta provavelmente associada ao seu bom estado de conservação, servindo com uma métrica importante para avaliar outras áreas úmidas.
Full-text available
Carnivorous plants (CPs)—those possessing specific strategies to attract, capture and kill animal prey and obtain nutrition through the absorption of their biomass—are harbingers of anthropogenic degradation and destruction of ecosystems. CPs exhibit highly specialised and often very sensitive ecologies, being generally restricted to nutrient-impoverished habitats where carnivory offers a competitive advantage. As such, they are often the first species to disappear following habitat degradation, land use change, and alteration to natural ecological processes, and are at significant risk from processes such as eutrophication and weed invasion, and even poorly-understood impacts such as airborne nitrogen inputs. Many of the world’s 860 species of CPs are found in wetland habitats, which represent some of the most cleared and heavily degraded ecosystems on Earth. Global diversity hotspots for CPs are likewise located in some of the most heavily cleared and disturbed areas of the planet—southwestern Western Australia, Southeast Asia, Mediterranean Europe, central eastern Brazil, and the southeastern United States—placing their conservation at odds with human developmental interests. Many carnivorous plant species exhibit extreme range-restriction and are wholly localised to specific geological formations, microhabitats or elevations, with nowhere to move to in the face of environmental change such as a warming, drying climate. We provide the first systematic examination of the conservation status and threats to all CPs globally, compiling full or partial assessments of conservation status category for 860 species from 18 genera, and provide ten recommendations towards better conservation and management of this iconic group. A total of 69 species were assessed as Critically Endangered (8% of all species), 47 as Endangered (6%), 104 as Vulnerable (12%), and 23 as Near Threatened (3%). Slightly over 60% of CPs (521 species) were assessed as Least Concern. At least 89 species are known from only a single location based on current knowledge. Data on threatening processes were available for 790 species, with the most common threatening processes including Agriculture and Aquaculture (impacting 170 species), Natural Systems Modifications (168 species), Climate Change and Severe Weather (158 species), Energy Production and Mining (127 species), Human Intrusions and Disturbance (126 species), and Biological Resource Use (98 species). Almost a quarter of all species were impacted upon by three or more threatening processes. The most significant threats placing species at imminent risk of extinction include the continuing clearing of natural habitat for urban and agricultural development and the illegal collection of individuals from the wild for horticultural trade. The complex and specialised ecological requirements of CPs, together with the multifaceted threats they face, make conservation difficult and repatriation even to restored areas challenging. As the number of vulnerable, endangered and extinct carnivorous plant species continues to grow, despite significant conservation efforts in many regions and greater awareness of their ecological requirements, it is clear that a paradigm shift is required in our approach to the preservation of this unique group of plants in order to achieve long-term conservation successes.
Full-text available
Background Isolated monoliths of granitic and/or gneissic rock rising abruptly from the surrounding landscape are known as inselbergs. Dome-shaped inselbergs are common throughout the Atlantic Forest in south-eastern Brazil, a region known as Sugarloaf Land (SLL). This study aimed to create the first checklist of vascular plant species occurring on lowland inselbergs in SLL, with a focus on vegetation islands. We used information from online databases, our own field sampling and data from previously-published studies. We found 548 vascular plant species (505 angiosperms; 43 ferns and lycophytes) belonging to 69 families and 212 genera. Of all identified species, 536 are native and 12 are naturalised. New information We updated the information currently available in Flora do Brasil 2020, as 59% of the angiosperms and 63% of the ferns and lycophytes on our checklist were not previously characterised as occurring on rock outcrops. As a first step towards generating a Virtual Herbarium of lowland inselberg vascular plants, we added barcode vouchers with images available online for 75% of the total number of vascular species. In the official lists of endangered species, 115 angiosperms and five ferns and lycophytes are mentioned. However, the conservation status of many species have not yet been evaluated (77% angiosperms; 88% ferns and lycophytes), thus this list is an important step towards their conservation. The information provided herein is essential for management programmes related to rock outcrops in Brazil as they are facing serious threats to conservation.
Full-text available
Drosera intermedia is lectotypified with the herbarium specimen on which the type drawing in the 1798 protologue was based. The collection history of the specimen, the history of the botanical drawing as original material, and the correct nomenclatural author and publication date of the name are presented based on historical notes and literature. Additionally, the global distribution of the species is given, including the first record from Africa.
Full-text available
The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was established by the Conference of Parties in 2002 to decrease the loss of plant diversity, reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. To achieve this overarching goal, the GSPC has established a series of targets, one of which is to ensure that plant diversity is well understood, so that it can be effectively conserved and used in a sustainable manner. Brazil hosts more than 46,000 species of plants, algae and fungi, representing one of the most biodiverse countries on Earth, and playing a key role in the GSPC. To meet the GSPC goals of Target 1 and facilitate access to plant diversity, Brazil committed to preparing the List of Species of the Brazilian Flora (2008–2015) and the Brazilian Flora 2020 (2016–present). Managing all the information associated with such great biodiversity has proven to be an extremely challenging task. Here, we synthesize the history of these projects, focusing on the multidisciplinary and collaborative approach adopted to develop and manage the inclusion of all the knowledge generated though digital information systems. We further describe the methods used, challenges faced, and strategies adopted, as well as summarize advances to date and prospects for completing the Brazilian flora in 2020.
Full-text available
Resumo O estado do Espírito Santo apresenta grande variedade de ecossistemas num território relativamente pequeno. A exuberância de suas florestas vem despertando o interesse de muitos naturalistas e viajantes desde o século XIX, os quais deixaram registros valiosos dos primeiros anos da ocupação das "Areas Prohibidas" a leste de Minas Gerais. O cultivo do café, um dos alicerces econômicos do estado, deu início à perda dessas florestas. Tais perdas alavancaram o movimento conservacionista e a pesquisa científica no estado. A biogeografia, riqueza de espécies e de processos ecológicos nos fragmentos que restaram no Espírito Santo ainda revelam surpresas. Dentro do domínio da Floresta Atlântica, o estado abriga diferentes tipos de vegetação: Floresta Ombrófila Densa, Floresta Ombrófila Aberta, Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, Savanas, Formações Pioneiras e Refúgios Ecológicos. A descrição e classificação da vegetação do Espírito Santo ainda está inacabada tendo em vista as incertezas levantadas por alguns estudos. Também não existe um mapa da vegetação que contemple adequadamente a diversificada vegetação. A despeito de tais limitações, apresentamos descrições sucintas sobre os tipos de vegetação que vêm sendo reconhecidos na literatura moderna.
Journal: Journal of Biogeography Aim: The Brazilian campo rupestre is a vegetation associated to ancient mountaintops in eastern South America, spread mainly over disjunct areas of the Espinhaço Range and the Chapada dos Veadeiros. These areas hold outstanding levels of plant diversity and endemism, but despite their uniqueness they have been neglected in recent bioregionalisations for the Neotropical region. Given their particular levels of species richness and endemism, we here test the recognition of these as distinct bioregions within the Chacoan Domain. Location: Mountaintops of eastern South America. Methods: We listed 1,748 angiosperm species endemic to the campo rupestre of the Espinhaço Range and Chapada dos Veadeiros regions, based on the data gathered from the Brazilian Flora 2020 Project. We extracted all occurrence information available from GBIF for such list and also for a polygon gathering all the study area, including information from adjacent vegetations. Data went through standard cleaning procedures and a network clustering analysis was performed to delimitate the boundaries of the new bioregions. Results: Our data strongly support the recognition of two distinct bioregions along the Espinhaço Range, but none in the Chapada dos Veadeiros. Given their high levels of endemism and singularity from the Cerrado and Caatinga provinces, we formalise two provinces associated to campo rupestre in the Espinhaço Range, naming them as “Chapada Diamantina” and “Southern Espinhaço” provinces. Within the latter province, three districts are also recognised, based on this and previous studies: “Diamantina Plateau”, “Grão-Mogol” and “Iron Quadrangle” districts. Main conclusions: The formalisation of new and previously described bioregions highlights the campo rupestre as a vegetation harbouring outstanding levels of species richness and endemism in South America, contributing to a better understanding of biogeographical patterns in the Neotropics. Also, as we follow the International Code of Area Nomenclature as a device to standardize recognition of bioregions, this shall facilitate further biogeographical and conservation studies in these areas. Further assessments with new and revisited data are encouraged to enable minor scale bioregionalisation within the Chacoan dominion.
The Droseraceae belongs to the botanical order Nepenthales and comprises three genera: Drosera (sundews) with adhesive traps; and the sister genera Dionaea (Venus’ flytrap) and Aldrovanda (waterwheel plant), each of which evolved snap-traps. Vegetative and generative morphology of each genus are illustrated and interpreted based on phylogenetic evidence. Phylogeny, evolutionary history, and infrageneric classification of Drosera are discussed in light of molecular phylogenetic data, and illustrated with phylogenetic trees and maps of their distribution.