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Introduction The broad bean crop is one of the most important leguminous crops in Egyptian agriculture, and its importance is due to its being an essential component of the Egyptian diet. Reliance on it is increasing for a large number of the population as a relatively cheap source of protein compared to high-priced animal protein, as the annual average per capita increased from about 6 kg /year in 1989 to about 7.7 kg/year in 2019 (Food Balance Bulletin) at a time when local production is shrinking and reliance on imports of beans increases to meet consumer needs and the increasing demand for beans. The bean crop and its by-products are also used to feed livestock and poultry, in addition to its role in improving soil properties and increasing the percentage of nitrogen in it, which helps to reduce the use of nitrogenous fertilizers for the next crop in agriculture. The broad bean crop is planted in the winter season with crops of wheat, sugar beet and alfalfa, and in light of the scarcity and relative stability of the cultivated area, it has become difficult to increase the area of broad bean at the expense of any of them. Wheat agricultural policy aims to expand its area as a strategic crop, beet Sugar is subject to contract farming to meet the industrial needs of sugar production companies, and the state relies on it to increase sugar production after stabilizing the sugar cane crop area for considerations of rationalizing the use of irrigation water. Alfalfa is the main winter green fodder crop, in addition to the high net yield per feddan of these crops compared to the broad beans. This makes the vertical expansion programs for the broad bean crop and increasing the productivity of the
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Ashraf E. M. Elemary /GJCR/ 9(1) 2022; 18-25
Global Journal of Current Research 18
Full Length Research Paper
Estimating the Technical Efficiency of Broad Bean Production in the
Old Lands of Egypt
Ashraf Elsayed Mostafa Elemary
Senior Researcher, Agricultural Economics Research Institute Agricultural Research Center Egypt.
ARTICLE INFORMATION ABSTRACT
Introduction
The broad bean crop is one of the most important leguminous crops in Egyptian agriculture, and its importance is due to
its being an essential component of the Egyptian diet. Reliance on it is increasing for a large number of the population
as a relatively cheap source of protein compared to high-priced animal protein, as the annual average per capita
increased from about 6 kg /year in 1989 to about 7.7 kg/year in 2019 (Food Balance Bulletin) at a time when local
production is shrinking and reliance on imports of beans increases to meet consumer needs and the increasing demand
for beans. The bean crop and its by-products are also used to feed livestock and poultry, in addition to its role in
improving soil properties and increasing the percentage of nitrogen in it, which helps to reduce the use of nitrogenous
fertilizers for the next crop in agriculture.
The broad bean crop is planted in the winter season with crops of wheat, sugar beet and alfalfa, and in light of the
scarcity and relative stability of the cultivated area, it has become difficult to increase the area of broad bean at the
expense of any of them. Wheat agricultural policy aims to expand its area as a strategic crop, beet Sugar is subject to
contract farming to meet the industrial needs of sugar production companies, and the state relies on it to increase sugar
production after stabilizing the sugar cane crop area for considerations of rationalizing the use of irrigation water.
Alfalfa is the main winter green fodder crop, in addition to the high net yield per feddan of these crops compared to the
broad beans. This makes the vertical expansion programs for the broad bean crop and increasing the productivity of the
Vol. 9. No. 1. 2022
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Contents available at: http://www.crdeepjournal.org
Global Journal of Current Research (ISSN: 2320-2920) CIF: 3.269
A Quarterly Peer Reviewed Journal
Corresponding Author:
Ashraf E.M Elemary
Article history:
Received: 26-02-022
Revised: 02-03-2022
Accepted: 05-03-2022
Published: 07-03-2022
Key words:
Broad bean; Technical
efficiency; Old land;
Production
Broad bean is one of the most important leguminous crops in Egypt. It is a crop grown in
the winter season. The research mainly aimed to study the changes that occurred in the
most important production and consumption indicators of the broad bean crop during the
period (2006-2020). The research relied on the data envelope analysis (DEA) method in
estimating efficiency. The research found a set of results, the most important of which are
the following: (1) Both the area and production of broad beans took a general decreasing
trend during the study period with an annual rate of decrease of about 7.4% and 7.2% for
each of them, respectively. (2) the feddan productivity was characterized by relative
stability, with an average of about 8.8 ard./fed. (3) The area planted with broad bean in the
old lands decreased during the study period, and thus its relative importance decreased
from about 70% of the total area planted with broad bean at the beginning of the period to
about 37.2% at the end of the period. (4) The average efficiency value of the Egyptian
bean-producing governorates was about 0.93, meaning that the productivity of an feddan
could be increased by about 7% by using the same amount of inputs used in the production
of broad bean. (5) achieving technical efficiency is reflected in reducing the production costs
per feddan by the equivalent of 472 pounds, and thus increasing the net return by the same
amount. (6) At the level of Egyptian agriculture, achieving technical efficiency achieves
savings in the lands of horizontal expansion with an area estimated at about 2384 feddans,
and savings in the amount of irrigation water amounting to about 4.02 million cubic
meters. (7) The study recommends expanding the cultivation of the broad bean crop in new
and newly reclaimed lands, with more research efforts being made to devise varieties
resistant to crop pests and with high productivity to improve crop production and achieve
an acceptable level of self-sufficiency.
Ashraf E. M. Elemary /GJCR/ 9(1) 2022; 18-25
Global Journal of Current Research 19
land unit a focus of increasing interest, especially with the existence of fundamental differences between the actual
productivity of farmers and that achieved in research and extension fields (Salama, 2017).
The research problem was the marked decrease in the area and production of broad beans in general, and in the old
lands in particular, as a result of the spread of weed (Orobanche) and agricultural pests, as well as the high costs of
production requirements in addition to the policies adopted during the recent period were in the interest of bean farmers,
which led to They have less incentive to grow the crop (Kandil, 2022).. The 2030 Sustainable Agricultural Development
Strategy, including its policies and programs, aims to raise the self-sufficiency rate of the broad bean crop by increasing
the feddan productivity from 1.4 tons/fed. in 2007 to 1.8 tons/fed. in 2030 (Ministry of Agriculture, 2009). Therefore, it
is important to answer the following questions: How far are we from the maximum possible production? And how can it
be achieved? What are the economic effects of achieving the productive efficiency of the broad bean production
process?
The research mainly aimed to study the changes that occurred in the most important production and consumption
indicators of the broad bean crop during the period (2006-2020), and to estimate the technical efficiency of the
production of the broad bean crop in the old lands, and to determine the economic effects of achieving technical
efficiency in the production process, from During the study of the following sub-objectives: First, The productive and
economic indicators of the broad bean crop in Egypt. Second, The geographical distribution of the area planted with
broad beans in Egypt. Third, estimating the technical efficiency of broad bean production in the old lands in the
Egyptian governorates. Fourth, estimating the economic effects of achieving technical efficiency in the production of
broad beans in the old lands.
Materials and Methods
In achieving its goals, the research relied on the secondary data published by the Central Agency for Public
Mobilization and Statistics and the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation through the Economic
Affairs Sector, represented in the Agricultural Statistics Bulletin, Foreign Trade Statistics Bulletin for Agricultural
Exports and Imports, Food Balance Bulletin, and Statistics Bulletin costs and net return.
In achieving its objectives, the research relied on the use of the descriptive economic analysis method, such as
arithmetic averages, percentages, and coefficient of variation for some study variables. The quantitative analysis
method, represented by simple regression analysis, was used to estimate the trend equations. Estimating technical
competence using data envelope analysis (DEA) , which is A mathematical method nonparametric, Does not take into
account random error in estimation, depends on the use of linear programming, The efficiency assessment for a group of
production units is based on the optimal weights of inputs and outputs (Shafi, 2010), The programming model used
under the assumption of constant return to capacitance (CRS) is as follows(Ali, Seiford,1993):
Max u,v (u'yi/v'xi)
St u'yj/v'xi≤1 j= 1,2, ......N
U,v ≥ 0
Where u represents the vector of output weights (M×1), V represents vector weights of the inputs (K×1), but this
method gives many solutions and therefore the constraint v'xi=1 has been placed so that the model is as follows:
Max u,v (u'yi)
St v'xi = 1,
u'yj ux'j ≤ 0, j= 1,2, …..,N,
U,v ≥ 0,
The form Dual is usually used in estimation, not the previous multiplier, and it looks like the following (Charnes etal.,
1995):
Min θ,λ θ
St - yi + Yλ ≥ 0
θ xi Xλ ≥ 0
λ ≥0
where λ is a vector (N×1) representing the weights of the items, and θ is the value of the technical proficiency index and
its value ranges from zero to one. However, the analysis according to the assumption of the constant return to scale
assumes that all units operate at the optimum scale, that is, the curve of the long-run average costs is horizontal, and this
does not agree with the productive reality, so the previous model was developed by (Banker etal., 1984) to express the
hypothesis Variable return to scale (VRS) and thus it was possible to separate capacitance efficiency from technical
efficiency by adding convexity constraint (N1'λ = 1) where N1 stands for unit vector (N×1), and the model is as follows:
Min θ,λ θ
St - yi + Yλ ≥ 0
θ xi Xλ ≥ 0
Ashraf E. M. Elemary /GJCR/ 9(1) 2022; 18-25
Global Journal of Current Research 20
N1'λ = 1
λ ≥0
The scale efficiency is the ratio between the two previous models, equal to CRS/VRS (Coelli, 1996).
Results and Discussion
First: The productive and economic indicators of the broad bean crop in Egypt during the period (2016-2020):
1. Productive indicators of the broad bean crop in Egypt during the period (2016-2020): By reviewing the data
contained in Table No. (1) and the results of the statistical analysis contained in Table No. (2), it was found that the area
planted with the broad bean crop ranged between a maximum of about 212 thousand feddans in 2007, and a minimum
of about 69.8 thousand feddans in 2019. By estimating the trend equation, it was found It took a decreasing trend during
the study period, with a statistically significant annual decrease rate estimated at 7.4% from the average period of about
126.5 thousand feddans, with an annual decrease of about 9.4 thousand feddans. The coefficient of variation was about
0.54, which indicates the instability of the broad bean area during the study period.
Table 1. Evolution of the most important productive and economic indicators of the broad bean crop in Egypt during
the period (2006-2020)
Years
Area
yield
production
farm price
total
return
net return
Return
on the
pound
thousand Feddan
Ard.*/fed.
thousand
tons
pound/ard.
.pound/fed
.pound/fed
pound
2006
175.4
9.01
247
347
3398
1381
0.68
2007
212
8.97
302
353
3506
1215
0.53
2008
170.1
9.08
244
581
5666
2376
0.72
2009
206
9.15
295
573
5701
2179
0.62
2010
183.7
8.09
232
575
5133
5121
4.00
2011
131.4
8.16
174
596
5567
1474
0.36
2012
97.9
8.76
139
717
7107
2605
0.58
2013
104.9
8.84
156
730
7286
2543
0.54
2014
89.7
8.79
132
740
7359
2529
0.52
2015
81.4
8.48
119
805
7707
2524
0.49
2016
83.4
8.22
119
817
7635
2099
0.38
2017
121
8.57
170
1286
11948
3597
0.43
2018
82.2
9.06
116
1787
16462
6984
0.74
2019
69.8
9.16
99.15
798
12844
2403
0.23
2020
89.1
9.2
124.6
1870
18202
7367
0.68
Average
126.5
8.8
177.9
838.3
8368.1
2922.7
0.57
C.V
0.54
0.04
0.53
0.24
0.24
0.24
0.27
*Ardab is a unit of weight equal to 155 kg of broad beans.
Source: 1- Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Agricultural Statistics Bulletin, various issues
.
2- Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, cost and net income bulletin, various issues.
Table 2. Estimation of trend functions for the most important productive and economic indicators of the broad bean crop in
Egypt during the period (2006-2020)
Items
equation
F
R2
% Annual
growth rate
Area
Ln Y = 5.36 - 0.074 T
(-6.2)**
38.8**
0.75
7.4
Production
Ln Y = 5.69 - 0.072 T
(-6.6)**
43.4**
0.77
7.2
Total costs per feddan
Ln Y = 3.10 + 0.552 T
(13.8)**
190.3**
0.94
11.6
Farm price
Ln Y = 5.80 + 0.097 T
(7.1)**
51.0**
0.80
9.7
Total return per feddan
Ln Y = 8.06 + 0.106 T
(10.8)**
115.9**
0.89
10.6
Net return per feddan
Ln Y = 3.17 + 0.084 T
(4.08)**
16.7**
0.56
8.4
**
Significant at 1% probability level
Source: calculated from the data in Table No. (1).
The production of the broad bean crop ranged between a maximum of about 302 thousand tons in 2007, and a minimum
of about 99.15 thousand tons in 2019. By estimating the trend equation, it was found that it took a decreasing trend
Ashraf E. M. Elemary /GJCR/ 9(1) 2022; 18-25
Global Journal of Current Research 21
during the study period with a statistically significant annual decrease rate estimated at 7.2% of the average period The
amount is about 177.9 thousand tons, an annual decrease of about 12.8 thousand tons. The coefficient of variation was
about 0.53, which indicates the instability of broad bean production during the study period. The production of the broad
bean crop during the study period is affected up and down according to the cultivated area, where the feddan
productivity was characterized by relative stability during the study period, with an average of about 8.8 ard./fed., and a
low coefficient of variation of about 0.04 during the study period.
2. Economic indicators of the broad beans crop in Egypt during the period (2016-2020): By reviewing the data
contained in Table No. (1) and the results of the statistical analysis contained in Table No. (2), it was found that the total
production costs per feddan of the broad bean crop ranged between a maximum of about 10,835 pounds in 2020, and a
minimum of about 2017 pounds in 2006. By estimating the trend equation It was found that it took an increasing trend
during the study period with a statistically significant annual growth rate estimated at about 11.6% from the average
period of about 5445.3 pounds, with an annual increase of about 631.7 pounds. The coefficient of variation was about
0.26, which indicates the instability of the costs of producing feddans of broad beans during the study period, albeit to a
lesser degree than the instability of area and production. It is noted from the data the impact of the liberalization of the
exchange rate in November 2016, which led to an increase in production costs in 2017, by about 51% compared to
2016.
The farm price of the broad bean crop ranged between a maximum of about 1870 pounds/ardab in 2020, and a minimum
of about 347 pounds/ardab in 2006. By estimating the trend equation, it was found that it took an increasing trend during
the study period with a statistically significant annual increase rate estimated at about 9.7% of The average period of
about 838.3 pounds/ardab, with an annual increase of about 81.3 pounds/ardab. It is noted that the agricultural price was
affected in 2019 with the onset of the Corona pandemic and some measures were taken, including preventing the export
of local beans with the opening of the import door and with the precautionary measures related to the closure of
restaurants and the weak local demand during that period, which led to a decrease in the agricultural price in 2019 by
55.3% than it was in 2018 which was reflected in the decline in revenue, net return and the return on the pound spent in
2019. While the total revenue per feddan of the broad beans crop ranged between a maximum of about 18,202 pounds in
2020, and a minimum of about 3398 pounds in 2006. By estimating the trend equation, it was found that it took an
increasing trend during the study period with a statistically significant annual increase rate estimated at 10.6% of the
average period the amount is about 8,368 pounds, with an annual increase of about 887 pounds. While the net yield per
feddan of the broad bean crop ranged between a maximum of about 7367 pounds in 2020, and a minimum of about
1215 pounds in 2007. By estimating the trend equation, it was found that it took an increasing trend during the study
period with a statistically significant annual increase rate estimated at 8.4% of the average The period of about 2,922.7
pounds, with an annual increase of about 245.5 pounds. Finally, the return on the pound spent on the broad bean crop
ranged between a maximum of about 0.74 pounds in 2018, and a minimum of about 0.23 pounds in 2019 with an annual
average of about 0.57 pounds during the study period.
Second: The geographical distribution of the area planted with broad beans in Egypt during the period (2006-
2020): From reviewing the data in Table (3), it is clear that the area planted with the broad bean crop in the old lands
during the study period, after it was 125.5 thousand feddans at the beginning of the period, decreased to about a third at
the end to reach about 42.8 thousand feddans in 2020. The decline began significantly at the beginning of the period
From 2011 until it reached the lowest area in 2019 by about 25.9 thousand feddans, and thus its relative importance
decreased from about 70% of the total area planted with broad beans at the beginning of the period to about 37.2 at the
end of the period, with an average of about 80 thousand feddans, representing about 60% of the total The area planted
with fava beans. While the area of broad bean in the new lands inside the valley during the study period decreased from
about 20 thousand acres as an average for the first three years of the study period to about 14.4 thousand acres as an
average for the last three years. About 10.5% at the beginning of the period to about 18% at the end of the period of the
total area of the broad bean crop. With an average of about 15.6 thousand feddans, representing about 13% of the total
area planted with broad beans. While the area planted with broad beans in the new lands outside the valley was
relatively stable, with an average of about 31 thousand feddans, representing about 27% of the total area planted with
broad beans. However, its relative importance increased during the study period as a result of the decrease in the areas
planted with the crop in the old lands from about 18.5% at the beginning of the period to about 40% at the end of the
period of the total area of the broad bean crop. It should be noted that 78% of the area of broad beans in the new lands
outside the valley is concentrated in the Nubariya area, with an area of about 24.9 thousand feddans, according to data
from the Ministry of Agriculture in 2020.
Table -3 Geographical distribution of the area planted with broad beans in Egypt during the period (2006-2020)
Year
Old lands
New lands
New lands
Total area
in the valley
in the valley
outside the valley
thousand
%
thousand
%
thousand
%
thousand
%
feddan
feddan
feddan
feddan
2006
125.5
71.6
18.1
10.3
31.7
18.1
175.4
100
Ashraf E. M. Elemary /GJCR/ 9(1) 2022; 18-25
Global Journal of Current Research 22
2007
145.6
68.7
21.8
10.28
44.6
21.02
212
100
2008
120.6
70.91
19.7
11.61
29.7
17.49
170.1
100
2009
148.2
71.93
25
12.13
32.8
15.94
206
100
2010
130.4
71
21.4
11.65
31.9
17.35
183.7
100
2011
86.4
65.71
15.5
11.76
29.6
22.52
131.4
100
2012
59
60.22
13.8
14.09
25.2
25.69
97.9
100
2013
68.1
64.94
10.9
10.41
25.9
24.65
104.9
100
2014
50
55.71
10.3
11.46
29.5
32.83
89.7
100
2015
42.8
52.25
10.6
12.91
28.5
34.84
81.9
100
2016
48.2
57.8
8.5
10.21
26.7
31.99
83.4
100
2017
72.9
60.26
15.1
12.49
33
27.25
121
100
2018
33.5
40.79
16.3
19.83
32.4
39.38
82.2
100
2019
25.9
37.16
12.3
17.56
31.6
45.29
69.8
100
2020
42.8
48.06
14.6
16.4
31.7
35.54
89.1
100
Average
80
60
15.6
13
31
27
127
100
Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Agricultural Statistics Bulletin, various issues.
Third: Estimating the technical efficiency of broad bean production in the old lands in the Egyptian
governorates as an average for the period (2018-2020): The technical efficiency of producing the broad bean crop
in the old lands in the governorates producing it was estimated using the data envelope analysis method, and the
production inputs were represented in only two inputs, the first is the work expressed in its monetary value in pounds
and it includes both human labor and machine work, the second is capital and represents the value of production
requirements expressed in pounds, while outputs were feddan productivity, expressed in ardabs. The analysis was
conducted according to the two assumptions of constant return to Scale l (CRS) and variable return to Scale (VRS) so
that Scale efficiency can be separated from technical efficiency. The analysis was also done according to the concept
of production inputs, which is commensurate with the nature of agricultural production. It is clear from the data and
results of the analysis presented in Tables No. (4), (5) with regard to the quantity of inputs used in the production of
the broad bean crop, that the value of the capital input ranged between a maximum of about 1754 pounds/feddan in
Fayoum governorate, and a minimum of about 1113 pounds/feddan in Alexandria Governorate, with an average of
about 1439 pounds/feddan. While the value of the work input ranged between a maximum of about 4,944
pounds/feddan in Sohag governorate, and a minimum of about 3500 pounds/feddan in Qena governorate, with an
average of about 4172 pounds/feddan. While the amount of output represented in the feddan productivity of the broad
bean crop ranged between a maximum of about 10.59 ardabs/feddan in Dakahlia Governorate, and a minimum of
about 6.54 ardabs/feddan in Fayoum governorate, with an average of about 8.29 ardabs/feddan.
Table 4. Estimating the technical efficiency of broad bean production in the old lands in the Egyptian governorates as
an average for the period (2018-2020)
Governorates
Inputs
Outputs
Technical efficiency
Scale efficiency
Capital
labor
yield
CRS
VRS
SE
Return to
Scale
Pound
Pound
Ardab
%
%
%
Alexandria
1113
4310
8.26
0.98
0.99
0.99
irs
Behera
1517
3768
8.57
0.89
0.99
0.9
irs
Gharbia
1315
4039
7.93
0.83
0.93
0.89
irs
Kafr El-Sheikh
1593
4195
7.91
0.74
0.86
0.86
irs
Damietta
1570
4175
9.78
0.92
0.96
0.96
irs
Dakahlia
1543
4150
10.59
1
1
1
-
Sharkia
1694
4423
8.96
0.79
0.86
0.92
irs
Ismailia
1598
4322
7.44
0.68
0.81
0.83
irs
اFayoum
1754
3559
6.54
0.72
0.98
0.73
irs
Menia
1262
4230
9.56
1
1
1
-
Assuit
1048
4295
7.96
1
1
1
-
Suhag
1717
4944
8.16
0.67
0.75
0.9
irs
Qena
1238
3500
7.36
0.85
1
0.85
irs
Aswan
1190
4502
6.99
0.77
0.92
0.85
irs
Average
1439
4172
8.29
0.85
0.93
0.91
TE : Technical Efficiency CRS : Constant Returns to Scale
VRS :Variable Returns to Scale
SE : Scale Efficiency
Source: Compiled and calculated from: Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Economic Affairs Sector, Cost
and Net Return Statistics Bulletin, Efficiency Analysis Results using DEAP v.2.1.
Ashraf E. M. Elemary /GJCR/ 9(1) 2022; 18-25
Global Journal of Current Research 23
Table 5. The Frequent Distribution of the Estimated Technical Efficiency Values for the Egyptian Governorates
Producing the broad Bean Crop as an Average for the Period (2018-2020)
category
number of governorates
CRS
VRS
SE
1
3
3
3
0.90 1.00
2
5
5
0.80 0.90
3
5
5
0.70 0.80
4
1
1
0.60 0.70
2
0
0
Source: compiled and calculated from: The results of competency analysis using DEAP v.2.1 program, shown in Table
No. (4).
From the estimated values of the technical efficiency of the governorates producing broad beans, according to the
assumption of constant return to scale, it was clear that the full efficiency was achieved in three governorates, namely
Dakahlia, Minia and Assiut, and two governorates with efficiency values ranging from 0.90 to less than one true,
namely Alexandria, Damietta, with a value of about 0.98, 0.92 for each. respectively, and the number of three
governorates whose efficiency values range from 0.80 to less than 0.90, namely, Beheira, Qena and Gharbia, with a
value of about 0.89, 0.85, 0.83 for each of them, respectively, and the number of four governorates whose efficiency
values range from 0.70 to less than 0.80, which are Sharkia, Aswan, Kafr El-Sheikh And Fayoum with a value of
about 0.79, 0.77, 0.74, 0.72 for each of them, respectively, and two governorates with efficiency values ranging from
0.60 to less than 0.70, which are Ismailia and Sohag with a value of 0.68 and 0.67 each, respectively. The average
value of the efficiency of the Egyptian governorates producing municipal beans is about 0.85, meaning that the
productivity of a feddan can be increased by about 15% using the same amount of inputs used assuming that all farms
operate at the optimum scale, which is an unrealistic assumption.
From the estimated values of the technical efficiency of the governorates producing broad beans according to the
hypothesis of the variable return to scale, it became clear that the full efficiency was achieved in three governorates,
namely Dakahlia, Minia and Assiut, and a number of five governorates. A value of about 0.99, 0.99, 0.98, 0.96, 0.93
for each of them, respectively, and the number of five governorates whose efficiency values range from 0.80 to less
than 0.90, which are Gharbia, Kafr El-Sheikh, Qena, Aswan and Ismailia, with a value of about 0.89, 0.86, 0.85, 0.85,
0.83 For each of them, respectively, and one governorate, Sohag, with an efficiency of 0.75. The average efficiency
value of the Egyptian bean-producing governorates was about 0.93, meaning that the productivity of a feddan can be
increased by about 7% by using the same amount of inputs used in the production of broad bean production. With
regard to scale efficiency, it was found that three governorates operate at their optimum scale, namely, Dakahlia,
Minia and Assiut, and five governorates at scale ranging from 0.90 to less than one integer of the optimum scale,
which are Alexandria, Damietta, Sharkia, Beheira and Sohag with a value of about 0.99, 0.96, 0.92, 0.90, 0.90 for each
of them, respectively, and the number of five governorates with a scale ranging from 0.80 to less than 0.90 of the
optimal scale, which are Gharbia, Kafr El-Sheikh, Qena, Aswan, Ismailia with a value of about 0.89, 0.86, 0.85, 0.85,
0.83 for each of them arrangement, and one governorate, Fayoum, with an efficiency of 0.75 of the optimum scale.
With regard to the nature of the return to scale, it was found that there are three governorates characterized by a
constant return to scale, which are Dakahlia, Minya and Assiut, meaning that increasing all inputs by a certain
percentage leads to an increase in outputs by the same percentage, while the rest of the governorates are characterized
by an increased return to scale, meaning that increasing the inputs by a certain percentage leads to an increase in the
outputs by Larger.
Fourth: Estimating the economic effects of achieving technical efficiency in the production of broad beans in the
old lands: The economic effects of achieving technical efficiency for the production of the broad bean crop can be
addressed on two levels. The first is the level of the farm, especially related to reducing production costs, which is
reflected in an increase in the net return of the feddan for the farmer. The second is the level of Egyptian agriculture, in
particular, the effects related to the scarcest agricultural resources, which is land and water.
1. The economic impact of achieving technical efficiency in the production of the broad bean crop at the farm level:
From the data contained in Table No. (6), which shows the targeted quantities of agricultural inputs that achieve
technical efficiency without reducing the production quantity, based on the data envelope analysis, it is possible to
reduce the average value of the capital used in the production process to about 1269 pounds, that is, there is a surplus in
The use of the capital amounted to about 170.2 pounds, representing about 11.8% of the value of the actual capital used
in the production of feddans of the broad bean crop. It is also possible to reduce the average value of the labor used in
the production process to about 3870 pounds, meaning there is a surplus in the use of labor amounting to about 301.8
pounds, representing about 7.2% of the value of the actual work used in the production of feddans of the broad bean
crop. Accordingly, the total target value of capital and labor together amounted to about 5139 pounds, which is less than
the actual total value of them by about 8.4%, which is equivalent to 472 pounds, which is reflected in reducing the costs
of acre production and increasing the net return of the bean farmers by the same amount.
Ashraf E. M. Elemary /GJCR/ 9(1) 2022; 18-25
Global Journal of Current Research 24
2. The economic impact of achieving technical efficiency in the production of the broad bean crop on the level of
Egyptian agriculture: It is clear from the data in Table No. (7) that achieving technical efficiency in the production of
the broad bean crop in the old lands achieved savings in the agricultural land and irrigation water, which are the most
scarce suppliers in agriculture, as the average area of the municipal bean crop in the old lands for the period (2018-
2020) It reached about 34.07 thousand feddans, with an actual average productivity of about 8.29 ardabs/feddan. It was
found from the efficiency using the data envelope analysis that productivity can be increased by 7%, which is equivalent
to 0.58 ardabs/feddan. The area is about 19.76 thousand ardabs, this increase could have been achieved by horizontal
expansion with an area of about 2384 feddans. The average water rating of the municipal bean crop in Egypt is
estimated at about 1691 cubic meters, meaning that achieving technical efficiency in the production of the broad bean
crop achieves a water saving estimated at about 4.03 million cubic meters, which is the amount needed to cultivate the
area of horizontal expansion in the crop.
Table 6. The economic impact of achieving technical efficiency in the production of the broad bean crop in the
Egyptian governorates on reducing production inputs as an average for the period (2018-2020)
Governorates
Actual
target
surplus
Capital
labor
Capital
labor
Capital
labor
pound
pound
pound
pound
pound
pound
Alexandria
1113
4310
1098
4252
14.9
57.5
Behera
1517
3768
1352
3743
164.4
24.8
Gharbia
1315
4039
1223
3755
92.5
284.1
Kafr El-Sheikh
1593
4195
1290
3611
303.4
584.3
Damietta
1570
4175
1467
3987
103.5
188
Dakahlia
1543
4150
1543
4150
0
0.3
Sharkia
1694
4423
1389
3822
304.9
601.4
Ismailia
1598
4322
1246
3516
352.1
805.6
Fayoum
1754
3559
1238
3500
516.3
59
Menia
1262
4230
1262
4230
0
0
Assuit
1048
4295
1048
4295
0
0
Suhag
1717
4944
1286
3704
431.1
1240
Qena
1238
3500
1238
3500
0.3
0
Aswan
1190
4502
1089
4122
100.6
380.1
Average
1439
4172
1269
3870
170.2
301.8
Total
5611
5139
472
Source: compiled and calculated from: The results of competency analysis using DEAP v.2.1 program, shown in
Table No. (4).
Table 7. The economic impact of achieving technical efficiency in the production of the broad bean crop on the level of
Egyptian agriculture as an average for the period (2018-2020)
Item
Unit
Value
The average area of the broad bean in the old lands
thousand feddan
34.07
Actual average yield
Ardab/feddan
8.29
Average technical efficiency of production in old lands
%
93
Possibility to increase productivity
%
7
Amount of increase in feddan yield
Ardab/feddan
0.58
Amount of increase in production
Ardab
19761
The area corresponding to the horizontal expansion
Feddan
2384
Average water ration per feddan of broad beans
Cubic meter
1691
The savings in the water used
million cubic meters
4.03
Source: 1. Collected and calculated from: The results of efficiency analysis using DEAP v.2.1 program, shown in
Table No. (4).
2. Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, Irrigation and Water Resources Annual Bulletin,
2020.
Conclusion
in light of the findings of the study, it was found that despite the positive results of raising the technical efficiency of the
broad bean production process in the old lands, in light of the suffering of bean production from the endemicity of weed
and agricultural pests in those lands, there is a difficulty in raising the feddan productivity Even with achieving technical
efficiency in the production process to reach about 8.87 ardabs/feddan, which is equivalent to 1.37 tons/feddan, it is still
less than the target to be achieved according to the strategy of the Ministry of Agriculture (1.6 tons/feddan in 2017, 1.8
tons/feddan in 2030). Therefore, the study recommends expanding the cultivation of the broad bean crop in the new and
newly reclaimed lands, with more research efforts being made to devise varieties that are resistant to the crop’s pests
and with high productivity to improve crop production and achieve an acceptable level of self-sufficiency.
Ashraf E. M. Elemary /GJCR/ 9(1) 2022; 18-25
Global Journal of Current Research 25
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