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Nazari & Landry 2012 - Gnorimoschemini of Alberta

Authors:

Abstract

Report prepared for The Alberta Lepidopterists’ Guild
Gnorimoschemini fauna of Alberta
(Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
Vazrick Nazari and Jean-François Landry
Prepared for:
The Alberta Lepidopterists’ Guild
March 2012
Authors’ address:
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, C.E.F.,
960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6, Canada
vazrick.nazari@agr.gc.ca
jean-francois.landry@ agr.gc.ca
© 2012 Government of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
Table of contents
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 5
Materials and methods ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 9
Checklist of Alberta Gnorimoschemini ......................................................................................................... 10
Genus Gnorimoschema .................................................................................................................................. 12
Genus Tuta ..................................................................................................................................................... 28
Genus Scrobipalpula ...................................................................................................................................... 29
Genus Scrobipalpa ......................................................................................................................................... 32
Genus Scrobipalpopsis ................................................................................................................................... 36
Genus Ephysteris ........................................................................................................................................... 37
Genus Nevadopalpa ....................................................................................................................................... 38
Genus Caryocolum ......................................................................................................................................... 39
Genus Agonochaetia ...................................................................................................................................... 40
Features of the Alberta gnorimoschemine fauna ........................................................................................... 41
Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................................ 42
References ...................................................................................................................................................... 43
Plates .............................................................................................................................................................. 45
Appendix 1. Neighbour-joining tree of DNA barcodes ............................................................................... 105
Appendix 2. Material examined ................................................................................................................... 117
5
Introduction
The tribe Gnorimoschemini Povolný, 1964 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) includes over 40 genera with
nearly 900 described species worldwide. The majority of these (about 550) occur in the Palaearctic region (Po-
volný 2002a), reecting denser collecting and a longer taxonomic history. A large number of undescribed spe-
cies is estimated to exist. The Nearctic fauna comprises 176 described species in 17 genera, among which the
genus Gnorimoschema with 96 species is the most diverse (Lee et al. 2009) (Table 1). More than a third of the
known Nearctic species occur in California.
Gnorimoschemine diversity is highest in dry, scrubby, sandy, well-drained, and halophytic habitats.
Many species occur in xeromontane, steppe or prairie zones. The evolutionary center of the tribe has been
hypothesized to be the xeric habitats of South America such as the Patagonian cold steppes and xeromontane
Andes (Powell & Povolný 2001). Many species are sand dune specialists. Inventories of coastal sand dunes
in California recently revealed a great diversity of previously unknown Gnorimoschemini (Powell & Povolný
2001) and their study has been motivated by growing concern about conservation of these fragile habitats and
their denizens.
Gnorimoschemine species exhibit a diversity of larval habits and are mostly concealed feeders: free
living in sand where they form silken tubes attached to leaves buried by the active sand; leaf mining (domin-
ant among Palearctic species); borers or creating gall-like deformities in growing tips of foliage; causing soft
or non-persistent stem galls in which the larvae feed; and/or causing hard, persistent stem galls (Powell & Po-
volný 2001). Nearctic stem-gall making species are specialized on various Asteraceae (for example, the Gnori-
moschema gallaesolidaginis complex; see Miller 2000). A few species of Gnorimoschemini are economically
important and have become pests of cultivated Solanaceae.
Many species of Gnorimoschemine, particularly dune-dwelling ones, have diurnal adults. Although at-
tracted to light, many moths can be collected during daytime by sweeping the low vegetation in suitable habi-
tats.
Although past phylogenetic studies have been inconclusive (e.g. Povolný & Sustek 1988), the tribe is
deemed to be monophyletic (Povolný 2002b). However, it is remarkably difcult to extract from the literature
unique dening autapomorphies that would support this assertion. In his many publications (but mostly in
2002b which is a synopsis summarizing his lifelong work on the group), Povolný described at length trends in
external and genitalia characters within the tribe, as well as the exceptions that diverge from the general pat-
terns, but he did not explicitly articulate which character states are uniquely shared by all members of the tribe.
The strong hook-like signum of the female genitalia and a lateral zone of microtrichia near the ostial area were
suggested as the main uniting feature of the tribe (Huemer 1988; Huemer & Karsholt 2010). Male genitalia have
a rather distinctive overall aspect with several genera possessing obvious synapomorphies, but we were unable
to determine if these structures contain unifying character states for the tribe. Huemer and Karsholt (1999) men-
tion the presence of a “small sclerotized apical arm [in the male genitalia], perpendicular to the main axis of
the aedeagus [=phallus] that probably assists in everting the vesica during copulation” but we are not sure what
structure this refers to.
Pronounced individual variation in external coloration and appearance of the moths makes it extremely
difcult to recognize species of Gnorimoschemini on external characters. In any population the forewing pat-
tern can vary from unicolorous to a highly mottled, contrasting and colorful pattern. In the latter case, a triad of
dark stigmata in the center of the forewing and a row of sub-marginal spots can often be observed, although the
deviation of pattern and colour from these basic elements can be signicant.
From a morphological standpoint, taxon delineation and identication in the Gnorimoschemini at both
generic and specic level depends almost entirely on detailed examination of the genitalia. For species whose
biology is unknown (the majority of the species), the primary task of sorting species and correctly associating
conspecic sexes presents a challenge. This problem is compounded by the fact that several species can be col-
lected together as their ight period and microhabitat coincide.
6
The taxonomy of the group has been studied by few modern authors. The Czech entomologist Dalibor
F. Povolný (1924-2004) was the dominant taxonomist studying the world Gnorimoschemini over the past 40
years and is responsible for describing nearly half of the known North American species (Table 1), either alone
(Povolný 1967a, 1998) or in collaboration with J.A. Powell (Powell and Povolný 2001), with particular focus on
the Californian fauna.
Povolný’s works are very difcult to use due to the uneven quality of the descriptions, lack of identica-
tion keys, and lack of clear diagnoses. The publication of Povolný’s new species in hard-to-access or unusual
journals (for insect taxonomy) further hampers dissemination of the knowledge. The most remarkable example
of the latter is the description of 14 new species of Gnorimoschema and 5 new North American records of Pale-
arctic species (Povolný 1998) which are included in a special issue (dedicated to a deceased entomologist) of
the botanical journal Stapa published in Austria! This publication is critical for understanding the Canadian
Gnorimoschemini fauna, because beside several new Holarctic records, 12 of the 13 newly described Nearctic
species are from Canada (Quebec, Ontario, Saskatchewan and Yukon Territory).
Povolný’s genitalia illustrations consist exclusively of line drawings which display a confusing amount
of preparation artifacts. As a result many subtle species differences are obscured whereas distortion-induced
differences are apparent. Male genitalia are mounted and illustrated in a ventral, unspread (unopened) position
which results in parts overlapping in a confusing way; the phallus is illustrated in inconsistent orientations
which affect its aspect (curvature, dentation). The technique of “unrolling” complex male genitalia of Micro-
lepidoptera, especially of Gelechiidae (Pitkin 1986) maximizes the display of characters and has been used ef-
fectively to illustrate Gnorimoschemini (for example, Huemer 1988, 1996; Huemer and Karsholt 1998, 1999,
2010; Elsner et al. 1999) but it was never adopted by Povolný. Female genitalia are shown only in part, usually
the 8th sternum and sterigma (sclerotization surrounding the genital opening or ostium bursae), and the signum.
While these structures afford good specic characters, additional features are also present in other parts of the
female genitalia such as the ductus, corpus bursae and ovipositor, contributing to the overall aspect (gestalt)
Table 1. Summary of North American Gnorimoschemini diversity (after Lee et al., 2009).
Genera Genus level
synonyms
Valid
species
Species level
synonyms
Species de-
scribed by
Povolný
Agonochaetia Povolný, 1965 1 1 0 0
Caryocolum Gregor & Povolný, 1954 0 5 7 0
Eurysaccoides Povolný, 1998 0 2 0 2
Exceptia Povolný, 1967 0 2 0 1
Frumenta Busck, 1939 0 2 1 0
Gnorimoschema Busck, 1900 2 96 11 49
Insuloschema Povolný, 2004 0 1 0 1
Keiferia Busck, 1939 1 8 3 2
Microcraspedus Janse, 1958 [=Ephysteris Meyrick, 1908] 0 2 0 2
Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 0 1 0 1
Nevadopalpa Povolný, 1998 0 7 0 7
Phthorimaea Meyrick, 1902 1 1 4 0
Scrobipalpa Janse 1951 1 10 3 1
Scrobipalpopsis Povolný, 1967 0 5 0 2
Scrobipalpula Povolný, 1964 1 16 1 4
Scrobipalpuloides Povolný, 1987 [=Tuta Kieffer & Jorgensen, 1910] 0 8 0 7
Symmetrischema Povolný, 1967 0 9 5 2
Totals 7 176 35 81
7
which is important in species identication. The male genitalia of Gnorimoschemini are usually more character-
rich, although a few species (e.g. G. alaskense) are best characterized by their female genitalia.
These problems with Povolný’s descriptions and illustrations have made it incredibly difcult to inter-
pret and verify his species and generic assignments.
The Gnorimoschemini of Alberta have never been the subject of a focused study. In his paper on Can-
adian Gnorimoschemini (1998), Povolný does not mention any specimens from Alberta. Pohl et al. (2010)
summarized the current knowledg e on the Gnorimoschemini fauna of Alberta in their checklist, adding mu-
seum records from CNC and UASM as well as various private collections to available literature records. They
reported a total of 25 species, including ve known only from Saskatchewan sand dunes and listed as probable
species for Alberta. Of these ve, we did not nd any specimens of Gnorimoschema segregatum, G. spinosum
or Scrobipalpa instabilella from Alberta among our examined material and therefore we excluded them from
this report. The other two, G. petiolatum and G. clavatum are in need of taxonomic revision as they probably
represent the same taxon, reported here as G. clavatum. The Strickland museum specimen UASM49112 (Ed-
monton, 24.VIII.1923, K Bowman) identied as “Gnorimoschema miscitatella” (= Scrobipalpa obsoletella, see
Lee et al. 2009), which formed the basis for the S. obsoletella record from Alberta by Pohl et al. (2010), was
examined and based on male genitalia it was found to be a Gnorimoschema septentrionella; therefore the S. ob-
soletella record should be removed from Alberta Gnorimoschemini list.
Among the species listed by Pohl et al., we also could not verify the following:
Gnorimoschema gallaespinosum reported from Moose Lake (CB Christensen 2005), likely another
species in the G. gallaesolidaginis group;
Scrobipalpula henshawiella and S. psilella, which need to be revised as they probably represent
morphological variants within what we report here as S. sp. nr. difuella;
• The Strickland museum specimen UASM49114 (Nordegg, 27.VII.1923, K Bowman) identied as
Gnorimoschema petrella” (= Scrobipalpopsis petrella, see Lee et al. 2009), which formed the basis for the S.
petrella record from Alberta by Pohl et al. (2010), was examined; the specimen had lost its abdomen and thus
the record could not be veried.
Through this study, three new species were also found for the Gnorimoschemini fauna of Yukon, studied
in 2009 (Nazari & Landry 2009): Gnorimoschema triocellella (species 27), G. intermedium (species 32), and G.
sp. 4 nr. nordlandicolellum (species 40). Many species known only from Yukon at the time of that report were
also found later in Alberta, including the rare undescribed species reported here under species 45.
8
Materials and methods
Specimens examined.– Moths collected in Alberta and neighboring regions deposited in the Canadian
National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes in Ottawa (CNC) were examined. To verify available
names, many types and additional specimens and slides were also borrowed from several institutions, namely
the collection of the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario (BIO, University of Guelph), the University of Alberta
Strickland Museum (UASM, Edmonton), the Lyman Entomological Museum (LEM, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue,
Quebec), the Smithsonian Institution (USNM, Washington, D.C.), the Essig Museum of Entomology (EMEC,
University of California, Berkeley), the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ, Harvard University, Cam-
bridge, Massachusetts), and the Zoological Museum in Helsinki (ZMH, Finland). Among the CNC material,
many specimens were found among the older, unsorted “Gelechiidae”; these were veried by dissection as they
were too old for DNA barcoding. We also examined a number of gnorimoschemine specimens from other parts
of North America (all in CNC) in order to gain a broader understanding of the group.
DNA barcoding, specimen sorting, and identication.– We used DNA barcodes as the primary tool
to sort specimens into clusters that represent distinct species. DNA was extracted and the COI barcode region
was sequenced in the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario in Guelph, using standard methods (Hadjibabai et al.
2005). All specimen and sequence data were entered in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) (Ratnasingham &
Hebert 2007) (www.barcodinglife.com). So-called TaxonID trees (genetic similarity trees) were generated using
BOLD analytical tools.
Specimens were then sorted according to the tree clusters. A sequence difference of 2% was used as a
threshold for segregating species (Avise 1994; Hebert et al. 2003). Genitalia preparations of both sexes (if avail-
able) were made from selected specimens within each distinct barcode cluster.
Identications were achieved by comparing the genitalia to dissections of types, or to those illustrated
for the known fauna of North America as reported in the taxonomic references cited in this report. Unidentied
and putatively undescribed species which did not match any of the known species were given temporary ‘new
species’ numbers and will be described ofcially in a future publication.
Genitalia dissection and preparation.– Dissections were performed following a standard technique
and dissected parts were stained and mounted on microscope slides in Euparal resin (Landry 2007). The tech-
nique of “unrolling” male genitalia (Pitkin 1986) was employed: it entails severing the tegumen from the vin-
culum on one side (the right side was separated) and spreading the genitalia “open” (as in opening a book). In
the resulting preparations the vinculum-valvae complex sits on the left with its dorsal side up and the tegumen-
uncus-gnathos is on the right with its ventral side up. The phallus was separated and mounted alongside with its
ventral side resting on the right (see plates 9–19; anterior points upward on the gures). Female genitalia were
mounted with the ventral side up and the posterior end of the ovipositor points upward on the gures (see plates
20–29). In some female preparations the 7th abdominal segment was left attached to the genitalia, although it is
best to remove this with the rest of the abdominal pelt in order to leave an unhindered view of the ductus bursae
and ostial region. The genitalia plates were prepared by re-sizing images to t the page and therefore they are
not presented to the same scale. It should also be noted that although the shape and relative size of the female
signum is taxonomically important, its orientation (left or right on corpus bursae) can be preparation-dependent
and must not be interpreted to have any taxonomic signicance.
Illustrations and presentation.– Moths were photographed with a Nikon D300 camera equipped with
a 105 mm macro lens, mounted on a photographic stand. Specimens were staged inside an Aristo® light box for
even illumination. Slide-mounted genitalia were photographed with a Nikon DMX 1200F digital camera mount-
ed on a Nikon Eclipse 800 microscope equipped with motor drive, at a magnication of 100× for males and 40×
for females. Multi-layered images were assembled into single deep-focused images with Nikon NIS Elements
software. All photos were edited with Adobe Photoshop®.
9
Results
A total of 1599 specimens (1265 barcoded + 334 not barcoded) of Gnorimoschemini from North Amer-
ica were examined. 1256 of the barcoded specimens had DNA sequences of >200 bp (9 with shorter sequen-
ces were removed from the analyses). The remaining specimens were too old to attempt. Among the barcoded
specimens, 272 represented several species that had no Alberta representatives and they were also excluded
from this report. 993 of the barcoded specimens representing species present in the Alberta were further studied,
of which 410 (41%) were collected in Alberta.
A total of 73 species in nine genera were identied from Alberta (Table 2), including two probable
species (Gnorimoschema octomaculella and G. brachiatum) which although not collected in Alberta, were in-
cluded in this report based on their wide range of distribution across western North America. Due to lack of a
phylogenetic framework to verify the arrangement of taxa within Gnorimoschemini, the taxa in this report are
presented in an arbitrary order. Species are numbered 1–73 and identied by these numbers throughout the re-
port. For each species, images of adult(s) and male and female dissections (where known) are presented in the
colour plates at the end of the report. The slide numbers for each species are given in parentheses in the heading
for each species, followed by an account of global distribution, known and examined material, and additional
remarks on taxonomy and/or life history. List of all material examined, and a neighbour-joining tree of all the
barcoded material are also presented as appendices to this report.
10
Table 2. Checklist of Alberta Gnorimoschemini, with summarized known geographic distributions in Alberta and con-
tinentally, and recorded ight periods. Natural regions of Alberta are as applied by Pohl et al. (2010) in the annotated
list of Alberta Lepidoptera. ERD=Eco-climatic region distribution (Mountain/Parkland/Boreal/Grassland). GCD=Global/
Continental Distribution (Holarctic/Nearctic). AFP= Adult Flight Period.
Total #
examined
AB speci-
mens
ERD GCD AFP
1. Gnorimoschema salinaris Busck, 1911 11 5 BG N Aug
2. Gnorimoschema sp. nr. gallaesolidaginis (Riley, 1869) 66 10 PG N Aug-Sep
3. Gnorimoschema gibsonella Busck, 1915 28 3 PG N Aug-Sep
4. Gnorimoschema jocelynae Miller, 2000 15 5 PG N Aug-Sep
5. Gnorimoschema septentrionella Fyles, 1911 50 33 MPBG N Jun-Sep
6. Gnorimoschema subterranea Busck, 1911 26 16 P N Aug
7. Gnorimoschema bacchariselloides Powell & Povolný, 2001 27 13 G N Aug
8. Gnorimoschema sp. nr. interrogationum Povolný, 2003 5 3 G N Jul-Aug
9. Gnorimoschema octomaculella (Chambers, 1875) 19 0 M N Jun-Sep
10. Gnorimoschema vastica Braun, 1926 163 8 MG N Apr-Sep
11. Gnorimoschema sp. near vibei Wolff, 1964 18 11 MP N May-Jul
12. Gnorimoschema brachiatum Povolný, 1998 11 0 G N Jun-Sep
13. Gnorimoschema herbichii (Nowicki, 1864) 53 3 MP H Jun-Aug
14. Gnorimoschema sp. nr. herbichii (Nowicki, 1864) 16 14 MB N May-Jul
15. Gnorimoschema tunicatum Povolný, 1998 3 1 G N Jun-Jul
16. Gnorimoschema sp. nr. tenerum Povolný & Powell, 2001 18 14 MG N May-Jun
17. Gnorimoschema sp. nr. foliatum Povolný, 2003 4 4 M N Jul
18. Gnorimoschema dudiella Busck, 1903 4 3 MG N Jul-Aug
19. Gnorimoschema obscurior Povolný, 1998 16 9 MG N Jul-Aug
20. Gnorimoschema sp. 1 nr. obscurior Povolný, 1998 2 2 G N Aug
21. Gnorimoschema sp. 2 nr. obscurior Povolný, 1998 3 3 M N Jul
22. Gnorimoschema contraria Braun, 1921 7 5 M N Jul-Aug
23. Gnorimoschema albangulata Braun, 1926 10 6 MG N Jun-Aug
24. Gnorimoschema rotundatum Povolný, 1998 5 2 PG N Aug-Sep
25. Gnorimoschema reichli Povolný, 1998 19 10 M N Jul-Aug
26. Gnorimoschema nanulum Povolný, 1998 15 9 MG N Jun-Jul
27. Gnorimoschema triocellella (Chambers, 1877) 2 1 M N Jul
28. Gnorimoschema ligulatum Povolný, 1998 2 1 M N Jul-Aug
29. Gnorimoschema signatum Povolný, 2003 5 1 G N Jul
30. Gnorimoschema sp. nr. navajorum Povolný, 2003 4 2 MG N Jun-Jul
31. Gnorimoschema clavatum Povolný, 1998 3 1 G N Jun-Aug
32. Gnorimoschema intermedium Povolný, 2003 20 17 M N Jun-Aug
33. Gnorimoschema pedmontella Chambers, 1877 40 1 M N Jul-Aug
34. Gnorimoschema alaskense Povolný, 1967 79 8 MPBG N May-Aug
35. Gnorimoschema compsomorpha Meyrick, 1929 4 1 G N Jul
36. Gnorimoschema saphirinella (Chambers, 1875) 25 4 M N Jun
37. Gnorimoschema sp. 1 nr. nordlandicolella (Strand, 1902) 4 3 M N? Aug
38. Gnorimoschema sp. 2 nr. nordlandicolella (Strand, 1902) 3 3 M N? Jun-Jul
39. Gnorimoschema sp. 3 nr. nordlandicolella (Strand, 1902) 3 3 M N? Jul-Aug
40. Gnorimoschema sp. 4 nr. nordlandicolella (Strand, 1902) 4 2 M N? Jul-Aug
41. Gnorimoschema sp. 5 nr. nordlandicolella (Strand, 1902) 8 1 M N? Jul-Aug
42. Gnorimoschema sp. 1 nr. mikkolai Povolný, 1994 2 2 PG N? Jul-Aug
11
Table 2. Continued.
Total #
examined
AB speci-
mens
ERD GCD AFP
43. Gnorimoschema sp. 2 nr. mikkolai Povolný, 1994 7 7 PG N? Jul-Aug
44. Gnorimoschema new sp. 1 3 3 M N Jul-Aug
45. Gnorimoschema new sp. 2 5 5 M N Jul-Aug
46. Gnorimoschema new sp. 3 1 1 G N Aug
47. Tuta insularis (Povolný, 2001) 10 10 G N Jul
48. Scrobipalpula lutescella (Clarke, 1934) 13 7 PG N May-Aug
49. Scrobipalpula sp. nr. difuella Frey, 1870 148 70 MPBG H? May-Sep
50. Scrobipalpula radiatella (Busck, 1904) 4 1 M N Jul-Aug
51. Scrobipalpula sp. nr. sacculicola (Braun, 1925) 10 1 MG N Jul
52. Scrobipalpula new sp. 1 3 1 G N Jul
53. Scrobipalpula new sp. 2 11 2 P N Jun
54. Scrobipalpa macromaculata (Braun, 1925) 60 19 G N Jul-Aug
55. Scrobipalpa sp. nr. atriplicella (Fischer von Roeslerstamm, 1839) 29 18 MBPG H? May-Sep
56. Scrobipalpa sp. 1 nr. artemisiella (Treitschke, 1833) 27 12 BG N? Jun-Aug
57. Scrobipalpa sp. 2 nr. artemisiella (Treitschke, 1833) 23 22 G N? Jul-Aug
58. Scrobipalpa sp. nr. murinella (Duponchel, 1843) 9 3 M N? May-Jul
59. Scrobipalpa sp. 1 1 1 G N May
60. Scrobipalpa sp. 2 1 1 M N Jul
61. Scrobipalpa sp. 3 5 5 G N Aug
62. Scrobipalpa sp. 4 13 4 G N Jul-Aug
63. Scrobipalpa sp. 5 2 2 MG N Aug
64. Scrobipalpa sp. 6 46 34 MPBG N Jul-Aug
65. Scrobipalpopsis arnicella (Clarke, 1942) 5 1 M N Jul
66. Scrobipalpopsis new sp. 4 3 G N Jul
67. Ephysteris new sp. 2 1 G N Jul-Aug
68. Nevadopalpa new sp. 20 18 G N Jul-Aug
69. Nevadopalpa sp. nr. nevadana Povolný, 1999 2 2 G N Jul
70. Nevadopalpa sp. nr. albula Povolný, 1998 12 10 G N Jul
71. Caryocolum cassella (Walker, 1864) 12 2 MP H Jul-Aug
72. Caryocolum pullatella (Tengström, 1848) 36 1 M H Jul
73. Agonochaetia conspersa (Braun, 1921) 5 4 M N Jun-Jul
12
Genus Gnorimoschema Busck, 1900
Gnorimoschema Busck, 1900: 227. Type species by original designation: Gelechia gallaesolidaginis Riley, 1869.
The genus Gnorimoschema comprises 95 described species in the Nearctic region (Lee et al. 2009). By contrast,
only 14 species are known from the entire Palaearctic region, 12 of which are found in Europe west of the Urals
(Povolný 2002a; Huemer & Karsholt 2010). Two species are Holarctic (G. nordlandicolella and G. herbichii,
both present in Alberta), showing primarily boreal-alpine, disjunct distributions (Powell & Povolný, 2001). The
larval habits are diverse, from free-living sand dwellers to leaf miners, stem borers and gall makers (Powell
and Povolný, 2001). Species 1 to 9 in this report belong to a complex of gall-makers, whose correct identica-
tion relies heavily upon the identity of their host plants and the shape and structure of the galls induced by their
larvae (Miller 2000). In the absence of this information, identication of specimens in this group have been at-
tained mainly through comparison of their genitalia with those of the known type material.
1. Gnorimoschema salinaris Busck, 1911 (♂ MIC6091, ♀ MIC4591)
Gnorimoschema salinaris Busck, 1911: 4. Type locality: Boston, Massachusetts (USNM; examined).
Gnorimoschema salinarum auct., nec Busck, 1911.
Distribution: Massachusetts west to Minnesota, and south to Florida (Miller 2000). Barcoded specimens from
Alberta, Illinois, Michigan, and NewYork.
Alberta Records: 1♂, Big Knife Provincial Park, 25 km N Halkirk, 19.VIII.2004, CD Bird; 1♂, ibid, maintenance area W of Park Ofce,
29.VIII.2007, CD Bird; 1♂, Rochon Sands Provincial Park, 16 km N Erskine, 21.VIII.2006, CD Bird; 1♂, 18 km N Stettler, Buffalo Lake Conserva-
tion Area, 16.VIII.2006, CD Bird; 1♂, Peace River Wildland Park, 21.VIII.1995, NFC-CFS.
Additional material examined: Illinois: 1♀, White Co., Norris City, 8.VIII.1994, ex. Solidago gigantea, WE Miller. Michigan: 1♂1♀, Kalkaska
County, Kalkaska, ex Solidago juncea gall, LT Wilson; 1♀, Ottawa County, Holland, ex Solidago juncea gall, WE Miller; 1♀, Menominee County,
Wilson, ex Solidago juncea gall, 1961, WE Miller. New York: 1♀, Victor, ex Solidago juncea gall, WE Miller.
Remarks. G. salinaris is a large species with grayish ground colour on the forewings. Its larvae feed and make
galls on Solidago sempervirens (Busck 1911) and other species in the Solidago juncta - S. missouriensis com-
plex (Asteraceae) (Miller 2000).
2. Gnorimoschema sp. nr. gallaesolidaginis (Riley, 1869) (♂ MIC6098, ♀ MIC6099)
Gelechia gallaesolidaginis Riley, 1869: 173, Pl. 2, g. 1-2. Type locality: Chicago, Illinois (USNM; examined).
Gelechia gallaesolidaginum auct, nec. Riley.
Distribution: Maine to Saskatchewan, and south to the Gulf States (Miller 2000). Barcoded specimens are from
Alberta and Quebec.
Alberta Records: 1♂, Big Knife Provincial Park, 25 km N of Halkirk, aspen/buckbrush/ fescue prairie, 19.VIII.2004, CD Bird; 1♂, 19 km N Stet-
tler, Buffalo Lake Conservation Area, aspen woods, 30.VIII.2004, CD Bird; 3♂, 8 km NW Wineld, Bird quarter, mixed woods, 20-26.VIII.2000;
CD Bird. not barcoded: 2♂, Edmonton, 13.VIII.1936, K. Bowman (UASM); 1♀, ibid, 27.VIII.1939, 1♂, ibid,16.IX.1940; 1♂, ibid, 2.IX.1940.
Additional material examined: Quebec: 1♂, La Presentation, Rang 5 Andre Racicot, Pinede mixte sabloneux, 18.VIII.2005, D Handeld; 1♂,
Mont-St-Hilaire, Boise Dion & Dion, Erabliere a caryer, 15.VIII.2005, D Handeld; 1♀, ibid, 29.VIII.2005; 1[♂], St-Mathieu de Beloeil, 355 Des
Grands Coteaux, Agricole, champs, 14.VIII.2005, D Handeld. Possible additional material from BC, MB, MN, NY, NS, ON, SK, and WI (see ap-
pendix 2).
Remarks. Both male and female genitalia in the examined series show subtle differences from that of the holo-
type male of G. gallaesolidaginis (USNM slide 6985) and other slides and illustrations by Busck (1915) and
Povolný (1967a) and additional material examined from USNM and elsewhere. G. gallaesolidaginis is a well
known gall-maker on various Solidago species (Asteraceae) (Miller 2000), but the identication of non-reared
adults is problematic. None of the specimens in the present series were reared. Gnorimoschema gallaespecio-
sum Miller, 2000 (Type locality: Minnesota: Ramsey Co., Roseville, reared on Solidago speciosa), reported by
13
Pohl et al. (2010) from Alberta based on a single specimen from Moose Lake (2005, CB Christensen) could not
be veried.
3. Gnorimoschema gibsonella Busck, 1915 (♂ MIC6102, ♀ MIC6103)
Gnorimoschema gibsonella Busck, 1915: 82. Type locality: Aweme, Manitoba (USNM; examined).
Distribution: Maryland west to Manitoba and South Dakota (Miller, 2000). Barcoded specimens are from Al-
berta, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick.
Alberta Records: 1♀, Big Knife Provincial Park, 25 km N of Halkirk, meadow with aspen, buckbrush, silverwillow and chokecherry, 9.IX.2006,
CD Bird; 1♂, 12 km ESE Erskine, Lloyd Lohr farm, aspen woods, 22.VIII.2000, CD Bird; 1♂, 19 km N Stettler, Buffalo Lake Conservation Area,
aspen parkland, 9.IX.2002, CD Bird.
Additional material examined: Ontario: 1♂, Carleton County, Nepean, Stony Swamp nr Jackpine, 25.IX.1986, PT Dang; 1♂1[abdomen lost], Wel-
lington County, Puslinch Township, Concession 11, 31.VIII.2005, PDN Hebert; 1♂, ibid, Concession11/Hume Road, 01.IX.2002, PDN Hebert; 3♂♀
Lanark County, Pakenham, alvar, 1.IX.2008, BC Schmidt. Quebec: 1♂, Mont-St-Hilaire, Boise Dion & Dion, erabliere a caryer, 29.VIII.2005, D
Handeld. New Brunswick: 3♀, York County, McAdam, 5.IX.2006, AW Thomas; 1♂, York County, Fredericton, 19.VIII.2006, AW Thomas. Mich-
igan: 1♀, Ingham County, Haslett, ex Aster, WE Miller. Possible additional material from IL, MB, MI, and OH (see appendix 2).
Remarks. The type series were reared on Solidago rigida. Godfrey et al. (1987) and Miller (2000) also record
Aster spp. (Asteraceae), including A. pilosus varieties, as hosts. None of the specimens in the present series
were reared.
4. Gnorimoschema jocelynae Miller, 2000 (♂ MIC6092, ♀ MIC6093)
Gnorimoschema jocelynae Miller, 2000: 23, gs. 1, 3, 10-12, 18-20, 25, 30, 38. Type locality: Washington DC (USNM; examined).
Distribution: New York west to North Dakota, and south to Alabama and Oklahoma; probably occurs even
more widely (Miller, 2000). Barcoded specimens are from Alberta, Quebec, Ontario, and Kentucky.
Alberta Records: 1♂1♀, Big Knife Provincial Park, 25 km N Halkirk, aspen/ chokecherry/Saskatoon, 22.VIII.2003, CD Bird; 1♂, Erskine, 5 Maple
Close, Bird residence, backyard with aspen, 1.IX.2004, CD Bird; 1♂, Sandy Point Campground, 24.VIII.1985, JF Landry; 1[♂] Elk Island NP, staff
housing area, deciduous forest, 11.VIII.2010, BIObus 2010 (malaise trap).
Additional material examined: Ontario: 1♂, Wellington County, Puslinch Township, Concession 11/Hume Rd, 21.VIII.2002, PDN Hebert; 1♂,
Thunder Bay area, 22.VIII.1994, JP Walas (ex pupa on Solidago sp.); 1[abdomen lost], ibid, 24.VIII.1994. Quebec: 1♂, St-Mathieu de Beloeil, 355
Des Grands Coteaux, 19.VIII.2005, D Handeld. Kentucky: 1♀ (paratype), Bullitt County, Bardstown Jct., ex. Solidago gigantea, 3.VIII.1994, WE
Miller.
Illinois: 1♂, NW Pt Chicago, ex Solidago gigantea,1956, WE Miller (Paratype). Minnesota: 1♂1♀, Duluth, Pine Point, ex Solidago gigantea, WE
Miller (Paratype); 1♀, Roseville, Miller Yd, ex Solidago gigantean, 1971, WE Miller (Paratype). Wisconsin: 1♂, 15 miles W Spooner, ex Solidago
gigantea, 1971, WE Miller (Paratype).
Remarks. The type series were reared on Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae), and the species shows high delity to
this host. One paratype from Kentucky, reared on S. gigantea, was barcoded and matched the present series.
5. Gnorimoschema septentrionella Fyles, 1911 (♂ MIC6100, ♀ MIC6101)
Gnorimoschema septentrionella Fyles, 1911: 422. Type locality: North Wakeeld, Quebec (LYMAN; examined).
Distribution: From Maine west to Minnesota (Miller, 2000). Barcoded specimens are from British Columbia,
Alberta, and Saskatchewan.
Alberta Records: 1♂, Big Knife Provincial Park, 25 km N Halkirk, 30.VII.2003, CD Bird; 1♂, ibid, 19.VIII.2004; 1♂, 12 km ESE Erskine, Lloyd
Lohr farm, aspen woods, 24.VII.2000, CD Bird; 1♂, Lac La Biche, 28.VIII.1995, DW Langor et al; 1♂, 3 km S Nevis, Allen Hall acreage, aspen
parkland, 26.VII.2005, CD Bird; 3♂, ibid, 04.VIII.2005; 2♂, Porcupine Hills, Skyline Road, 31.VII.2007, JJ Dombroskie et al; 1♂, ibid, 7.VIII.2008;
1♂1♀, ibid, 8.VIII.2008; 1♂, Cypress Hills Provincial Park, Battle Creek, 5.VIII.2008, JJ Dombroskie et al; 1♂1♀, Waterton Lakes National
Park, rockslide above town, 15.VIII.2006, JJ Dombroskie et al; 9♂, 8 km NW Wineld, Bird quarter, mixed woods, 25.VIII.2001, 3.VIII.2002,
14.VIII.2002, 16.VIII.2003, 9.VIII.2004, 20.VIII.2005, 24.IX.2005, CD Bird; 1[♂], Jasper National Park, Whisters Campground, Pine forest,
14
2.VIII.2010, BIObus 2010; 2♂, Jasper National Park, Pallisades Centre, 1.VIII.2008, JJ Dombroskie. not barcoded: 1♂, Big Horn River, near Cres-
cent falls Campground, 1.IX.1985, JF Landry; 1♂, Edmonton, 03.VIII.1940, K. Bowman (UASM49080); 1♂, ibid, 24.VIII.1923 (UASM49112); 1♀,
ibid, 28.VII.1922 (UASM49076); 1♂, Red Deer, 24.VI.1923, K. Bowman (UASM49075).
Additional material examined: British Columbia: 1♀, 6 Miles E Kamloops, 31.VII.2008, JR deWaard; 1♂, McCauley Lake, 16.VIII.2007, D
Holden; 1♂, Sheridan Lake, 17.VIII.2007, D Holden; 4♂, ibid, 23.VII.2008. Saskatchewan: 2♂, nr. Big River, 22.VIII.1995, GR Pohl et al; 1♂, ibid,
03.VIII.1995, M Michaelian et al; 1[♂], Prince Albert NP, Sturgeon Crossing, Aspen forest, 15.VIII.2010, BIObus 2010. Quebec: 1♀, Brome-Missis-
quoi, St Armand, Domaine Baie-Missisquoi, 18.VIII.2000, B Landry; 1♀, Lanoraie, reared from gall on Aster, 13.IX.1934, AC Sheppard (MIC2957).
Minnesota: 1♀, Little Fork, ex Gall on Aster novae-engliae, 1972, WE Miller; 1♀, ibid; ex Gall on Aster simplex; 1♂1♀, Ray, ex Gall on Aster sim-
plex, 1972, WE Miller.
Remarks. Types (from Lyman Entomological Museum in Montreal) were borrowed and examined, and the
identity of the present series was conrmed by comparison of genitalia dissections with the holotype. Fyles
(1911) reared the type series on Aster junceus (= A. junciformis) (Asteraceae). Miller (2000) further records
Aster novae-angliae, A. pilosus, A. simplex and A. praeltus as hosts.
6. Gnorimoschema subterranea Busck, 1911 (♂ MIC6084, ♀ USNM7041)
Gnorimoschema subterranea Busck, 1911: 5. Type locality: Boston, Massachusetts (USNM; examined).
Distribution: East and West coasts of North America, but nowhere in between (Miller 2000; Powell and
Povolný 2001). Barcoded specimens are from Alberta and Ontario.
Alberta Records: 5♂, Big Knife Provincial Park, 25 km N Halkirk, aspen/ buckbrush/ fescue prairie, 19.VIII.2004, CD Bird; 1♂, 17 km S Stettler,
Lowden Springs Conservation Area, native prairie, 11.VIII.2004, CD Bird; 7♂, ibid, 28.VIII.2006; 2♂, 18 km N Stettler, Buffalo Lake Conserva-
tion Area, silverwillow/ buckbrush/ pussytoes, 16.VIII.2006, CD Bird; 1♂, 19 km N of Stettler, Buffalo Lake Conservation Area, aspen woods,
30.VIII.2004, CD Bird.
Additional material examined: Ontario: 3♂, Wellington County, Puslinch Township, Concession 11, 24.IX.2005, PDN Hebert. British Columbia:
6♂, Kamloops, 14-15.IX.1937, JK Jacob (not barcoded). Colorado: 1♂, Grand County, Hot Sulphur Springs, Pioneer Pk. Campground, 4.VIII.1988,
TS Dickel.
Remarks. This is a main-stem gall making species at or beneath ground level on Aster multiorus (Busck 1911)
and Aster ericoides (Miller 2000) in the east, as well as Aster chilensis in the west (Asteraceae) (Miller 2000).
The male genitalia is very characteristic. No females were among the examined series, but a female paratype
genitalia is illustrated (USNM7041, Busck prep, Boston, corpus bursa lost).
7. Gnorimoschema bacchariselloides Powell & Povoln, 2001 (♂ MIC6080, ♀ MIC6081)
Gnorimoschema bacchariselloides Povolný & Powell, 2001: 11; g. 42. Type locality: Oso Flaco Lake, 5 mi S. Oceano, San Luis Obispo Co., Cali-
fornia (EMEC; examined).
Distribution: Western North America.
Alberta Records: 2♂, Lost River Valley, 10 km S Onefour, 3.VIII.1983, JF Landry; 5♂1♀, Pakowki dunes, 15.VIII.2006, BC Schmidt; 3♂1♀, ibid,
16.VIII.2006, JJ Dombroskie et al. not barcoded: 1♂, Lethbridge, 9.VIII.1921, H.L. Seamans (MIC6301).
Additional material examined (none barcoded): Montana: 1♂, Malta, 9.VIII.1928, J McDunnough. Oregon: 3♂, Sherman County, Biggs, 29 Aug
1947, EC Johnston; 9♂1♀, ibid, 19.IX.1949.
Remarks. This is the rst record of this species for Canada. A relatively small species in size, which at rst
sight does not seem to belong to the large gall making moths in the gallaesolidaginis group. The male genitalia
of the Alberta specimens closely resemble that of G. bacchariselloides, known only from males from California.
G. bacchariselloides belongs to a group of gall-making Gnorimoschema with similar genitalia (G. bacchar-
isella, G. coquilletella, G. ericameriae etc.). The female genitalia is illustrated for the rst time here. The host is
unknown.
15
8. Gnorimoschema sp. nr. interrogationum Povoln, 2003 (♂ MIC6148, ♀ MIC6149)
Gnorimoschema interrogationum Povolný, 2003: 291-292; gs. 17, 53, 54. Type locality: Hualapaj Mtn., Pk. Mojave Co., Arizona (EMEC; exam-
ined).
Distribution: Recorded from Alberta, Colorado and Wyoming.
Alberta Records: 1♂, Sandy Point Campground, 24.VIII.1985, JF Landry; 1♀, Pakowki dunes, 15.VIII.2006, BC Schmidt. not barcoded: 1♂, Leth-
bridge, 20.VII.1921, H.L. Seamans (MIC 6395).
Additional material examined: Wyoming: 1♂, Fremont Co., Hwy 287, 35 km W Jeffrey City, 18.VII.1982, JF Landry. Colorado: 1♂, Gilpin Co.,
Roosevelt National Forest Campground, 3 km S Nederland, 12.VII.1993, B Landry (abdomen lost).
Remarks. The Sandy Point specimen was collected at blacklight in short-grass prairie with greasewood, sage,
prickly pear and rabbit-brush. The male genitalia of this species closely resemble that of G. interrogationum
Povolný 2003, but also show similarities with G. walsinghamella and G. busckiella. Povolný described G. in-
terrogationum as a species closely related to G. octomaculella Chambers, 1875, which has distinctly different
genitalia. The host plant and the female of G. interrogationum are unknown, and the two male genitalia illustrat-
ed by Povolný in the original description (gs. 53 and 54, p. 309) belong to the same slide, although they look
different probably because they were drawn with different pressures applied to the cover-slip.
9. Gnorimoschema octomaculella (Chambers, 1875) (♂ MIC5788, ♀ MIC5786)
Gelechia 8 maculella Chambers, 1875b: 291. Type locality: Hot Sulphur Springs, Middle Park, Colorado (USNM according to Busck 1903: 830; not
listed by Miller & Hodges 1990; not examined).
Distribution: Widespread in western North America.
Alberta Records: No conrmed records, but it likely exists in Alberta.
Additional material examined: British Columbia: 3♂1♀, Spence’s Bridge, 16.VI.1986, reared from Chrysothamnus nauseosus, FIS no 86-70-01;
4♂3♀, Tranquille Ecological Reserve, 1.IX.2006, JJ Dombroskie & A Rose; 1♂, ibid, 31.VII.2008, JJ Dombroskie; 1♂2♀, ibid, 16.VIII.2007, JJ
Dombroskie. Colorado: 1♂, El Paso County, Golden Eagle Ranch, 15 km S Colorado Springs, pine, oak and shrub on hilltop, trail 3, 7.VI.2009, A
Borisenko & K Perez. Nevada: 2♂, Elko County, Humboldt Range, SW of Wells, Angel Creek campground, 23.VII.2001, JF Landry. Washington:
1♂, Grant County, Vantage sand dunes, 7.IX.2001, J Troubridge.
Remarks: This species has a wide distribution in eastern North America, however it has not yet been found in
Alberta. Adults usually have highly contrasting wing pattern with black, gray and brown-orange markings. It is
a leaf-galler on Artemisia, Chrysothamnus and Acamptopappus (Asteraceae) (Powell & Opler 2009). The type
series were reared on Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus. Other recorded larval host species are Chrysothamnus
nauseosus (from BC, CNC) and C. viridiorus albicaulus (from Pullman, WA, USNM slide 86711).
10. Gnorimoschema vastica Braun, 1926 (♂ MIC5913, ♀ MIC5460)
Gnorimoschema vastica Braun, 1926: 47. Type locality: Aweme, Manitoba (CNC; examined).
Distribution: Nearctic.
Alberta Records: 3♀, Jasper National Park, Jasper Lake sand dunes, 27.VI.2006, BC Schmidt & GA Anweiler; 2♀, Writing-On-Stone Provincial
Park, 4.VII.2005, GR Pohl; 1♀, Dry Island Buffalo Jump Provincial Park, 20 km E of Huxley, 10.IX.2002, CD Bird (BIRD24866); 1♂, 3 km S
Nevis, Allen Hall Acreage, 25.VI.2002 CD Bird (BIRD24867); 1♀, Steveville Campground, vic. Dinosaur Provincial Park, 28.IV.2001, E Robinson.
Additional material examined: Northwest Territories: 2♂2♀, vicinity of Daring Lake Research Station, SW end Yamba Lake, sand/veg beach,
08.VII.2010, GR Pohl et al. Manitoba: Holotype ♀, Aweme, 09.VII.1914, N Griddle. Yukon: 2♂, Carcross sand dunes, 17.VII.1980, M Wood & D
Lafontaine; 1♂4♀, ibid, 17-22.VII.1981, M Wood & D Lafontaine; 9♂, ibid, 17.VI.1982, G & M Wood; 10♂7♀, ibid, 23.VII.1989, M Polak & M
Wood; 3♂6♀, ibid, 13.VII.2006, JF Landry & G Pohl; 8♂4♀, 23-27.VI.2004, BC Schmidt; 4♂♀, ibid, 15.VII.2006, GR Pohl; 4♂6♀, Kluane Nation-
al Park, St Elias Mts, Kaskawulsh R. dune, Aspen/sage/lupine, 580m, 13.VII.2006, JF Landry & G Pohl; 2♂♀, ibid, 13.VII.2006, GR Pohl; 8♂15♀,
Takhini River dunes, grass/sage, running on sand, 690m, 16.VII.2006, JF Landry & G Pohl; 17♂♀, ibid, 16.VII.2006, GR Pohl; 4♂4♀, ibid, 2.8 km
N of Kusawa Lake, 23.V.2004, S. Cannings; 3♂6♀, ibid; 8 km N Kusawa Lake, N. Shore, 27.VI.2004, BC Schmidt. Saskatchewan: 1♀, Saskatoon,
28.V.1925, KM King (not barcoded); 8♂5♀, Lake Athabasca, Thompson Bay dune eld, 21.VII.1985, JH Acorn; 1♀, Lake Athabasca, Yakow Lake
dunes, 24.VI.1988, M Polak & M Wood. Alaska: 2♂3♀ Nogahabara dunes, 65 miles N Galena, 27.VI.1989, M. Polak & M Wood; 1♂2♀ Kobuk
dunes, 90 miles E Kotzebue, 12.VII.1989, M. Polak & M Wood.
16
Remarks: A common and widespread species of Gnorimoschema with diurnal adults, often seen running on
sand in sparse vegetation. The males are usually drab and the females have more mottled wing patterns, how-
ever this is extremely variable and unreliable for identication. The species was described from Aweme, Mani-
toba, on the basis of a single female, which is deposited at the CNC. The type specimen lacks an abdomen (and
a genitalia preparation), but the partial barcode of the type matched closely with the present series, conrming
their identity. Specimens examined here from Alaska, Yukon and Saskatchewan have similar genitalia and simi-
larly show variation in wing-pattern with no morphological difference, however the Alberta specimens cluster
closely with those from Saskatchewan, and are distant from Yukon (1.25-2.32%) or Alaska (1.49-2.6%) speci-
mens. Externally similar specimens have been collected and reported also from Utah and California (Powell and
Povolný, 2001). The larval host is unknown, although Powell & Povolný (2001) suggest Salix (Salicaceae) as a
potential host based on circumstancial association of unknown larvae with collection localities in California.
11. Gnorimoschema sp. nr. vibei Wolff, 1964 (♂ MIC5928, ♀ MIC5931)
Phthorimaea vibei Wolff, 1964: 48. Type locality: Søndre Strømfjord, Utorqait in Amerdloq, West Greenland (Zoological Museum of Copenhagen;
not examined).
“Gnorimoschema sp. 7 near vibei Wolff, 1964” Nazari & Landry, 2009: 12.
Distribution: Yukon, Alberta, Manitoba, Michigan, and Quebec. G. vibei is known from Western Greenland.
Alberta records: 1♂1♀, Jasper N. P., dunes, 18 May 2006, JJ Dombroskie & BC Schmidt; 2♀, Jasper National Park, Palisades Centre, 2.VI.2007,
JJ Dombroskie; 1♂, Abraham Lake, Allstones Lake trail, 01.VII.2007, GR Pohl; 1♀, Tolman Bridge, E bank of Red Deer River, 24.VII.2003, JF
Landry; not barcoded: 2♂3♀, Nordegg, 12-23.VI.1921, J McDunnough.
Additional material examined: Yukon: 1♂, Carcross sand dunes, 23.VI.2004, BC Schmidt. Manitoba: 2♂, Churchill, Eastern Creek, 16.VII.2007,
P Hebert. Quebec: 1♂, Gatineau, Aylmer, 48 Notre-Dame, 12.VI.1992, JF Landry (MIC4656). Michigan: 2♂1♀, Presque Isle Co., reared ex. Shep-
herdia canadensis, collected 25.X.2005, emerged 15.II.2006, RJ Priest, Lot no. RJP1688.4 (USNM).
Remarks: This is an undescribed species with genitalia that show a remarkable afnity with G. vibei from
Greenland (Wolff, 1964), although a single barcoded specimen of G. vibei from Greenland (jandry 2537),
identied by O. Karsholt (Denmark), seems to be signicantly different (8.4%) from all of our examined ma-
terial. The Canadian specimens were collected on sand dunes, but three specimens from Michigan were reared
from Shepherdia canadensis (Elaeagnaceae) (R.J. Priest, unpublished).
12. Gnorimoschema brachiatum Povoln, 1998 (♂ MIC5918, ♀ MIC6129)
Gnorimoschema brachiatum Povolný, 1998a: 328; Figs 1-3, photo 1. Type locality: Carcross sand dunes, S. Yukon (ZMH; examined).
Distribution: Widespread in western North America.
Alberta Records: No conrmed records, but it very likely exists in Alberta.
Additional material examined: Yukon: 3♂♀ (holotype and 2 paratypes), Carcross sand dunes, 12.7.1994, M Ahola & L Kaila (Povolný, 1998a:
328); 1♂, Takhini River dunes, 8 km N Kusawa Lake, N. Shore, 27.VI.2004, BC Schmidt; 1♂, Kusawa Lake, N shore, Rocky sage/Juniper slope,
27.VI.2004, BC Schmidt; 2♂, Whitehorse, south hillside, 11.VII.2006, GR Pohl. Saskatchewan: 2♂, Sand dunes 6 km N Burstall, 2.VII.1985, JF
Landry. Colorado: 1♂, Chaffee Co., 5 km W Buena Vista, nr. Silver Prince Creek, 16.VII.1982, JF Landry. Washington: 1♀, Grant Co., Vantage sand
dunes. 7.IX.2001, J Troubridge.
Remarks: One of the few species of Gnorimoschema that can be readily identied, in this case by the adults
having distinct black and white wing pattern. This species was originally described from Yukon, and is appar-
ently not uncommon (type series include 9♂♀ specimens). Additional material from southern Saskatchewan,
Colorado and Washington suggest a wider distribution in eastern North America, however it has not yet been
found in Alberta. The host is unknown.
17
13. Gnorimoschema herbichii (Nowicki, 1864) (♂ MIC5463, ♀ MIC5464)
Gelechia herbichii Nowicki, 1864: 17. Type locality: [Europe] (repository unknown; not examined).
Distribution: Holarctic.
Alberta Records: 1♂, Jasper National Park, Jasper Lake sand dunes, 27.VI.2006, BC Schmidt & GA Anweiler; 1♀, Dunvegan Provincial Park,
visitor centre campground, 19.VII.2003, JF Landry. not barcoded: 1♀, Edmonton, 27.VIII.1945, K. Bowman (UASM49494).
Additional material examined: Yukon: 17♂12♀, Carcross sand dunes, 15.VII.2006, JF Landry & GR Pohl; 1♂, ibid, 23.VI.2004, BC Schmidt;
19♂♀, ibid, 15.VII.2006, GR Pohl. Manitoba: 1♂, Churchill, 26 km SE Churchill, Twin Lakes burn site, 26-Jul-2009, PDN Hebert.
Remarks: This Palaearctic species was rst recorded by Povolný from the Nearctic region (1998: 337; from
Presqu’île Provincial Park, Ontario). He stated that this species “… seems to have a wider distribution especial-
ly in steppe-like habitats of Canada. The subspecic status of the Nearctic populations remains open”, although
later (2002: 24) he suggests that the Canadian populations possibly belong to subspecies kamchaticum Povolný
1997 (see remarks under next species). Several barcoded specimens from Finland (Marko Mutanen; Univer-
sity of Oulu) show identical DNA barcode haplotypes with the Canadian specimens of this species, suggesting
conspecity. In Europe the larvae have been recorded from Equisetum arvense (Equicetaceae) as well as Salix
repens (Salicaceae)(Huemer & Karsholt, 2010).
14. Gnorimoschema sp. nr. herbichii (Nowicki, 1864) (♂ MIC5920, ♀ MIC6112)
Gelechia herbichii Nowicki, 1864: 17. Type locality: [Europe] (Zoologisches Museum Berlin?; not examined).
? Gnorimoschema herbichii kamchaticum Povolný, 1977: 218, g. 14. Type locality: Kamtschatka (Riksmuseum Stockholm; not examined).
Distribution: Alberta and British Columbia.
Alberta Records: 5♂1♀, Jasper National Park, dunes, 18.V.2006, JJ Dombroskie & BC Schmidt; 5♂2♀, Jasper National Park, Jasper Lake sand
dunes, 27.VI.2006, JJ Dombroskie & BC Schmidt; 1♂, Tolman Bridge, E bank of Red Deer River, 24.VII.2003, JF Landry.
Additional material examined: British Columbia: 1[abdomen lost], near Valemont, 29.V.1986, FAH Sperling. Northwest Territories: 1♂, west bank
of Slave River, sand blowout, 5.VII.2010, GR Pohl.
Remarks: Genitalia similar to herbichii with minor differences, and a markedly different DNA barcode hap-
lotype (5.5-7.4%). A similar species also occurs in Southern Europe to Afghanistan (Gnorimoschema soffneri
Riedl, 1965; gured in Huemer and Karsholt 2010), which also differs from the present species in several key
characters including the shape of the valvae and saccus. It remains unclear whether the name kamchaticum Po-
volný 1997, described from the Russian Far East, can be applied to this species, since Povolný’s description is
purely based on wing characters and does not include genitalia gures. The host is unknown.
15. Gnorimoschema tunicatum Povoln, 1998 (♂ MIC6132, ♀ unknown)
Gnorimoschema tunicatum Povolný, 1998a: 336; Fig 24, photo 15. Type locality: Grasslands National Park, 15 km SE Val Marie, S. Saskatchewan
(ZMH; examined).
Distribution: Alberta and Saskatchewan.
Alberta Records: 1♂, Sandy Point Campground, 3.VII.1985, JF Landry.
Additional material examined: Saskatchewan: 2♂ (holotype and one paratype), Grasslands Nat. p., 15 km SE Val Marie, 25.VI.1994, L. Kaila (HT
dissection Hk5539).
Remarks: Apparently a rare grassland species with a very distinct male genitalia. The only known AB speci-
men was collected at blacklight in short-grass prairie with greasewood, sage, prickly pear and rabbit-brush.
18
16. Gnorimoschema sp. nr. tenerum Povoln & Powell, 2001 (♂ MIC6111, ♀ unknown)
Gnorimoschema tenerum Powell & Povolný, 2001: 6; gs. 12, 30. Type locality: Radio Road, San Bruno Mountain, San Mateo Co., California
(EMEC; examined).
Distribution: Nearctic.
Alberta Records: 2♂, Jasper National Park, The Pallisades, 27.VI.2006, BC Schmidt & GA Anweiler; 1[♂], Jasper National Park, Whistlers Camp-
ground, Pine forest, 1074 m, 27.VI.2010, BIObus 2010; 1♂, Kootenay Plains Ecological Reserve, near Whirlpool Point, 17.VI.2009, JJ Dombroskie
& B Brunet; 1♂, ibid, Sifeur Falls St. Area, 31.V.2007, JJ Dombroskie; 4♂, Kootenay Plains, Whirlpool Point, 31.V.2007, JJ Dombroskie. not bar-
coded: 2♂, Lethbridge, 1.VI.1922, H.L. Seamans; 2♂, ibid, 13.VI.1922; 1♂, ibid, 23.VI.1922.
Additional material examined: Saskatchewan: 1♂, Sand dunes 6 km N. Burstall, 02.VII.1985, JF Landry. British Columbia: 1♂, Fort Steele,
16.VI.2009, JJ Dombroskie & B Brunet. Colorado: 1♂, Chaffee Co., Trout Creek, near Castle Rock, 10 km E Buena Vista, 17.VII.1982, JF Landry;
1♂, Gilpin Co., Roosevelt National Forest Campground, 3 km S Nederland, 12.VII.1993, B Landry.
Remarks: The ♀ remains unknown. The male genitalia of the present species shows similarities to G. tene-
rum but also has differences, including absence of the short subterminal spine on the phallus. Adults also have
a vivid ochreous shade on the forewing, a character not reported in the type series of G. tenerum. None of the
examined AB material were reared; the type series of G. tenerum were reared from Anaphalis margaritacea
(Asteraceae) but not forming galls or mining leaves (Powell & Povolný, 2001). Figure 35 in Povolný 1967a (p.
72) of the male genitalia of a misidentied specimen of Gnorimoschema albomarginella from “Jackson Hole,
Wyo., Klots coll. AB Apr 15 1937” seems to belong to this species.
17. Gnorimoschema sp. nr. foliatum Povoln, 2003 (♂ MIC6133, ♀ unknown)
Gnorimoschema foliatum Povolný, 2003: 289; gs. 11, 46, 47. Type locality: Feather R. at Blairsden, Plumas Co., California (EMEC; examined).
Distribution: Nearctic.
Alberta Records: 4♂, Kootenay Plains, Whirlpool Point, 7.VII.2007, M Schwarzfeld.
Remarks. ♀ is unknown. The male genitalia is similar to Povolny’s G. foliatum described from California
based on two males (EMEC, borrowed and examined, no barcodes available). A short barcode fragment (307bp)
obtained from the holotype female of G. pocketosum Povolný, 2003 closely matched that of our Alberta series.
Both G. foliatum and G. pocketosum have been described in the same publication from the same type locality:
G. foliatum based on two males, and G. pocketosum based on a single female. Both species were reared on the
same host (Chrysothamnus or Haplopappus; Asteraceae). It seems very likely that these two names represent
the same species.
18. Gnorimoschema dudiella Busck, 1903 (♂ MIC5772, ♀ USNM6961 Holotype)
Gnorimoschema dudiella Busck, 1903: 828-829. Type locality: Williams, Arizona (USNM; examined).
Distribution: Nearctic.
Alberta Records: 1♂, Cypress Hills Provincial Park, Battle Creek, 6.VIII.2008, JJ Dombroskie. not barcoded: 1♂ [abdomen lost], Nordegg,
6.VIII.1921, J McDunnough. [CNCLEP00061548, identication label “Gnorimoschema dudiella Bsk” by Braun]; 1♂, ibid, 29.VII.1921 (CN-
CLEP00061549).
Additional material examined: Colorado: 1♂, Grand County, Grand County Road 55, 4.6 miles SW Highway 40, 31.VII.1992, TS Dickel (USN-
MENT00657596).
Remarks. G. dudiella was described by Busck based on two females from Arizona. The holotype ♀ (dissection
USNM6961) and several specimens of G. dudiella from USNM (Arizona: 1♂1♀; dissection ♂ USNM 6964;
Colorado: 1♂) and CNC were examined. Only one specimen of G. dudiella (USNM, det. R. Hodges) has been
barcoded so far, which matches the male from Cypress Hills reported here. The male genitalia of G. dudiella is
very similar to that of the previous species (G. sp. nr. foliatum) but with differences in vincular processes of the
19
male genitalia. The adults of dudiella also have darker wings and somewhat different mottling pattern. The host
is unknown.
19. Gnorimoschema obscurior Povoln, 1998 (♂ MIC5910, ♀ MIC5480)
Gnorimoschema obscurior Povolný, 1998a: 330-331; gs. 8-9, photos 6-7. Type locality: Carcross sand dunes, S. Yukon (ZMH; examined).
Distribution: Known from Yukon, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Nevada.
Alberta Records: 1♂, Waterton Lakes N. P., Belleview Hill, 15.VIII.2006, JJ Dombroskie et al; 1♀, Pakowki Dunes, 16.VIII.2006, JJ Dombros-
kie et al; 3♂, Kootenay Plains, Whirlpool Point, 7.VII.2007, M Schwarzfeld; 2♂, Kootenay Plains Ecological Reserve, near Whirlpool Point,
19.VIII.2009, JJ Dombroskie & S Dombroskie; 1♂, Porcupine Hills, Skyline Road, 22.VII.2010, GR Pohl family. not barcoded: 1♂, Lethbridge,
10.VII.1921, H.L. Seamans (MIC 6394).
Additional material examined: Yukon: (Type series) 2♂, Carcross sand dunes, 12.7.1994, L Kaila; 1♀, Klondike (#2) Hwy, 14.4 km N Alaska
Hwy jct vic. Lk Laberge, 17.VII.2006, JF Landry & GR Pohl; 1♂, Kluane National Park, St. Elias Mtns., Kaskawulsh River dunes, 13.VII.2006, GR