Article

RE-DISPLACING THE DISPLACED: RETHINKING THE DUAL STRATEGY OF LARGE-SCALE RESETTLEMENT AND PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE IN METEKEL, ETHIOPIA

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Abstract

By investigating the complex dynamics of conflict and the re-displacement of resettled IDPs in Metekel, this study underscores the need for a deeper understanding of humanitarian protection, forced internal displacement, as well as peace and security dynamics, in order to mitigate existing and potential future challenges in Ethiopia.

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Technical Report
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There is lack of clarity as to the direct influence of climate change on human mobility. We know that some areas worldwide are becoming less habitable due to increasingly extreme climate-related hazards. We know that other areas could become more habitable, allowing new economic activities such as agriculture or tourism. International processes, particularly those on migration and displacement, climate change and disaster risk reduction, increasingly refer to the links between climate change and human mobility. However, these links are not always grounded in evidence, and this increased attention has not led to the coordinated, significant policy or legislative change that is required. This paper responds to these challenges. It presents an overview of the current evidence base on the complex relationships between climate change and human mobility to support the development of an informed global discourse across the humanitarian, peace and sustainable development agendas, and as a counter to some of the sensationalist claims often propagated by the media.
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Social protection ranks high on the global development agenda, with linked concerns about poverty, resilience and sustainable development. Over the past decade, there has been increased attention to social protection in policy dialogues and programmes - across Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), however, there has been relatively little systematic analysis and research review work with a focus on pastoral livelihood systems. In addressing this gap, this paper re-examines current debates and practices in SSA’s emerging social protection agenda, focusing on pastoral communities and their livelihood systems. Emphasising the concepts of inclusive growth, sustainable development and a rights-based approach to societal crises, the author argues that in designing safety nets, social protection policy needs to consider the specific circumstances and livelihoods of a particular socio-economic group, rather than applying generic instruments that ignore important elements, such as the indigenous knowledge systems of the target population, and their level of vulnerability and resilience to shocks. Moreover, in addressing the basic and acute needs of vulnerable groups, during emergencies situation and systemically, and in seeking to strengthen their resilience through robust social protection policies and in their governance mechanisms, the countries of the region should ensure that there are inter-state social policy transfers, whereby mutual learning is developed. Furthermore, in systematising safety net policies, state and non-state actors should work together closely in developing social welfare systems that consider intergenerational gaps.
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This study was aimed at providing an overview and assessment of the current seed systems and performance of Community Based Seed Multiplication Scheme (CBSMS) as well as reviewing challenges and ways for sustainability in Metekel Zone. CBSMS came in to existence in Metekel Zone of Benishangul Gumuz region seed systems in 2008 to narrow the gap between the galloping demand and stagnant supply of improved and quality seed. Pawe Agricultural Research Center (PARC) and its partners have come up with CBSMS with multidimensional support from the former to produce in 2013/14 3279 quintal and in 2014/15 1275 quintal of quality seed. Seed systems in Metekel Zone were observed to be complex and the role of PARC is observed to be vital. The study suggests strengthening the CBSMS as they are the main source of improved seed in the zone. Moreover, proper training of farmers, market information network, incentive mechanism, and controlling the quality of seed should be given emphasis. To make CBSMS sustainable coordination among key partners and proper institutional arrangements is of paramount importance. Strengthening farmers' association/ union through institutional support should be given priority for sustainability of the scheme.
Article
The paperback edition of a book first published in hardback in 1988, and abstracted as 89V/01730. (ISBN 0 521 33441 1). A postscript outlines events in Ethiopia since 1987. -M.Amos
Article
This paper is based largely on the study of three semi-arid sub-provinces in central Ethiopia, most of whose inhabitants are sedentary cultivators. Famine conditions prevailed throughout the period of study despite the revolutionary agricultural reforms that had been instituted by the regime that took power in 1974, owing partly to some continued reliance on the individual household. The famine of 1984-1985 was a particularly drastic event, one to which government responses were inadequate despite the continued orderly nature of the peasantry, their continued willingness to cooperate with the authorities and their readiness to break with traditional agricultural practices. A truly socialist transformation will be required if Ethiopia is to cope with what has become a pervasive condition of poverty and famine. -Author
Chapter
Introduction Of an estimated 600,000 people resettled in Ethiopia in the 1980s, over 82,000 were relocated from drought-affected and overpopulated areas to Metekel (Northwestern Ethiopia), a place already inhabited by the Gumuz shifting cultivators. At the time of the resettlement, the population of the Gumuz was estimated at 72,000 (Dessalegn 1988, in Agneta et al. 1993:256-7). Of the total 250,000 ha of land designated for resettlement, over 73,000 ha was cleared for cultivation and the establishment of 48 villages. In 1986, large-scale development programmes were launched with financial and technical assistance from the Italian government. In the late 1980s, the resettlement area was portrayed as an oasis in the middle of wasteland. Salini Costruttori (1989: 14), a contractor for the Italian cooperation, reported, ‘Food self-sufficiency represents the prime objective of the Tana-Beles Project. This objective has already been reached, at the end of 1988.’ Today, the once popular Metekel (Pawe) resettlement is nothing but a failed project and a reminder of despair. This chapter examines the 1980s resettlement to find out why the project failed and what lessons could be learnt. The outstanding flaws and deficiencies may be summarized as follows. The Pawe resettlement lacked clear conception, a feasibility study, proper planning, adequate physical preparation and responsible management.
Article
Revolution, civil wars, and guerilla warfare wracked Ethiopia during three turbulent decades at the end of the twentieth century. This book is a pioneering study of the military history and political significance of this crucial Horn of Africa region during that period. Drawing on new archival materials and interviews, Gebru Tareke illuminates the conflicts, comparing them to the Russian and Iranian revolutions in terms of regional impact. Writing in vigorous and accessible prose, Tareke brings to life the leading personalities in the domestic political struggles, strategies of the warring parties, international actors, and key battles. He demonstrates how the brutal dictatorship of Mengistu Haile Mariam lacked imagination in responding to crises and alienated the peasantry by destroying human and material resources. And he describes the delicate balance of persuasion and force with which northern insurgents mobilized the peasantry and triumphed. The book sheds invaluable light not only on modern Ethiopia but also on post-colonial state formation and insurrectionary politics worldwide.
Article
Moving People in Ethiopia is the book long awaited by the international communities of researchers and practitioners working on forced resettlement processes and eager to understand and learn from Ethiopia's extraordinary experiences. It is also the book that, in my view, and rewardingly for the reader, fully meets head-on the unusual complexity of the many interwoven processes it examines historically, theoretically and empirically. Resettlement processes in Ethiopia over the last 30-50 years have been so massive and frequent – or better said, so continuous – so nation-wide painful, so multi-causal and multi-form, that they secured for Ethiopia an unenviable special place in the history of the world's large-scale resettlements. Ethiopia's unusual combination of displacement causes, types, magnitudes and outcomes has attracted international attention in many ways, ranging from the foreign donors' financial, technical or political assistance to the countless studies undertaken by social scientists, both Ethiopian and international. Yet, despite these innumerable studies, the intricate interwovenness of Ethiopia's population movements has proven hard to decipher plausibly and capture conceptually. It puzzled many scholars for many years, and it generated multiple contradictory and confusing interpretations. Controversies multiplied.
Article
This paper examines the process by which the poorest of the poor in Ethiopia's food insecure regions are made invisible through their very participation in a programme whose explicit aim is to help deliver them from vulnerability. Those targeted for support progressively lose their status and agency as 'people of concern' to governmental welfare bodies as well as international humanitarian organizations as they are resettled in a scheme that renders many people more needy than they were before they left their areas of origin. Inadequate planning and resourcing of resettlement on a massive scale and rushed timeframe, blocking of NGO and other independent monitors' access, and careful control at the federal level over information relating to conditions in settlement areas makes it possible for this space of invisibility to be created, into which an estimated one million people have already been moved since 2003. Invisibilization occurs through coinciding processes of forced recruitment and displacement as well as false and misleading representations of the resettlement programme, but also through a limited degree of voluntary engagement that enables government and international agencies to brand the operation voluntary - hence less a matter of concern - and thus to look away from a population that is far from self-sufficient. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2003 and 2004 in sending and receiving sites, I argue that invisibility is a function of governmentality in Ethiopia that has enabled inaction on the part of a wide range of stakeholders. © The Author [2008]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Article
1. For a more detailed discussion of the northward and southward re-settlement, see Wood, 1977, pp. 48-55. 2. See Trimingham, 1952. 3. Ibid., 46. 4. Lewis, 1985. 5. See Levine, 1974. 6. Ibid. 7. Trimingham, 1952. 8. The Oromo history was written by the indigenous historian, Azazh T'ino. See Alaqa Tayya, 1921, translated by Hudson, et al., 1987, 63-69. See also Lipsky, 1962,12. 9. Bahrey is a native of Gamo and was born in "a district close to the invasion route" and wrote this history 60 years after the invasion began. See Almeida, 1954, xxii. 10. The Oromo are two ethnic groups: Bartuma and Boron. One of the Bartuma children was Karayyu and the children of Karayyu were Mecha, Wallo, Raya, Azabo, etc. For details, see Bahrey, in Almeida, and Alaqa Tayya. 11. Cited from Bahrey by Almeida. 12. See Levine, 84-85 and Alaqa Tayya. 13. Sitz, 1970, 71, Alaqa Tayya, in Hudson et al., 65. See also Almeida, xc-xcii. 14. See Alaqa Tayya. 15. Levine, 80-90. 16. Almeida, xix. 17. Trimingham, 217. 18. Daniel, 1983. 19. Kloos et al., 1990. 20. See Almeida, Trimingham, and Levine. 21. Levine. 22. Long-distance refers to physical space which is more than 150 kms., while short-distance refers to less than 50 kms. See Wood. 23. Wood, 1985. 24. Gouin, 1976. 25. Ethiopians who practice Judaism are called Beta Israel or Black Jews, but physically, they are identical to other northern Ethiopians. 26. Detroit Free Press, 1991. 27. Armstrong, 1990. 28. Turton et al., 1984. 29. Kloos et al., 1990. 30. Ethiopian Government, 1957. 31. For details, see Assefa, 1964; and Mesfin, 1964. 32. See Abdulhamid, 1988. 33. Last, 92; Wood, 1977, 75-77; and Ethiopian Government, 1972, 19-20. 34. Ethiopian Government, 1968. 35. See, for example, Last, 97; Wood, 1985; and Pankhurst, 1989, 1. 36. Regarding cooperative principles, see Mengistu, 1986. 37. RRC, 1985; Jansson et al., 1987, 65. 38. Dagnew, 1986. 39. RRC, 1985. 40. Simpson, 1976, 150. 41. Abdulhamid, 15-17. 42. See Alemayehu, 1988. 43. Ministry of Agriculture, 1988, 26. See also Map 1. 44. For the purpose of this study, the term peasant is synonymous to farmer. 45. RRC, 1981. 46. Yesefera Memeryia, 1983. 47. Provisiona Military Administrative Council (PMAC), 1984. 48. Ibid. 49. Paragraph 13 of the 1975 Land Reform Proclamation specifies that beneficiaries of planned resettlement are "persons with small or no land, unemployed persons residing in urban areas, nomads desiring to settle, people in need of planned resettlement, due to catastrophic or emergency reasons;" see PMAC: Rural Land Proclamation, 1975. 50. Dessalegn, 1984; and Mengistu. 51. Mesfin, 1984; and Mengistu, 1987. 52. RRC, 1985, 156-158. These two organizations and the Awash-Valley Authority formed a new integrated RRC in 1979. 53. Jansson et al., 66; Clark, 52-3; and Pankhurst, 6. 54. Resettlement Co-ordinating Office of the Ministry of Agriculture, 1988, 8. 55. The World Bank and a U.S. aid mission financially assisted the previous resettlement programs introduced by the Haile Sellassie government. 56. For example, see Niggli, 1986; Steingraber, 1987; Clay et al., 1985; and Survival International, 1986. 57. See Niggli, 1986; and Steingraber, 1987. 58. For reference, see "Environmental Consequences of Resettlement Schemes: The Case of Abobo-Gambela in Ethiopia." 59. Chambers. 60. For land resource model analysis for Ethiopia, see Hurni 1988, and Aggrey Mensah 1984.
Book
The terrible 1984 famine in Ethiopia focused the world's attention on the country and the issue of aid as never before. Anyone over the age of 30 remembers something of the events - if not the original TV pictures, then Band Aid and Live Aid, Geldof and Bono. Peter Gill was the first journalist to reach the epicentre of the famine and one of the TV reporters who brought the tragedy to light. This book is the story of what happened to Ethiopia in the 25 years following Live Aid: the place, the people, the westerners who have tried to help, and the wider multinational aid business that has come into being. We saved countless lives in the beginning and continued to save them now, but have we done much else to transform the lives of Ethiopia's poor and set them on a 'development' course that will enable the country to do without us?
Article
The recent history of resettlement in Ethiopia is briefly reviewed and the caused, flow patterns and some demographic impacts of the 1984/85 government-sponsored resettlement migration are examined with the objective of identifying motivations and constraints in the migration process, analysing changes in population distribution and examining policy implications. Famine was the major push factor in migration, but traditional reactions of peasants to drought and overpopulation caused more drought victims to leave their homes spontaneously for relief and transit centres than as recruits of the government-sponsored resettlement programme. However, motivation to migrate and distances travelled to centres showed strong regional variation, indicating the severity of the famine and traditional adaptive strategies. Changes in rural population density were significant in several awrajas (districts) but were reduced by return migration. Problems associated with this emergency resettlement programme are reflected in difficulties during programme implementation, generally low agricultural production of settlers and high rates of return migration. Further studies are needed on the ecological impact of settler migration in both sending and receiving areas, peasant coping behaviour, as well as the evolution of new settler migration patterns in the new settlement areas in W Ethiopia.
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