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Fine-tuning Deep Learning Models to Identify Pepper Leaf Diseases

  • Iskenderun Technical University

Abstract and Figures

Deep Learning (DL) has become very popular, especially thanks to the towering achievements in classification, segmentation, and identification in many image types by the use of transfer learning and detailed feature learning stages. Although DL has been criticized by some researchers due to downsampling procedure, it has created a new enlightenment to image processing approaches with its capabilities in generating feature activation maps. In this study, the pre-trained CNN architectures were evaluated for bell pepper leaf identification. The VGG19 architecture with the best identification performance was fine-tuned by iterating various dropout factorization rates and fully-connected layers on different feature activation maps. The fine-tuned VGG-19 CNN architecture separated the healthy and diseased pepper leaves with an accuracy of 97.84%.
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ISBN: 978-605-73802-0-3
ICAII4.0 - International Conference on Artificial Intelligence towards Industry 4.0
11-12 November 2021, İskenderun / Hatay / TURKEY
Conference Proceedings Book
Editors :
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yakup Kutlu
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sertan Alkan
Assist. Prof. Dr. İpek Abasıkeleş Turgut
Assist. Prof. Dr. Ahmet Gökçen
Assist. Prof. Dr. Gökhan Altan
Assist. Prof. Dr. Mehmet Sarıgül
Assist. Prof. Dr. Levent Karacan
Technical Editors:
Merve Nilay Aydın
Handan Gürsoy Demir
Kadir Tohma
Halil Okur
ISBN: 978-605-73802-0-3 Publication No:1
ICAII4.0 - International Conference on Artificial Intelligence towards Industry 4.0
11-12 November 2021, İskenderun / Hatay / TURKEY
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Conference Organizing Committee
ICAII4.0 - International Conference on Artificial Intelligence towards Industry 4.0
11-12 November 2021, İskenderun / Hatay / TURKEY
Prof. Dr. Tolga DEPCİ
Iskenderun Technical University
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yakup KUTLU
Iskenderun Technical University
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sertan ALKAN
Iskenderun Technical University
Dr. Ahmet GÖKÇEN
Iskenderun Technical University
Iskenderun Technical University
Dr. Gökhan ALTAN
Iskenderun Technical University
Dr. Mehmet SARIGÜL
Iskenderun Technical University
Dr. Levent KARACAN
Iskenderun Technical University
Dr. Ahmet GÖKÇEN
Iskenderun Technical University
Dr. Gökhan ALTAN
Iskenderun Technical University
Iskenderun Technical University
Dr. Levent KARACAN
Iskenderun Technical University
Dr. Mehmet SARIGÜL
Iskenderun Technical University
Dr. Mustafa YENİAD
Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University
Dr. Sertan ALKAN
Iskenderun Technical University
Dr. Yakup KUTLU
Iskenderun Technical University
Dr. Yalçın İŞLER
Izmir Katip Celebi University
ICAII4.0 - International Conference on Artificial Intelligence towards Industry 4.0
11-12 November 2021, İskenderun / Hatay / TURKEY
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Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer Using Conventional Machine Learning Methods ...................... 9
EEG Based Spatial Attention Shifts Detection Using Time-Frequency Features on Empirical
Wavelet Transform .......................................................................................................... 10
High Performance Detection and Locking Application for Combat Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
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Investigation of Classifier Performances with Respect to The Difference of Flickering
Frequencies of User Commands in Brain-Computer Interfaces .................................... 12
Modification of Posterior Probability Variable with Frequency Factor According to Bayes
Theorem .......................................................................................................................... 13
Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease from MRI Images Using Deep Learning Techniques ....... 14
Thermally Induced Vıbratıon Suppressıon in a Thermoelastıc Beam Structure ...................... 15
Water Quality Measurement System in Iskenderun Technical University Pond ..................... 16
A Review of TDMA Based MAC Protocols with Disjoint Time Slot ........................................ 17
Building a Hybrid Recommendation System for E-Commerce ................................................ 22
Cyberlog: A Generalized IOT Platform Training to Protect Cyber Defence Agents and
Algorithms ....................................................................................................................... 29
Extraction of Lead Oxide from Car Batteries .......................................................................... 34
Fine-Tuning Deep Learning Models to Identify Pepper Leaf Diseases ................................... 41
Interpolation-Based Smart Video Stabilization ........................................................................ 49
Learnıng-Based Image Renderıng............................................................................................ 55
Low Cost Multifunctional Security System That Does Not Require Hardware Design ........... 59
Mobile EEG Measurement System Desıgn ............................................................................... 69
Prediction Diabetes Using Machine Learning Techniques .................................................... 77
Regıonal Sıgnal Recognıtıon of Body Sounds .......................................................................... 82
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Keywords .................................................................................................................................. 93
ICAII4.0 - International Conference on Artificial Intelligence towards Industry 4.0
11-12 November 2021, İskenderun / Hatay / TURKEY
Fine-tuning Deep Learning Models to Identify Pepper Leaf Diseases
Gokhan Altan1
1 Department of Computer Engineering, Iskenderun Technical University, Turkey
Email:, ORCID: 0000-0001-7883-3131
Deep Learning (DL) has become very popular, especially thanks to the towering achievements
in classification, segmentation and identification in many image types by the use of transfer
learning and detailed feature learning stages. Although DL has been criticized by some
researchers due to down sampling procedure, it has created a new enlightenment to image
processing approaches with its capabilities in generating feature activation maps. In this study,
the pre-trained CNN architectures were evaluated for bell pepper leaf identification. The VGG-
19 architecture with the best identification performance was fine-tuned by iterating various
dropout factorization rates and fully-connected layers on different feature activation maps. The
fine-tuned VGG-19 CNN architecture separated the healthy and diseased pepper leaves with an
accuracy of 97.84%.
Keyword(s): Bell Pepper, Deep Learningdepht, VGG-19, Plant Leaf Diseases, PlantVillage
1. Introduction
Food production is a sector that is important in many areas, directly related to social life
and economy. Planting, seed dressing, and harvesting are the main inception processes in the
food industry. Especially in recent years, due to plant diseases and pandemics, the disruptions
in production and the inability to make sufficient supply both impressed the national economy
and prevented sufficient natural products from reaching the consumers. In this case, the
necessity of preventing plant diseases and correct management of the necessary production
policies has come to the forefront for the agricultural sector all over the world. Although it is
difficult to predict some of these situations, plant diseases can contribute to the harvesting
bodyborne leaf diseases, stem diseases, fruit diseases, and root diseases (Singh & Misra, 2017).
Harvest loss caused by late detection of plant diseases and overdue in taking precautionary
measures related to this loss is an application with conventional methods even in developed
countries. Moreover, spraying for identified plant disease is applied to the entire harvest area.
This causes unnecessary expenses for agricultural producers and even spoils the genetics of the
plant due to chemical spraying. In this respect, locally and plant-based diagnosis of plant
diseases is of great necessity to improve the earning in productivity. Therefore, computerized
techniques for early detection of plant diseases and applying reliable preventives are the main
focus of agriculture technologies.
The advancements on computer vision and the increasing computational capacities with
the advantages of GPU have highlighted the artificial intelligence based applications.
Moreover, common use of camera technologies even for mobile devices has contributed these
standpoints on novel machine learning techniques. Use of computer vision in agriculture
increases day by day with the prevalence of drone technologies. It enables the opportunity to
configure plant disease identification models using real-time leaf, bacterial, fruit diseases using
ICAII4.0 - International Conference on Artificial Intelligence towards Industry 4.0
11-12 November 2021, İskenderun / Hatay / TURKEY
hybrid techniques and robotic. in the light of these developments, computer-aided techniques
with automated and hand-crafting have frequently been implemented to identify different plant
leaf diseases. Jagan and Mohan handled the paddy spot disease using SIFT technique and
conventional machine learning algorithms, including k-nearest neighbor and support vector
machine (SVM) (Jagan et al., 2016). Phadikar focused on the rice leaf diseases feeding
morphologic and histogram features into SVM with non-linear kernels (Phadikar, 2012). Islam
et al extracted RGB-based features on spot areas to identify the rice leaf disease using Naive
Bayes (Islam et al., 2018). Kumari et al. utilized contrast and statistical features of spots for
tomato and cotton leaf diseases for unfolding to an artificial neural network (ANN) (Kumari et
al., 2019). Chouhan et al. classified the similarity based correlation features for various plant
species using ANN (Chouhan et al., 2018).
Deep Learning (DL) algorithms are popular hybrid techniques with feature learning and
classification stages. Moreover, it is an easy-adaptable technique for many image types with
high classification and segmentation performances on large-scale datasets using transfer
learning on DL with pre-trained architectures. Hence, convolutional neural networks (CNN)
algorithm is the first choice for many researchers without pre-processing and advanced image
processing knowledge. Sladojevic et al. utilized CNN for various plant leaf diseases on their
own large-scale database (Sladojevic et al., 2016). The studies applied transfer learning on pre-
trained ImageNet weights using AlexNet (Amara et al., 2017; Brahimi et al., 2017; Chouhan et
al., 2018; Kumar et al., 2020; Lee et al., 2017; Liu et al., 2018; Sladojevic et al., 2016), LeNet
(Kumar et al., 2020), VGGNet (Amara et al., 2017; Lee et al., 2017), GoogleNet (Amara et al.,
2017; Lee et al., 2017; Sladojevic et al., 2016), ResNet (Lee et al., 2017), and more. Lee et al.
utilized feature learning on AlexNet using fine-tuning and presented high identification
performances of 40 leaves (Lee et al., 2017). Amara et al. applied CNN with LeNet architecture
to classify banana leaf disease on PlantVillage dataset with high accuracy rates (Amara et al.,
2017). The researchers evaluated the performance of various pre-trained architectures on 9
tomato leaf diseases from PlantVillage dataset and apple leaf diseases on their own dataset (Lee
et al., 2017). Ferentinos et al. utilized many pre-trained CNN architectures for separation of
many leaf diseases on PlantVillage database (Ferentinos, 2018). Geetharamani and Pandian
fine-tuned a novel CNN architecture with variations of classification parameters including,
dropout rate, learning rate, and dense layers (Geetharamani & J., 2019). Kurup et al. fed the
Capsule Networks and CNN architectures with plant leaves from PlantVillage to compare the
identification performances (Kurup et al., 2020). Altan also analyzed the efficiency of Capsule
Networks over plant leaf diseases (Altan, 2020). This paper aims at classifying bell pepper leaf
diseases using pre-trained CNN architectures (VGG-16, VGG-19, and MobileNet), comparing
the performance of fine-tuning on the best architecture for transferring dominant pixel
information among convolutional blocks.
The remaining of the paper is organized as a general description of focused plant species
in the PlantVillage database and architectural specifications of experimented CNN models in
materials and methods. The experimental setup and performance evaluation metrics for the
experimented architectures in experimental results. A complete comparison with state-of-the-
art in terms of plant leaf disease identification performances and superiorities of the CNN
models in discussion.
ICAII4.0 - International Conference on Artificial Intelligence towards Industry 4.0
11-12 November 2021, İskenderun / Hatay / TURKEY
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. PlantVillage Database
PlantVillage Database is a large-scale plant leaf disease dataset. It enables enhancing the
harvesting techniques with computer-assisted techniques to provide the productivity in
harvesting as early diagnosis. Whereas the food industry is a main problem to supply the
nutrition necessity for people all over the world, it is possible to qualify profitability in time
dressing and watering. Therefore, it was presented as a challenge dataset by Land Grant
University, USA (Hughes & Salathe, 2015). PlantVillage consists of a total number of 54K leaf
images from thirteen species. Most of the plant species have disease spots for various leaf
diseases and healthy leaves to develop diagnosis models for both binary and multi-classes.
Figure 1. Sample bell pepper leaves for healthy (left) and bacteria spot disease (right)
In this study, the bell pepper leaf bacteria disease is focused on with a binary
classification. The PlantVillage database has a total number of 2.4K bell pepper leaf images
including, 1K bacteria diseased and 1.4K healthy leaves. Fig. 1 indicates the randomly selected
pepper leaf images for healthy and diseased. Each leaf image has a standardized square
dimension with a standard background, but uncertain rotations with different angles. Hence, no
cropping and background removal were applied to the inputs before feeding the CNN
Although several images have a shadow effect; none of the bell pepper images was
excluded in the analysis. We augmented each leaf image with horizontal-, vertical-, and both-
flipping before splitting training and testing folds.
2.2. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN)
Deep Learning is an advancing hybrid technique with outstanding classification
performances on various types of inputs. The main philosophy of Deep Learning is combining
unsupervised algorithms in the feature learning and detailed supervised algorithms with novel
factorization and regularization techniques. On the other hand, it has advantages of transferring
the knowledge between related problems for reducing the training time. Transfer learning
enables optimizing pre-trained architectures with a detailed convolutional integration on the
adjacent convolution blocks. Moreover, transfer learning with popular pre-trained CNN
ICAII4.0 - International Conference on Artificial Intelligence towards Industry 4.0
11-12 November 2021, İskenderun / Hatay / TURKEY
architectures provides a feature map extraction on a detailed convolutional layer. Hence, pre-
trained CNNs enable reaching better globalization using regularization and factorization on
large-scale datasets.
Figure 2. VGG-19 architecture and fine-tuning process in dense layers
The main benefits of CNN are feature learning, transfer learning, fine-tuning capability
on pre-trained architectures, mobile architectures, and optimizing deep neural networks with
high generalizations. The feature activation maps as a result of many convolution blocks with
a pooling layer are fed into the fully-connected layers (FC) just as a multilayer perceptron.
Whereas the primary convolution layers define low-level features, the subsequent layers
generate high-level features by transferring the dominant pooling results (Altan, 2019). I
evaluated the performance of transfer learning using popular pre-trained architectures,
including VGG-16, VGG-19 (Simonyan & Zisserman, 2014), and MobileNet (Howard et al.,
2017) on the identification of plant leaf diseases.
3. Experimental Results
The CNN has the ability to compose various combinations during the modeling process
due to the sequence of convolutional layers, max pooling, and fully-connected layers. It is a
challenging procedure for proposing novel CNN architectures. However, the popular pre-
trained architectures have proven their usability and efficacy on different problems. Hence,
transfer learning was chosen for the analysis of plant leaf diseases. VGG-16 and VGG-19
architectures were named according to their layer depth by Visual Geometry Group. Although
VGG architectures have a small number of feature learning layers, it is not a mobile network
due to the depth of the fully-connected layers. MobileNet is one of the most lightweight CNN
architectures with the capabilities of adaptability to many data types in artificial intelligence.
Even though very deep neural networks with complicated feature learning stages have many
advantages on extracting detailed features, it is more important to reach approximate
classification performances using simplistic architectures with fine-tuning on CNN
architectures. That is why this study focuses on fine-tuning and pruning on simple CNN
Many plant leaf images have uncertain rotations, shadow views and sun shining.
Nonetheless no image enhancing techniques such as background removal and histogram
equalization were performed before CNN architectures.
The diseased leaf images have commonly small bacteria spots. Therefore, it is possible to
diverging the loss of significance for disease separation on complex CNN architectures. It is an
important point using shallow feature learning stages with low dimension of feature activations
maps. Moreover, this point enables evaluating the success of CNN architectures for use as an
ICAII4.0 - International Conference on Artificial Intelligence towards Industry 4.0
11-12 November 2021, İskenderun / Hatay / TURKEY
early diagnostic. Therefore, the best CNN architecture (among VGG-16, VGG-19, and
MobileNet) was fine-tuned using various depths of fully-connected layers and neuron ranges in
supervised learning stages. Thus it is aimed to reach the optimum model with highest
generalization performance on leaf disease classification. Hereby, the best achievements were
presented for each CNN architecture and compared with the state-of-art.
Each plant leaf image was converted to gray-scale image to obtain a quick analysis on
one channel instead of three channels (Red, Green, and Blue). Whereas it is a standardized input
size for VGG-16 and VGG-19, MobileNet supports all input sizes bigger than 32x32. The leaf
images were resized to 224×224 for both CNN architectures. Each leaf image was augmented
to enhance the dataset for supporting the pre-trained model with different angles and to avoid
overfitting. Each image was increased by 4 times with vertical-, horizontal, and both-flipping.
Hence, the training of the pre-trained CNN architectures for identification of plant leaf diseases
were performed on a total number of 9900 plant leaf images.
The proposals were trained using 80% and 20% folds for train and test, respectively. The
separate folds of the plant leaf images were utilized for training and testing the pre-trained CNN
architectures. The performance of the proposals was evaluated using statistical test
characteristics, including overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision (Altan, 2019).
In the fully-connected layers of the CNN architectures were iterated for various dropout
factorization rates (0.25, 0.5, 0.75) in the fine-tuning, a range of fully-connected layers (2 and
3), and neuron depth (256, 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096 neurons). The output functions of the last
fully-connected layer is softmax.
Table 1. The classification performances (%) for the pre-trained CNN architectures
The highest classification performances in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity
are presented in Table 1. The experimental results indicate that the VGG-19 has the highest
identification capability on the plant leaf diseases among the analyzed pre-trained architectures.
Whereas MobileNet reached well enough classification performances, VGG-16 performed a
miscarriage generalization on the re-training of the architectures on ImageNet weights.
Therefore, VGG-19 architecture was fine-tuned using various fully-connected layer
specifications. Table 2 presents the best five classification performances on fine-tuning of
VGG-19 architecture.
ICAII4.0 - International Conference on Artificial Intelligence towards Industry 4.0
11-12 November 2021, İskenderun / Hatay / TURKEY
Table 2. The best five classification performances (%) for fine-tuning of VGG-19 architecture
with various fully-connected layers
Fully-connected layers
The enhanced neuron architects in each fully-connected layer provide high identification
accuracy using deeper models. It is experimented that using a big number of neurons for both
fully-connected layers (4096 neurons) performed inefficacious generalization under the average
classification performances for iterated range of dropout and training parameters. Using 1024
neurons at 1st dense layer, 512 neurons at 2nd dense layer, and 2048 neurons at 3rd dense layer
with the proposed fine-tuning approach on VGG-19 architecture reached the best generalization
using a dropout factorization rate of 0.5. The highest bell pepper leaf disease diagnosis
performance was achieved with the rates of 97.84%, 97.48%, 97.49%, and 97.19% for
accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision, respectively.
4. Discussion
The pre-trained architectures are commonly utilized to analyze leaf, fruit, and root
diseases for various plants. The easy-adaptability and denomination of CNN architectures are
supported by transfer learning and pre-trained weights. Moreover, it enables fast convergence
and robust generalizations for many related problems. Although novel architectures using
capsule networks reported the advantages of using spatial information on direct images by
excluding pooling layers, CNN architectures are still in the first position for consecutive
convolutions to extract significant feature maps.
To the best of my knowledge, whereas a limited number of researchers focused directly
on bell pepper leaf disease identification, most of them analyzed it among various plant species.
However, these papers reported an overall identification accuracy rather than plant-based
classification performances. The achievements in the related works on the PlantVillage
database are presented in Table 3.
The achievements are obtained using the contingency table and number of the plant
species for pepper leaves. Geetharamani and Arun Pandian highlighted a light-weight CNN
model. It has nine layers including fully-connected layers and convolutional layers to identify
the plant leaf diseases. They iterated with various batch size, epoch, and dropout factorization
ICAII4.0 - International Conference on Artificial Intelligence towards Industry 4.0
11-12 November 2021, İskenderun / Hatay / TURKEY
index in the training of CNN. They reported the identification capacity of their proposal over
AlexNet, VGGNet, Inception-v3 and ResNet. Their proposal achieved the highest pepper leaf
disease classification rates of 93.00%, 92.00%, and 93.00% for accuracy, sensitivity, and
specificity, respectively (Geetharamani & J., 2019). Kurup et al. proposed a capsule network
on the PlantVillage dataset. Their proposal achieved pepper leaf classification accuracy rates
among 91% and 96% (Kurup et al., 2020). Altan also applied a capsule network architecture on
the augmented pepper leaf images. He reached classification performance rates of 95.76%,
96.37%, and 97.49% for accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively (Altan, 2020).
Although the literature reported well-enough classification performances with popular
CNN architectures and novel capsule network architectures, nevertheless it is possible to reach
better generalization capabilities by fine-tuning the architectures according to the problems.
This study explores the effect of fine-tuning on well-known CNN architectures on pepper leaf
disease identification using various fully-connected layer sequences and dropout factorization
Table 3. The state-of-art for pepper leaf disease identification on PlantVillage
Related works
Geetharamani et al.
Own CNN architecture
Kurup et al.(2020)
Capsule Network
Altan (2020)
Capsule Network
This study
VGG-19 + Fine-tuning
The fine-tuned VGG-19 architecture overcomes the state-of-the-art using three fully-
connected layers and 0.5 of dropout factorization. VGG-19 is the most responsible CNN
architecture for the experimented ranges of classification parameters under the architecture-
based evaluation metrics. Using a small number of neurons at the first fully-connected layer
and detailing the previous fully-connected layers with a big number of neurons provided a better
optimization in both training and testing of the proposal. The fine-tuned VGG-19 architecture
achieved identification rates of 97.84%, 97.48%, and 98.09% for accuracy, sensitivity, and
specificity, respectively.
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3. Amara, J., Bouaziz, B., & Algergawy, A. (2017). A deep learning-based approach for banana leaf diseases
classification. Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), Proceedings - Series of the Gesellschaft Fur Informatik (GI).
4. Brahimi, M., Boukhalfa, K., & Moussaoui, A. (2017). Deep Learning for Tomato Diseases: Classification and
Symptoms Visualization. Applied Artificial Intelligence.
5. Chouhan, S. S., Kaul, A., Singh, U. P., & Jain, S. (2018). Bacterial foraging optimization based radial basis
function neural network (BRBFNN) for identification and classification of plant leaf diseases: An automatic
approach towards plant pathology. IEEE Access.
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Electronics in Agriculture.
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neural network. Computers and Electrical Engineering.
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(2017). MobileNets: Efficient convolutional neural networks for mobile vision applications. In arXiv.
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development of mobile disease diagnostics.
10. Islam, T., Sah, M., Baral, S., & Roychoudhury, R. (2018). A Faster Technique on Rice Disease Detectionusing
Image Processing of Affected Area in Agro-Field. Proceedings of the International Conference on Inventive
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Plant Leaf Images. International Journal of Computer Applications.
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using exponential spider monkey optimization. Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems.
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plant disease and plant species classification. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing.
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features for plant classification. Pattern Recognition.
16. Liu, B., Zhang, Y., He, D. J., & Li, Y. (2018). Identification of apple leaf diseases based on deep convolutional
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Full-text available
Deep Learning (DL) is a high capable machine learning algorithm which composed the advanced image processing as feature learning and supervised learning with detailed models with many hidden layers and neurons. DL demonstrated its efficiency and robustness in many big data problems, computer vision, and more. Whereas it has an increasing popularity day by day, it has still some deficiencies to construe the relationship between learned feature maps and spatial information. Capsule network (CapsNET) is proposed to overcome the shortcoming by excluding the pooling layer from the architecture and transferring spatial information between layers by capsule. In this paper, CapsNET architecture was proposed to evaluate the performance of the model on classification of plant leaf diseases using simple reduced capsules on leaf images. Plant leaf diseases are common and prevalent diseases that disrupt harvesting and yielding for agriculture. CapsNET has capability of detailed analysis for even small stains that may lead seed dressing time and duration. The proposed CapsNET model aimed at assessing the applicability of various feature learning models and enhancing the learning capacity of the DL models for bell pepper plants. The healthy and diseased leaf images were fed into the CapsNET. The proposed CapsNET model reached high classification performance rates of 95.76%, 96.37%, and 97.49% for accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively.
Full-text available
In deep learning perspective, convolutional neural network (CNN) forms the backbone of image processing. For reducing the drawbacks and also to get better performance than conventional neural network, the new architecture of CNN known as, capsulenet is implemented. In this paper, we analyze capsulenet for two datasets, which are based on plants. In the modern world, most of the diseases are contaminating due to the lack of hygienic food. One of the main reasons for this is, diseases affecting crop species. So, the first model is built for plant disease diagnosis using the images of plant leaves. The corresponding dataset consists of 54,306 images of 14 plant species. The proposed architecture with capsulenet gives an accuracy around 94%. The second task is plant leaves classification. This dataset consists of 2,997 images of 11 plants. The prediction model with capsulenet gives an accuracy around 85%. In the recent years, the use of mobile phones is rapidly increasing. Here for both the models, the images of plant leaves are taken using mobile phone cameras. So, this method can be extended to various plants and can be adopted in large scale manner.
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The contribution of a plant is highly important for both human life and environment. Plants do suffer from diseases, like human beings and animals. There is the number of plant diseases that occur and affects the normal growth of a plant. These diseases affect complete plant including leaf, stem, fruit, root, and flower. Most of the time when the disease of a plant has not been taken care of, the plant dies or may cause leaves drop, flowers and fruits drop etc. Appropriate diagnosis of such diseases is required for accurate identification and treatment of plant diseases. Plant pathology is the study of plant diseases, their causes, procedures for controlling and managing them. But, the existing method encompasses human involvement for classification and identification of diseases. This procedure is time-consuming and costly. Automatic segmentation of diseases from plant leaf images using soft computing approach can be reasonably useful than the existing one. In this paper, we have introduced a method named as Bacterial foraging optimization based Radial Basis Function Neural Network (BRBFNN) for identification and classification of plant leaf diseases automatically. For assigning optimal weight to Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) we use Bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) that further increases the speed and accuracy of the network to identify and classify the regions infected of different diseases on the plant leafs. The region growing algorithm increases the efficiency of the network by searching and grouping of seed points having common attributes for feature extraction process. We worked on fungal diseases like common rust, cedar apple rust, late blight, leaf curl, leaf spot, and early blight. The proposed method attains higher accuracy in identification and classification of diseases.
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Mosaic, Rust, Brown spot, and Alternaria leaf spot are the four common types of apple leaf diseases. Early diagnosis and accurate identification of apple leaf diseases can control the spread of infection and ensure the healthy development of the apple industry. The existing research uses complex image preprocessing and cannot guarantee high recognition rates for apple leaf diseases. This paper proposes an accurate identifying approach for apple leaf diseases based on deep convolutional neural networks. It includes generating sufficient pathological images and designing a novel architecture of a deep convolutional neural network based on AlexNet to detect apple leaf diseases. Using a dataset of 13,689 images of diseased apple leaves, the proposed deep convolutional neural network model is trained to identify the four common apple leaf diseases. Under the hold-out test set, the experimental results show that the proposed disease identification approach based on the convolutional neural network achieves an overall accuracy of 97.62%, the model parameters are reduced by 51,206,928 compared with those in the standard AlexNet model, and the accuracy of the proposed model with generated pathological images obtains an improvement of 10.83%. This research indicates that the proposed deep learning model provides a better solution in disease control for apple leaf diseases with high accuracy and a faster convergence rate, and that the image generation technique proposed in this paper can enhance the robustness of the convolutional neural network model.
In this paper, we proposed a novel plant leaf disease identification model based on a deep convolutional neural network (Deep CNN). The Deep CNN model is trained using an open dataset with 39 different classes of plant leaves and background images. Six types of data augmentation methods were used: image flipping, gamma correction, noise injection, principal component analysis (PCA) colour augmentation, rotation, and scaling. We observed that using data augmentation can increase the performance of the model. The proposed model was trained using different training epochs, batch sizes and dropouts. Compared with popular transfer learning approaches, the proposed model achieves better performance when using the validation data. After an extensive simulation, the proposed model achieves 96.46% classification accuracy. This accuracy of the proposed work is greater than the accuracy of traditional machine learning approaches. The proposed model is also tested with respect to its consistency and reliability.
Agriculture is one of the prime sources of economy and a large community is involved in cropping various plants based on the environmental conditions. However, a number of challenges are faced by the farmers including different diseases of plants. The detection and prevention of plant diseases are the serious concern and should be treated well on time for increasing the productivity. Therefore, an automated plant disease detection system can be more beneficial for monitoring the plants. Generally, the most diseases may be detected and classified from the symptoms appeared on the leaves. For the same, extraction of relevant features plays an important role. A number of methods exists to generate high dimensional features to be used in plant disease classification problem such as SPAM, CHEN, LIU, and many more. However, generated features also include unrelated and inessential features that lead to degradation in performance and computational efficiency of a classification problem. Therefore, the choice of notable features from the high dimensional feature set is required to increase the computational efficiency and accuracy of a classifier. This paper introduces a novel exponential spider monkey optimization which is employed to fix the significant features from high dimensional set of features generated by SPAM. Furthermore, the selected features are fed to support vector machine for classification of plants into diseased plants and healthy plants using some important characteristics of the leaves. The experimental outcomes illustrate that the selected features by Exponential SMO effectively increase the classification reliability of the classifier in comparison to the considered feature selection approaches.
In this paper, convolutional neural network models were developed to perform plant disease detection and diagnosis using simple leaves images of healthy and diseased plants, through deep learning methodologies.Training of the models was performed with the use of an open database of 87,848 images, containing 25 different plants in a set of 58 distinct classes of [plant, disease] combinations, including healthy plants. Several model architectures were trained, with the best performance reaching a 99.53% success rate in identifying the corresponding [plant, disease] combination (or healthy plant). The significantly high success rate makes the model a very useful advisory or early warning tool, and an approach that could be further expanded to support an integrated plant disease identification system to operate in real cultivation conditions.