The origins and early development of Executive Functions (EF) have been closely related to language. The investigation in EF development has been conducted mainly through standardized tasks, in which the researcher determines what the child should do, how and when. Critical voices question the ecological validity of the classic tasks and emphasize the existence of EF through prelinguistic signs from the end of the first year of life. They also highlight the need to study the development of EF in everyday situations, where infants give themselves their own challenges and use their own means to achieve them, in interaction with others and with materiality. This chapter analyzes the first challenges that infants present to themselves in classroom 0-1 of the Early Years School. Additionally, it explores what means they use to overcome their difficulties and regulate their own behavior. It was observed that: (1) infants pose significant challenges to themselves from the last third of the first year; (2) this challenges are related to achieving and understanding the functional and symbolic uses of objects and instruments; (3) to achieve them, infants inhibit distractors and inappropriate behaviors, and employ private gestures and goal-oriented actions in a flexible and persistent manner; (4) the teachers’ educational action and the materiality they make available to the infants have a central role in the development of EF in the first years of life.