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The focus of this research is to find and implement OER to be used in learning German as a foreign language levels A1 to B1 of the The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) standards and to implement in teaching at Universitas Negeri Malang (Indonesia). An overview of the OER will be given, which was categorized language learning level, themes, among others level and themes. From the implementation in university classes with about 19-21 years old, our interviews with five lecturers and their answers in an online questionnaire showed that the OER material in learning did provide many benefits for lecturers and students, including the variety of materials, the forms, and the economic aspect. However, the existing OER still have some downsides, like their suitability to the needs of lecturers and students, in terms of their themes, the technical requirements and levels of difficulty.
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PaperTeaching German as a Foreign Language with Open Educational Resources (OER)
Teaching German as a Foreign Language with Open
Educational Resources (OER)
Implementation in and Experiences from an Indonesian University
https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v17i04.23225
Primardiana H. Wijayati1(), M. Kharis1, Edy Hidayat1, Dewi Kartika Ardiyani1,
Martin Ebner2, Sandra Schön1
1 Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia
2 Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
primardiana.hermilia.fs@um.ac.id
AbstractThe focus of this research is to find and implement OER to be
used in learning German as a foreign language levels A1 to B1 of the The
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) standards
and to implement in teaching at Universitas Negeri Malang (Indonesia). An
overview of the OER will be given, which was categorized language learning
level, themes, among others level and themes. From the implementation in uni-
versity classes with about 19-21 years old, our interviews with five lecturers
and their answers in an online questionnaire showed that the OER material in
learning did provide many benefits for lecturers and students, including the va-
riety of materials, the forms, and the economic aspect. However, the existing
OER still have some downsides, like their suitability to the needs of lecturers
and students, in terms of their themes, the technical requirements and levels of
difficulty.
KeywordsOER, implementation, German as a foreign language (GFL)
1 Introduction
If educators want to use educational resources which are free to re-use, modify and
re-publish, the copyright worldwide limits this option. Since about 15 years, “open”
or “free” licenses were introduced to regulate such usages of materials for learning
and teaching [1]. Now, the term and concept of open educational resources (in short
OER) is world-wide known and internationally recommended by UNESCO [2] and
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) [3]. Their
usage is recommended as OER are seen as a base for a more inclusive, open, sustain-
able education and world [2]. Universities share for copyright issues in teaching, that
OER gives new teaching opportunities, or that OER simply supports lifelong learning
and public relation [4]. Although there are many national and international initia-
tives and projects, one gets the impression that practical OER usages is still lagging
behind in primary, secondary and tertiary education. For example, a research report
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PaperTeaching German as a Foreign Language with Open Educational Resources (OER)
from the German Ministry of Education recommended strengthening activities in the
OER field because of the missing usage [5]. Similar results are found in the Nether-
lands where the use of OER is limited [6] and Ireland [7]. This is a pity, because the
use of OER is also linked to interesting side-effects: Another research proved that
OER has the potential to be a beneficial tool in professional development, lecturer
collaboration, and to increase their technological knowledge in language pedagogy
[8]. Learning with OER has transformed interactions among lecturers, building virtual
practice communities that aim to share ideas and practices for better qualities in teach-
ing/learning [9] and helping them to be agents of change [10]. OER can contribute to
a broader perception of the value of OER and its relevance to major challenges faced
by higher education today [11].
If we want to promote the dissemination of OER, many recent contributions there-
fore come to similar conclusions to Mishra's [12]: “Teachers and students are the
most important stakeholders in the OER ecosystem. It is important to sensitise them
on a regular basis in the use and creation of OER, including ways for remixing and
integrating OER in teaching and learning.
In Indonesia, where our study is located, there have also been initiatives around
OER for several years. In 2012, an international study national OER policies state
„Indonesia notes that it is developing OER“ [13]. An Indonesian OER initiative (I-
OER) was described by Selviandro and Septiana [14] and OER literacy of vocational
high school teachers in Indonesia were done [15].
An exciting area for the use of OER is language learning. First of all, it is possible
to use authentic material [16]. Then, the open licensing of OER ensures that materials
can also be translated and are more widely disseminated worldwide through their
digital and online availability. Improvements in speech recognition provide further
opportunities for OER use [17]. Nevertheless, OER seems not to be very widespread
in language learning. This might due to the fact that complete textbooks or collections
for a certain course are rarely available. In Austria, for example, a study was carried
out in 2018 to find out what materials are available at all for a specific school level for
English as a foreign language and whether they are sufficient [18]. The case study
shows that this is quite problematic on closer inspection: for example, many materials
for learning English that are available as OER are written for native speakers who are
much younger and do not fit well with the much older Austrian children when they
start to learn English. Additionally, the needs of learning language as a second, non-
native language are different to those who learn it as language natives.
The use of OER in language learning in Indonesia is rather small, despite the ef-
forts to introduce OER of the MOOC type have been frequently done in teachers’
seminars and workshops [19]. A report on community service activities concluded
that the majority of their participants were teachers from various subjects; they did not
know and have not used any OER material [20]. In Indonesia, learning German as a
foreign language, currently still widely use of classical media, namely handbooks in
the form of textbooks and worksheets. In the Department of German Literature, Uni-
versitas Negeri Malang (UM) - Indonesia, German as foreign language learning from
levels A1 to B1 of the CEFR standard is also the case. Although there are printed
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textbooks and also digital ones, most students cannot have their digital versions be-
cause it is too expensive for them to afford.
The OER-based learning process for lecturers will be more complex [7], but in
terms of its efficiency this is a good option. Considering the advantages of OER in
general and for language learning as described above, research on the practical avail-
ability and usage in classroom is urgent. In our study, we therefore explore the fol-
lowing research questions:
1. What OER can be found for learning German as foreign language levels A1 - B1?
2. How is the implementation of OER in German as foreign language learning levels
A1 to B1 at the University of Malang, Indonesia?
2 Research method
The descriptive research method was used for this study, which sought to map the
OER material for GFL learning levels A1-B1 which were published on Internet pages,
and describes the implementation of OER in GFL learning in the Department of Ger-
man Literature at Universitas Negeri Malang (UM). The data were collected using
observation techniques to map OER material, questionnaires distributed to lecturers
using a Google form, and interviews with lecturers to dig up information about the
implementation of OER material in teaching. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and
percentages) were used to summarize the OER material and faculty member respons-
es and to measure their overall perceptions of implementation OER material. Figure 1
shows the overview of our implementation of OER within the German as a foreign
language courses at Universitas Negeri Malang as well as the research steps. There
were about 138 students in sum and they are aged 19 to 21 years.
Fig. 1. Overview of OER implementation and parallel research
3 Results
Within the following, we give an overview about our analysis of OER and experi-
ences of five lecturers who used OER for teaching GFL in courses of the Universitas
Negeri Malang. In the second aspect, we present answers to the written questionnaire
with the statements made in the interview, arranged by topic.
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3.1 Finding fitting OER for GFL
To answer the first problem, the researchers have searched, read, sorted and select-
ed websites containing the materials with OER license, and can be used for GFL at
A1 to B1 levels of CEFR standards. The materials were then categorized into groups,
based on the skills, learning themes, material descriptions, CC license, and URL.
Collaborated with GFL lecturers, the researchers selected the materials to be imple-
mented in the classes. These tables are published online (see https://zenodo.org/
record/4655087#.YGUPo68zbIU).
Table 1. Findings of OER for GFL A1 to B1 concerning the topics and format
Topics
Sum of
Findings
Description (e. g. format or OER, variant of assignment,
completeness)
Format
Reading
2
Verständnis eines Textes, Texte, Schule
Text, Assignment
Vocabulary
7
Essen und Trinken, Körperteile, Feste: Weihnachten, Schule:
Gegenstände in der Schule, Tiere
Videos,
assignment
Grammar
6
Satzglieder (Subjekt, Prädikat, Objekt & Fallergänzung), Dass-
Regel, Zeitformen: Perfekt, Imperativ, Artikel,
Videos,
assignment, text
Listening
2
Wohnung, Sich vorstellen
Text, assignment
Speaking
3
Essen und Trinken, Sich vorstellen, Einkaufen
Test, Assignment:
Dialog
Writing
5
Reise, Verfassung eines Textes, Rechtschreibung, Essen und
Trinken
Text, Assignment
The implementation of OER in German learning is, for instance, in course
Deutsch 3. The materials in the form of text and grammar exercises from OER are
needed for the usage stage, which are linked in the quizzes and Padlet applications.
Texts taken from OER are edited, shortened, and the vocabulary and structure simpli-
fied according to the student's level. Thus, students can complete assignments online,
both for synchronous and asynchronous learning. For speaking course, the material or
theme from OER can be as a basis for gaining insight into Germany's context, which
is different from the situation in Indonesia.
In synchronous and asynchronous online learning, lecturers and students discuss
together about the OER materials. In synchronous online learning, the lecturers pro-
vide links of the OER material for students as assignments. Thus, both lecturers and
students use laptops or smartphones to access OER materials. In asynchronous learn-
ing, the lecturers use the university's learning management system to link the OER
material or downloaded materials.
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Fig. 2. A screenshot of OER website (Source: https://www.lehrer-online.de)
The mapped OER material does not always match the lecturers' needs in teaching.
For example, these discrepancies relate to topics, variations in exercises, vocabulary
levels, or text length. Therefore, lecturers still have to use other suitable materials that
are not considered OER, but free accessed. The OER licence found are quite various
as seen in Table 2.
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Table 2. Findings of OER for GFL A1 to B1 concerning the used license
Sum of findings with this license
Description (variance of materials)
10
Grammar, reading, writing, listening, speaking,
vocabulary (Level A1, A2, B1)
21
Grammar, reading, writing, listening, speaking
(Level A1, A2, B1)
8
Reading (Level A2, B1)
1
Teaching units for Level A1, A2 and B1.
3.2 Effects of the OER introduction to the lecturers OER usage
The meeting with the introduction of OER for GFL has inspired new insights to all
five lecturers, as well as a vigilant attitude in using material from the Internet. The
following is information obtained from the online questionnaire results. When asked
after the implementation phase, all 5 lecturers answered that they were not familiar
with OER and creative commons licenses before the first workshops.
As shown in Figure 3, the first meeting already had effects: Already before the trial
semester 2 lecturers (40%) used OER. In general, the lecturers’ attention concerning
OER and Internet materials changed: All of them paid more attention concerning the
open license, and all stated that they got new experiences through the OER implemen-
tation. Nevertheless, still two (40%) use online material without any regard to the
license.
Fig. 3. OER usage after the introductory meeting (N=5)
3.3 Different teaching methods and GFL topics where OER was used
As shown in Figure 4, four of five (80%) of the lecturers use OER as supporting
material and all of them used OER for online learning, so without printing. All lectur-
ers agreed to the statement that the used OER allow for autonomous learning.
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Fig. 4. How the lecturers used the OER in teaching (N=5)
The most frequently usage of OER was for reading (all lecturers agreed, 100%),
three of five lecturers (60%) used OER additionally for grammar, vocabulary, and
reading comprehension.
3.4 How OER were introduced to the students
As shown in Figure 5, all lecturers introduced the OER to the students, four of five
(80%) provided the URL to the sources, the same amount (80%) gave the OER as
files to the students.
Fig. 5. How the lecturers introduced and referred to OER within their trial lectures (N=5)
3.5 Used OER for GFL
From the provided list of the pages of GFL materials with an OER license, all the
respondents have accessed mein.deutschbuch.de; www.schule-bw.de; www.lehrer-
online.de; unterrichten.zum.de, de.islcollective.com, techblog-schule.de, lernedeuts
chmitdani.de and deutsch.info. Few have accessed deutsch-lernen.zum, teachsam.de
and epale.ec.europa.eu.
3.6 Challenges
Besides the overall positive feedback and experiences, however, three of five lec-
turers (60%) had the following difficulties with OER (see Table 3): finding right ma-
terials to adapt with the students’ competence level, identifying the license of the
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material, even though it is mentioned in the imprint section, and adjusting the materi-
als based on the needs in learning. Finding OER for a certain topic was only a diffi-
culty for one lecturer (20%).
Table 3. Difficulties when searching for OER (N=5)
I found the following difficulties when searching the OER:
Percentage
editing the required part of OER materials
60%
determining the OER materials which are suitable with the student's level
60%
sorting the appropriate material from OER
60%
determining the license (I need to read imprint)
60%
determining the OER materials which are suitable with the theme discussed
20%
The interview showed that two lecturers focussed on the problem, where they hard-
ly found suitable OER materials for the level and theme they were discussing. it was
stated by the lecturers, "it was difficult to find the suitable material for the level and
theme." (SL-LLS-001); There are many obstacles, one of which is the material of
which level does not match to what is being taught.” (SL-RSD-001); Sometimes
there is no material on my topic. In the end, I looked for something similar. To find a
really matched material to the one I need is very difficult (SL-RSD-002; SL-DW-
001).
The gap between the available OER material and the material in need requires
them to do some process on a text and adjust it to the required theme. One of them
shared this point: I had to think over for some times before I started to modify a text
I found on a page, then adjusted to my topic. (SL-RSD-003).
In addition, the OER on many internet pages have various themes and levels of dif-
ficulty and sometimes the gaps are too big. They are often not suitable to the needs of
the lecturers. Two mentioned this as an issue: Many materials are not well classified
in the distribution, for example it does not separate fictions and nonfictions (SL-LLS-
002); The material on the pages, like on mein.deutschbuch.de, has a big gap between
basic and intermediate level.” (SL-SWT-001).
3.7 Benefits of OER for teaching
Concerning the OER they found, the lecturers made no negative experience (see
Figure 6): All find the OER “very helpful” as well “useful in teaching and learning”
and agreed to have more sources after the OER introduction. 2 lecturers found OER
easy to find (40%). 3 lecturers stayed “neutral” concerning “the OER material match
the materials I need”, so only 2 (40%) agreed to this statement.
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Fig. 6. Overall judgments on OER within the trial classes by lecturers (N=5)
As presented in Table 4, nearly all lecturers see a benefit of OER that are available
for teaching. Three of five teaches see a benefit in new learning techniques used in
some OER and that they have clear instructions for online exercises.
Table 4. Benefits of OER for German as a foreign language (N=5)
I use OER materials because ...
Percentage
they are available for learning
80%
there are some new learning techniques
60%
they have clear steps/instructions for online exercises
60%
The second question in the interview was as well on the benefits the lecturers seen
from the available GFL OER. It is shown that the OER have made it easier for them
to process and modify, revise, and adapt to the material they need, as the materials on
the Internet has been clear in their status and openness: It makes it easy in finding
the materials because they are available online, and they are ready to use with no
copyright issue (UTG-LLS-001); I feel safe in using the materials, though they are
still limited and some are not as I have expected (UTG-SWT-001).
3.8 Ideas and wishes
To complement the existing OER, the respondents suggested that the department
should have a material bank and a question bank. This way will facilitate all the lec-
turers in preparing the lessons. This idea comes from some lecturers: My dream is
that we can have a lot of question banks (formative tests) and also material banks
(additional materials and exercises), do you think it is too impossible? It is far away
too big, isnt it?” (SRN-RSD-001; SRN-DW-001). Therefore, it is necessary to develop
material and questions from the text on the OER page through development research
activities. This is one of the ways to realize the dream mentioned above. This is a
practical advice communicated by one of the interviewees. I am really interested in
developing questions because it is part of my lecture needs (KBG-SWT-001).
From the results of questionnaires and interviews, it can be seen that the GFL ma-
terial available as OER can help lecturers in completing their lecture materials. How-
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ever, they are still far from sufficient, because not all the required materials are avail-
able in terms of themes, skills or competence and levels.
4 Discussion of results: OER availability, quality and usage for
teaching German as foreign language
Concerning our question on what OER can be found for learning GFL levels A1 to
B1 we have found, that there are abundances of OER for German language learning
on the Internet; they are available the levels of A1, A2, and B1. These materials are
very suitable for independent study and additional material for German language
courses. However, if they are related to lectures that have certain achievement goals
in accordance with the curriculum at the Department of German Literature, Universi-
tas Negeri Malang, only some of the available GFL OER can be used.
Concerning our research question on the implementation of OER in GFL learning
levels A1 to B1 at the Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia we found: From the
results of questionnaires and interviews, it can be seen that the GFL material available
on the OER pages can help lecturers in completing their lecture materials. However,
they are still far from sufficient, because not all the required materials are available in
terms of themes, skills or competence and levels. These materials still need to be
modified and adjusted in terms of topics, levels of language skills, and vocabulary.
The lecturers suggest to develop a bank of materials from the OER pages. The bank
can be made by each lecturer to accord to his/her needs.
Our results are in line with the argument stated by [21] and [22] that many re-
searchers have discussed the quality of OER as a learning resource. Resource-based
learning creates a better platform for changing the culture of open learning and teach-
ing in many education systems to offer a better quality for a greater number of learn-
ers [23], [24]. Sandayanake promotes the use of OER as mixed learning [25]. This
research is considered important because nowadays it is no longer relevant for lectur-
ers to spend time developing material, reviewing lecture notes, anticipating questions
or preparing for exams. This supports the finding in this study, showing that special
OER for learning German levels A1 to B1 have been found and collected. The lectur-
ers and the students can use them for classroom and independent learning purposes.
Lecturers can use the materials and it is recommended as a cost-effective invest-
ment in learning. The result shows that OER is quite new for lecturers and students.
The online materials really help lecturers and students to find the lesson material so
that the learning becomes more effective. OER are good for their flexibility in learn-
ing; they can be revised and mixed with existing materials.
There are several disadvantages faced by lecturers as they applied them. They
could not use it instantly. They still have to consider the suitability of the materials
found with the needs of their students in the classroom. Thus, it is necessary to modi-
fy them before they are used in the learning. For this, the lecturers are required to
master some technical skills in the material modification. This echoes what D’Antoni
[26] said that there are several obstacles in using OER, namely (1) technical aspects,
namely the lack of broadband access; (2) economical, that is, insufficient resources to
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invest in the required software and hardware; (3) social, namely the lack of skills
needed to use technology; (4) policy-oriented, namely lack of academic recognition of
OER development by teaching staff; and (5) legal, namely the time and costs associ-
ated with obtaining permission to use copyrighted material belonging to a third party
or removing it from the material.
The introduction of the OER has brought new knowledge and new experiences for
the lecturers in the department. This has nevertheless a positive impact on their
awareness about licenses as they utilize the materials contained on internet pages.
Using GFL OER provides a sense of security and eliminates the anxiety about copy-
right violation, as stated by Smith [27] that the benefit of OER is to eliminate the bur-
den of worrying about copyright infringement.
5 Conclusions for learning foreign languages with OER
This research has succeeded in finding OER for GFL learning. All the materials
have been categorized into groups, namely for what skills, learning themes, material
descriptions, and types of OER licenses, and their web for access OER can be used in
many skills and at various levels. The implementation of OER material in learning
does provide many advantages for lecturers and students, including economic reason,
the variety of materials, and their various form, as well as a sense of security from
infringing any copyright. However, the OER also have some weakness, i. e. they are
not instantly ready to use because they are not suitable to the needs of lecturers and
students, both in terms of themes and levels of difficulty. Lecturers can use the mate-
rials and it is recommended as a cost-effective investment in learning. The result
shows that OER is quite new for lecturers and students. The online materials really
help lecturers and students to find the lesson material so that the learning becomes
more effective. OER are good for their flexibility in learning; they can be revised and
mixed with existing materials. And they brought it some new learning techniques as
well. The OER's rapid growth provides new opportunities for teaching and learning.
At the same time, they surely challenge the established views of teaching and learning
practices in higher education. According to our results and experiences, there are
many strands we should be aware of: The development of OER to have something to
use at all and the quality of OER to have satisfying OER [28]. Nevertheless, intense
awareness rising, further education, OER introduction within lecturer training or even
OER certifications [29] are needed as well to establish vivid OER usage, co-
production and OER community for language learning in Indonesia [30,31,32], and
all above.
6 Acknowledgment
This article results from research funded by the Faculty of Letters, Universitas
Negeri Malang. The funding is based on the Decree of the Dean of the Faculty of
Letters number 1.4.60/UN32.2/LT/2020.
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PaperTeaching German as a Foreign Language with Open Educational Resources (OER)
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8 Authors
Primardiana Hermilia Wijayati is the vice dean of Academic Affairs at Faculty
of Letters at Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. She teaches the courses Research
Method and Evaluation in teaching. Her research focuses on the evaluation field of
German language teaching.
M. Kharis is a lecturer for the German language in the German Department, Uni-
versitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Jl. Semarang 5, Malang 65145. He teaches the
courses Writing I, Writing II and Media for German Language Learning.
Edy Hidayat is the head of German Department, Universitas Negeri Malang, In-
donesia, Jl. Semarang 5, Malang 65145. He teaches the courses German language and
Germanistik.
Dewi Kartika Ardiyani is a German language lecturer at the German Department,
Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Jl. Semarang 5, Malang 65145. She teaches
the courses German language and its didactics.
Martin Ebner is the head of Department Educational Technology at Graz Univer-
sity of Technology and therefore responsible for all university wide e-learning activi-
ties. He holds an Adjunct Prof. on media informatics (research area: educational tech-
nology) and his research focuses strongly on seamless learning, learning analytics,
open educational resources, MOOCs, maker education and computer science for chil-
dren. More information: https://martinebner.at or https://elearningblog.tugraz.at
Sandra Schön is Adjunct Professor of Innovations in Learning at the Universitas
Negeri Malang (Malang State University, Indonesia). Furthermore, she works as pro-
ject manager at the "Forum New Media in Higher Education Austria" (Graz) for the
project "Establishment of an OER Certification” and she is as well employed as Sen-
ior Researcher in the organizational unit "Educational Technology" at the Graz Uni-
versity of Technology, Austria. More information: https://sandra-schoen.de
Article submitted 2021-04-11. Resubmitted 2021-05-16. Final acceptance 2021-05-17. Final version
published as submitted by the authors.
238
http://www.i-jet.org
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract— This study is aimed at investigating the relationship between stu-dents’ perceived effect (PE) and their intention to use (IU) one of the English language learning mobile applications which is called Hello English, and also the differences of students’ PE and IU based on gender and experience. There are 24 male and 73 female students who completed the online survey which was admin-istered to several universities in Indonesia. The result of a bivariate correlation analysis shows a statistically significant positive relationship between students’ PE and IU, where gender differences do not have any significant influence on their PE and IU. On the other hand, students who have experienced using Hello English for more than three months perceived the effect of Hello English on their communicative competence better than those who only use it less than three months. Besides, the experienced users also show a higher intention to use Hello English to learn English in the future.
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Abstract: OER has become a source of strength for the contribution of improving the quality of education system and openness. This study aims to explore student literacy and perception of OER concept in Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan (LPTK)-based University of prospective SMK teachers, the survey was also conducted to examined the possibility for the development of a special OER model for electrical engineering education students in order to improve the quality and competence of prospective vocational high School Teachers graduates who are educating in LPTK. An online survey results were conducted on prospective vocational school teachers in one of the LPTKs, data collected through questionnaires obtained data that knowledge or understanding of students about OER is still low.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore the origins of providing quality satisfied open educational resources (QS-OER) related to Making Indonesia 4.0. It was aimed at exploring plausible determinants perceived by faculty. It was also of interest to reveal how, in what routines associated factors were interrelated. Design/methodology/approach An exploratory design was used. A conceptual framework was first established through a literature review and focus group discussion. Conceptually, QS-OER included presage, pattern, process, product, practicability, prospective and power (7Ps). QS-OER had direct effects on hard, soft, social and life skills (4Ss). The operational framework was then established with 7Ps, QS-OER and 4Ss as independent, moderating and dependent variables, respectively. The population of 631 from Universitas Terbuka faculty was included in the study. Respondents were randomly chosen to accumulate data through a survey. Methodically, importance–performance analysis (IPA) and customer-satisfaction index (CSI) were emulated to measure satisfaction level and importance degree. Eleven hypotheses were assessed under structural equation modeling. Findings Seven hypotheses were validated following 211 returned responses from respondents. Product was the most influential factor to QS-OER, followed by power, practicability, pattern and prospective, whereas presage and process were excluded. QS-OER influenced hard and soft skills, but social and life skills were excluded. IPA-CSI chart identified 21 (of 32) attributes as the pillars of QS-OER. Originality/value The quantitative framework was statistically dependable despite two of nine cut-off values that are slightly below the goodness-of-fit criteria. The study recognized the variance of qualitative versus quantitative results. Further inquiry is vital to diminish divergence by incorporating more relevant methods, augmenting theoretical exposures and/or enlarging sample size/population.
Chapter
This chapter explores the potential for implementation of OER at the University of The Bahamas (UB). Several questions guide the chapter's review: (1) How are OERs currently utilised in the Caribbean region? (2) What challenges must be overcome in order for UB to address concerns of the Bahamian government, academic faculty/staff, students, and future accreditation standards necessary for development and recognition in the region and internationally as a credentialed institution? (3) What are the benefits for a newly minted university to implement OER within the context of national development? The chapter concludes with recommendations for UB to consider as it transitions to providing a world class education for the citizens of The Bahamas.