Article

# Tuning the magnetic properties of FeTe2 monolayer doped by (TM: V, Mn, and Co)

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## Abstract

Based on density-functional calculations with Hubbard U correction for onsite Coulomb interactions, the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of V, Mn, and Co-doped FeTe2 monolayers were investigated. Doping is more preferred in Fe-rich conditions than in Te-rich conditions, while Mn inclusion is the most thermodynamically stable in any environment, according to the formation energy. In all doped systems, the energy bandgap was widened, and the electron transport properties were improved. According to our predictions, the V, Mn, Co-doped FeTe2 monolayers are half metal in their ground states with enhanced magnetic moments. These V, Mn, and Co-doped FeTe2 monolayers with interesting electronic and magnetic properties can achieve novel spintronic functionalities.

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... Hence, to calculate electronics and magnetic properties, the GGA + U approach is implemented as well with the GGA to describe the 3d states of the TM. Based on the previous reports and findings the Hubbard U factor 4 eV is adopted for the Mn [44,[61][62][63][64][65][66][67]. In these calculations, we used the basis set triple zeta plus polarization (TZP) with a confinement radius up to 10 Bohr [68]. ...
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Monolayer van der Waals (vdW) magnets provide an exciting opportunity for exploring two-dimensional (2D) magnetism for scientific and technological advances, but the intrinsic ferromagnetism has only been observed at low temperatures. Here, we report the observation of room temperature ferromagnetism in manganese selenide (MnSe$_x$) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Magnetic and structural characterization provides strong evidence that in the monolayer limit, the ferromagnetism originates from a vdW manganese diselenide (MnSe$_2$) monolayer, while for thicker films it could originate from a combination of vdW MnSe$_2$ and/or interfacial magnetism of $\alpha$-MnSe(111). Magnetization measurements of monolayer MnSe$_x$ films on GaSe and SnSe$_2$ epilayers show ferromagnetic ordering with large saturation magnetization of ~ 4 Bohr magnetons per Mn, which is consistent with density functional theory calculations predicting ferromagnetism in monolayer 1T-MnSe$_2$. Growing MnSe$_x$ films on GaSe up to high thickness (~ 40 nm) produces $\alpha$-MnSe(111), and an enhanced magnetic moment (~ 2x) compared to the monolayer MnSe$_x$ samples. Detailed structural characterization by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) reveal an abrupt and clean interface between GaSe(0001) and $\alpha$-MnSe(111). In particular, the structure measured by STEM is consistent with the presence of a MnSe$_2$ monolayer at the interface. These results hold promise for potential applications in energy efficient information storage and processing.
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Two dimensional (2D) single crystal layered transition materials have got extensive considerations owing to their interesting magnetic properties originated from their lattices and strong spin-orbit coupling, which make them of vital importance for spintronic application. Herein, we present synthesis of a highly crystalline tungsten diselenide layered single crystals grown by chemical vapor transport technique and doped with nickel (Ni) to tailor its magnetic properties. The pristine WSe2 single crystal and Ni doped one were characterized and analyzed for magnetic properties from both experimental and computational aspects. It is found that the magnetic behavior of 2D layered WSe2crystal changes from diamagnetic to ferromagnetic after Ni doping at all tested temperatures. Moreover, first principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations further confirmed the origin of room temperature ferromagnetism of Ni doped WSe2, where d-orbitals of doped Ni atom promotes the spin moment and thus largely contributes the magnetism change in the 2D layered material.
Article
We elucidate the origin of the phonon-mediated superconductivity in 2$H$-NbS$_2$ using the ab initio anisotropic Migdal-Eliashberg theory including Coulomb interactions. We demonstrate that superconductivity is associated with Fermi surface hot spots exhibiting an unusually strong electron-phonon interaction. The electron-lattice coupling is dominated by low-energy anharmonic phonons, which place the system on the verge of a charge density wave instability. We also provide definitive evidence for two-gap superconductivity in 2$H$-NbS$_2$, and show that the low- and high-energy peaks observed in tunneling spectra correspond to the $\Gamma$- and $K$-centered Fermi surface pockets, respectively. The present findings call for further efforts to determine whether our proposed mechanism underpins superconductivity in the whole family of metallic transition metal dichalcogenides.
Article
Materials with large magnetocrystalline anisotropy and strong electric field effects are highly needed to develop new types of memory devices based on electric field control of spin orientations. Instead of using modified transition metal films, we propose that certain monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are the ideal candidate materials for this purpose. Using density functional calculations, we show that they exhibit not only a large magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA), but also colossal voltage modulation under external field. Notably, in some materials like CrSe_2 and FeSe_2, where spins show a strong preference for in-plane orientation, they can be switched to out-of-plane direction. This effect is attributed to the large band character alteration that the transition metal d-states undergo around the Fermi energy due to the electric field. We further demonstrate that strain can also greatly change MCA, and can help to improve the modulation efficiency while combined with an electric field.
Article
Two-dimensional (2D) materials with intrinsic and robust ferromagnetism and half-metallicity are of great interest to explore the exciting physics and applications of nanoscale spintronic devices, but no such materials have been experimentally realized. In this study, we predict several M2NTx nitride MXene structures that display these characteristics based on a comprehensive study using a crystal field theory model and first-principles simulations. We demonstrate intrinsic ferromagnetism in Mn2NTx with surface terminations (T = O, OH, and F), as well as in Ti2NO2, and Cr2NO2. High magnetic moments (up to 9 B per unit cell), high Curie temperatures (1877 K to 566 K), robust ferromagnetism and intrinsic half-metallic transport behavior of these MXenes suggest that they are promising candidates for spintronic applications, which should stimulate interest in their synthesis.
Article
Planar composite structures formed from the stripes of transition metal dichalcogenides joined commensurately along their zigzag or armchair edges can attain different states in a two-dimensional (2D), single-layer, such as a half metal, 2D or one-dimensional (1D) nonmagnetic metal and semiconductor. Widening of stripes induces metal-insulator transition through the confinements of electronic states to adjacent stripes, that results in the metal-semiconductor junction with a well-defined band lineup. Linear bending of the band edges of the semiconductor to form a Schottky barrier at the boundary between the metal and semiconductor is revealed. Unexpectedly, strictly 1D metallic states develop in a 2D system along the boundaries between stripes, which pins the Fermi level. Through the δ doping of a narrow metallic stripe one attains a nanowire in the 2D semiconducting sheet or narrow band semiconductor. A diverse combination of constituent stripes in either periodically repeating or finite-size heterostructures can acquire critical fundamental features and offer device capacities, such as Schottky junctions, nanocapacitors, resonant tunneling double barriers, and spin valves. These predictions are obtained from first-principles calculations performed in the framework of density functional theory.
Article
Recent research has revealed a gamut of interesting properties present in layered two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as photoluminescence, comparatively high electron mobility, flexibility, mechanical strength and relatively low toxicity. The large surface to area ratio inherent in these materials also allows easy functionalization and maximal interaction with the external environment. Due to its unique physical and chemical properties, much work has been done in tailoring TMDCs through chemical functionalization for use in a diverse range of biomedical applications as biosensors, drug delivery carriers or even as therapeutic agents. In this review, current progress on the different types of TMDC functionalization for various biological applications will be presented and its future outlook will be discussed.
Article
Based on density functional theory, we investigated electronic and magnetic properties of X-doped (Group 4) WS2 monolayer for 6.25% and 12.5% X concentration. Numerical results show that one X-doped WS2 monolayer is non-magnetic, while two X-doped systems of the next nearest neighbor configuration are ferromagnetic (FM). The hybridization between the X dopant and its neighboring W and S atoms results in the splitting of the energy levels near the Fermi energy. These results suggest the p(d)-d(d) hybridization mechanism for the magnetism of the X-doped WS2 monolayer structures. The asymmetric charge density distribution induces to magnetism for two next nearest neighbor X-doped WS2 systems. The studies find that the two next nearest X-doped WS2 monolayers to be candidates for magnetic metallic material. Moreover, the formation energy calculations also indicate that it is energy favorably and relatively easier to incorporate X atom into the WS2 monolayer under S-rich experimental conditions. Our results show that substitutional doping from IVB group is an effective way to modulate electronic and magnetic properties of tungsten disulphide monolayer.
Article
Graphene-like two-dimensional materials have garnered tremendous interest as emerging device materials for nanoelectronics due to their remarkable properties. However, their applications in spintronics have been limited by the lack of intrinsic magnetism. Here, using hybrid density functional theory, we predict ferromagnetic behavior in a graphene-like two-dimensional Cr2C crystal that belongs to the MXenes family. The ferromagnetism, arising from the itinerant Cr d electrons, introduces intrinsic half-metallicity in Cr2C MXene, with the half-metallic gap as large as 2.85 eV. We also demonstrate a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition accompanied by a metal to insulator transition in Cr2C, caused by surface functionalization with F, OH, H or Cl groups. Moreover, the energy gap of the antiferromagnetic insulating state is controllable by changing the type of functional groups. We further point out that the localization of Cr d electrons induced by the surface functionalization is responsible for the ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic and metal to insulator transitions. Our results highlight a new promising material with tunable magnetic and electronic properties towards nanoscale spintronics and electronics applications.
Article
A method is given for generating sets of special points in the Brillouin zone which provides an efficient means of integrating periodic functions of the wave vector. The integration can be over the entire Brillouin zone or over specified portions thereof. This method also has applications in spectral and density-of-state calculations. The relationships to the Chadi-Cohen and Gilat-Raubenheimer methods are indicated.
Article
Finite-size corrections for charged defect supercell calculations typically consist of image-charge and potential alignment corrections. A wide variety of schemes for both corrections have been proposed for decades. Regarding the image-charge correction, Freysoldt, Neugebauer, and Van de Walle (FNV) recently proposed a novel method that enables us to accurately estimate the correction energy a posteriori through alignment of the defect-induced potential to the model charge potential [Freysoldt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 016402 (2009)]. This method, however, still has two issues in practice. Firstly, it uses planar-averaged potential for determining the potential offset, which cannot be readily applied to relaxed system. Secondly, the long-range Coulomb interaction is assumed to be screened by a macroscopic dielectric constant. This is valid only for cubic systems and can bring forth huge errors for defects in anisotropic materials. In this study, we use the atomic site electrostatic potential as a potential marker instead of the planar-averaged potential, and extend the FNV scheme by adopting the point charge model in an anisotropic medium for estimating long-range interactions. We also revisit the conventional potential alignment correction and show that it is fully included in the image-charge correction and therefore unnecessary. In addition, we show that the potential alignment corresponds to a part of first-order and full of third-order image-charge correction; thus the third-order image-charge contribution is absent after the potential alignment. Finally, a systematic assessment of the accuracy of the extended FNV correction scheme is performed for a wide range of material classes. The defect formation energies calculated using around 100-atom supercells are successfully corrected even after atomic relaxation within a few tenths of eV compared to those in the dilute limit.
Article
We demonstrate the continuous tuning of the electronic structure of atomically thin MoS<sub>2</sub> on flexible substrates by applying a uniaxial tensile strain. A redshift at a rate of ~70 meV per percent applied strain for direct gap transitions, and at a rate 1.6 times larger for indirect gap transitions, have been determined by absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our result, in excellent agreement with first principles calculations, demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional crystals for applications in flexible electronics and optoelectronics. <sub>
Article
Semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are emerging as the potential alternatives to graphene. As in the case of graphene, the monolayer of TMDs can easily be exfoliated using mechanical or chemical methods, and their properties can also be tuned. At the same time, semiconducting TMDs (MX(2); M = Mo, W and X = S, Se, Te) possess an advantage over graphene in that they exhibit a band gap whose magnitude is appropriate for applications in the opto-electronic devices. Using ab initio simulations, we demonstrate that this band gap can be widely tuned by applying mechanical strains. While the electronic properties of graphene remain almost unaffected by tensile strains, we find TMDs to be sensitive to both tensile and shear strains. Moreover, compared to that of graphene, a much smaller amount of strain is required to vary the band gap of TMDs. Our results suggest that mechanical strains reduce the band gap of semiconducting TMDs causing an direct-to-indirect band gap and a semiconductor-to-metal transition. These transitions, however, significantly depend on the type of applied strain and the type of chalcogenide atoms. The diffuse nature of heavier chalcogenides require relatively more tensile and less shear strain (when the monolayer is expanded in y-direction and compressed in x-direction) to attain a direct-to-indirect band gap transition. In addition, our results demonstrate that the homogeneous biaxial tensile strain of around 10% leads to semiconductor-to-metal transition in all semiconducting TMDs, while through pure shear strain this transition can only be achieved by expanding and compressing the monolayer of MTe(2) in the y- and x-directions, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of tensile and pure shear strains in tuning the electronic properties of TMDs by illustrating a substantial impact of the strain on going from MS(2) to MSe(2) to MTe(2).
Article
We calculate absolute formation energies of native defects in GaAs. The formation energy and hence the equilibrium concentration of the defects depends strongly on the atomic chemical potentials of As and Ga as well as the electron chemical potential. For example, the Ga vacancy concentration changes by more than ten orders of magnitude as the chemical potentials of As and Ga vary over the thermodynamically allowed range. This result indicates that the rate of self-diffusion depends strongly on the surface-annealing conditions.
Article
Generalized gradient approximations (GGA{close_quote}s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Article
We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 1013 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of ∼10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.
Electronic structure and magnetism of MTe2 (M=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) monolayers
• Chen