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Abstract

This paper provides an updated classification of the Kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. Five-hundred and twenty-three (535) notes are provided for newly introduced taxa and for changes that have been made since the previous outline. In the discussion, the latest taxonomic changes in Basidiomycota are provided and the classification of Mycosphaerellales are broadly discussed. Genera listed in Mycosphaerellaceae have been confirmed by DNA sequence analyses, while doubtful genera (DNA sequences being unavailable but traditionally accommodated in Mycosphaerellaceae) are listed in the discussion. Problematic genera in Glomeromycota are also discussed based on phylogenetic results.
Submitted 22 November 2021, Accepted 25 January 2022, Published 23 February 2022
Corresponding Authors: Dong-Qin Dai e-mail cicidaidongqin@gmail.com,
Kevin D. Hyde e-mail kdhyde3@gmail.com,
Yong Gao e-mail 562698574@qq.com 53
Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa 2021
Wijayawardene NN1,2, Hyde KD3,4, Dai DQ1, Sánchez-García M5, Goto BT6,
Saxena RK7, Erdoğdu M8, Selçuk F9, Rajeshkumar KC10, Aptroot A11,
Błaszkowski J12, Boonyuen N13, da Silva GA14, de Souza FA15, Dong W4,
Ertz D16,17, Haelewaters D18,19,20, Jones EBG21, Karunarathna SC22, Kirk PM23,
Kukwa M24, Kumla J25, Leontyev DV26, Lumbsch HT27,
Maharachchikumbura SSN28, Marguno F29, Martínez-Rodríguez P30, Mešić A31,
Monteiro JS32,33, Oehl F34, Pawłowska J35, Pem D3, Pfliegler WP36,
Phillips AJL37, Pošta A31, He MQ38, Li JX38, Raza M38, Sruthi OP10,
Suetrong S39, Suwannarach N25, Tedersoo L40,41, Thiyagaraja V3,42,
Tibpromma S22, Tkalčec Z31, Tokarev YS43, Wanasinghe DN22,
Wijesundara DSA44, Wimalaseana SDMK45, Madrid H46, Zhang GQ1, Gao Y1,
Sánchez-Castro I47, Tang LZ48, Stadler M49,50, Yurkov A51 and Thines M52,53
1Center for Yunnan Plateau Biological Resources Protection and Utilization, College of Biological Resource and Food
Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing, Yunnan 655011, P.R. China
2Section of Genetics, Institute for Research and Development in Health and Social Care, No: 393/3, Lily Avenue, Off
Robert Gunawardane Mawatha, Battaramulla 10120, Sri Lanka
3Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand
4Innovative Institute for Plant Health, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, P.R.
China
5Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07, Uppsala,
Sweden
6Departamento de Botnica e Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitrio, 59072
970, Natal, RN, Brazil
7Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, 53 University Road, Lucknow-226007, India
8Department of Landscape Architects, Faculty of Agriculture, Kırşehir Ahi Evran University, Kırşehir, 40200, Turkey
9Kırşehir Ahi Evran University, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Department of Molecular biology and Genetics. Kırşehir,
40169, Turkey
10National Fungal Culture Collection of India (NFCCI), Biodiversity and Palaeobiology Group, MACS Agharkar
Research Institute, G.G. Agarkar Road, Pune 411 004, India
11Laboratório de Botânica/ Liquenologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul,
Avenida Costa e Silva s/n, Bairro Universitário, CEP 79070-900, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil
12Department of Ecology, Protection and Shaping of Environment, West Pomeranian University of Technology,
Słowackiego 17, PL–71434 Szczecin, Poland
13Plant Microbe Interaction Research Team (APMT), Integrative Crop Biotechnology and Management Research
Group (ACBG), Bioscience and Biotechnology for Agriculture, National Center for Genetic Engineering and
Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 113 Thailand Science
Park, Phahonyothin Rd, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120, Thailand
14Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Programa de Ps-Graduao em Biologia de Fungos, Av. da Engenharia, s/n,
Cidade Universitria, CEP 50740-600, Recife, PE, Brazil
15Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, BR-35702098 Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil
16Botanic Garden Meise, Department of Research, Nieuwelaan 38, BE-1860 Meise, Belgium
17Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles, Direction générale de l’Enseignement non obligatoire et de la Recherche
scientifique, Rue A. Lavallée 1, BE-1080 Bruxelles, Belgium
18Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovsk 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
Mycosphere 13(1): 53453 (2022) www.mycosphere.org ISSN 2077 7019
Article
Doi 10.5943/mycosphere/13/1/2
54
19Herbario UCH, Universidad Autónoma de Chiriquí, Apartado Postal 0427, David, Panama
20Department of Biology, Research Group Mycology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
21Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451,
Saudi Arabia
22Honghe Center for Mountain Futures, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Honghe County
654400, Yunnan, P.R. China
23Biodiversity Informatics and Spatial Analysis, Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey
TW9 3DS, UK
24Department of Plant Taxonomy and Nature Conservation, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59,
PL-80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
25Research Center of Microbial Diversity and Sustainable Utilization, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University,
Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
26Department of Botany, H.S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Valentynivska 2, Kharkiv 61168
Ukraine
27Science & Education, The Field Museum, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, USA
28School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731,
P.R. China
29Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia
in Katowice, Katowice, Poland
30Departamento de Microbiología, Campus de Fuentenueva, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain
31Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
32Coordenação de Botânica, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Av. Perimetral 1901, CEP 66077-830 Belém, PA, Brazil
33Instituto Tecnológico Vale, Rua Boaventura da Silva, 955, Nazaré, CEP 66055-090, Belém, PA, Brazil
34Agroscope, Competence Division for Plants and Plant Products, Plant Protection Products - Impact and Assessment,
Team Applied Ecotoxicology, 8820 Wädenswil, Switzerland
35Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biology, Biological and Chemical Research Center, University of
Warsaw, ul. Żwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warsaw, Poland
36University of Debrecen, Dept. of Molecular Biotechnology and Microbiology, Egyetem tér 1., Debrecen, H4032,
Hungary
37Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute (BioISI), Campo
Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal
38State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P.R.
China
39National Biobank of Thailand (NBT), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 111 Thailand
Science Park, Thanon Phahonyothin, Tambon Khlong Nueng, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
40Mycology and Microbiology Center, University of Tartu, 14a Ravila, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
41College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
42Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200,
Thailand.
43Laboratory of Molecular Plant Protection, All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection, Shosse Podbelskogo 3, Pushkin,
St. Petersburg, 196608, Russia
44National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantane Road, Kandy, Sri Lanka
45Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, 81100, Sri Lanka
46Departamento de Tecnología Médica, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Tarapacá, Sede Iquique, Av.
Luis Emilio Recabarren 2477, Iquique, Chile
47Estación Experimental del Zaidín, C.S.I.C., Calle Profesor Albareda 1, 18008 Granada, Spain
48College of Life Sciences, Jiangxi normal University, Jiangxi 330022, P.R. China
49Department of Microbial Drugs, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124
Braunschweig, Germany
50Institute of Microbiology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Spielmannstraße 7, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
51Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Inhoffenstraße 7B, 38124
Brunswick, Germany
52Goethe University, Department for Biological Sciences, Institute of Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Max-vonLaue-
Str. 13, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
53Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main,
Germany
Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Dai DQ, Sánchez-García M, Goto BT, Saxena RK, Erdoğdu M,
Selçuk F, Rajeshkumar KC, Aptroot A, Błaszkowski J, Boonyuen N, da Silva GA, de Souza FA,
Dong W4, Ertz D, Haelewaters D, Jones EBG, Karunarathna SC, Kirk PM, Kukwa M, Kumla J,
Leontyev DV, Lumbsch HT, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Marguno F, Martínez-Rodríguez P,
Mešić A, Monteiro JS, Oehl F, Pawłowska J, Pem D, Pfliegler WP, Phillips AJL, Pošta A, He MQ,
55
Li JX, Raza M, Sruthi OP, Suetrong S, Suwannarach N, Tedersoo L, Thiyagaraja V, Tibpromma S,
Tkalčec Z, Tokarev YS, Wanasinghe DN, Wijesundara DSA, Wimalaseana SDMK, Madrid H,
Zhang GQ, Gao Y, Sánchez-Castro I, Tang LZ, Stadler M, Yurkov A, Thines M 2022 Outline of
Fungi and fungus-like taxa 2021. Mycosphere 13(1), 53453, Doi 10.5943/mycosphere/13/1/2
Abstract
This paper provides an updated classification of the Kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi)
and fungus-like taxa. Five-hundred and twenty-three (535) notes are provided for newly introduced
taxa and for changes that have been made since the previous outline. In the discussion, the latest
taxonomic changes in Basidiomycota are provided and the classification of Mycosphaerellales are
broadly discussed. Genera listed in Mycosphaerellaceae have been confirmed by DNA sequence
analyses, while doubtful genera (DNA sequences being unavailable but traditionally
accommodated in Mycosphaerellaceae) are listed in the discussion. Problematic genera in
Glomeromycota are also discussed based on phylogenetic results.
Keywords Ascomycota basal fungi Basidiomycota Classification Fossil fungi
Rozellomycota
Introduction
The ‘Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa’ (Wijayawardene et al. 2020a) was the first
attempt at compiling a classification of all taxa (from genera to higher levels) in the Kingdom
Fungi, with the contribution and agreement of 155 authors. The Outline listed higher-level taxa
(phyla, classes, orders, families and genera) in the higher fungi (i.e. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota),
early-diverging lineages of fungi, fossil fungi and fungus-like taxa. Moreover, the estimated
number of species based on the available data, for each genus, was included. During preparation of
the manuscript, the authors recognized the necessity to continuously update such an important
database, and thus www.outlineoffungi.org was developed (Wijayawardene et al. 2020b). One of
the important features of the Outline of Fungi is providing a platform for different opinions on
different taxa, mainly at higher ranks. As an example, Wijayawardene et al. (2020a) included two
different classifications for Leotiomycetes and Glomeromycota. The aim of including these
differing opinions was to make these aware to taxonomists and mycologists since it is vital to
discuss divergent views broadly, rather than ignoring or excluding them without rational
arguments. It is widely accepted that only ca. 150,000 (5-10%) species of fungi (Species Fungorum
2021) are currently recognized, thus classification conclusions will be subjective. Nevertheless,
publishing such controversial opinions in a single peer reviewed article is challenging; hence, the
series of Outline of Fungi and its web page (https://www.outlineoffungi.org/) aim to provide an
opportunity for this.
Avoiding subjectivity and bickering in fungal systematics
Since molecular phylogenetics has been utilized in fungal systematics, there has been a great
improvement in the resolution of species and this has been discussed in several recent publications
(e.g. Chethana et al. 2021a, Jayawardena et al. 2021). In addition, guidelines have been published
on how to describe new genera and species (Jeewon & Hyde 2016, Aime et al. 2021, Lücking et al.
2021). However, despite all of the advances with molecular phylogenetics, the decision of whether
or not to introduce a new taxon seems often as subjective as it was 30 years ago, due to misplaced
arguments, unfounded criticism, and reference to low-quality publications.
Here we provide a few examples of changes made in systematics based on subjective arguments. A
new monotypic genus Vaginatispora was introduced from freshwater habitats in Queensland,
Australia (Hyde 1995). It was immediately suggested that Vaginatispora should be a synonym of
Massarina by Eriksson & Hawksworth (1996) based on the interpretation of morphological
features. However, recent studies using molecular phylogenetics have clearly shown that
56
Vaginatispora is a well-resolved genus in Massarinaceae comprising eight species (Wong et al.
2020).
In another study, Jaklitsch et al. (2016a) reviewed Floricolaceae introduced by Thambugala
et al. (2015) and found an earlier name for the family that was introduced as Teichosporaceae,
which we follow here. As a consequence, all the genera belonging in Floricolaceae accepted in
Thambugala et al. (2015), became synonyms of Teichospora (broad genus concept). In their
phylogeny, which involved 45 taxa, all genera were interpreted as a single genus, as the
morphological differences were not thought to be sufficient for generic differentiation. Tennakoon
et al. (2021) revisited this family with increasing taxon sampling and used a matrix comprising five
genetic markers (ITS, LSU, SSU, tef1-α and rpb2) for phylogenetic analyses. The broad genus
concept of Teichospora was dismissed based on morphological dissimilarities and the
monophyletic status of the genera Asymmetrispora, Aurantiascoma, Floricola, Magnibotryascoma,
Misturatosphaeria, Pseudoaurantiascoma, Pseudomisturatosphaeria, Ramusculicola and
Teichospora. In particular, Tennakoon et al. (2021) included as many species as possible and
strains within a species from different geographic locations, along with the type species. For
instance, 15 strains were from the Magnibotryascoma clade and ten strains of Teichospora. Seven
genera now containing more than one species are recognised. In their phylogenetic tree, all nine
resurrected genera were monophyletic forming distinct clades, most of which are strongly
supported (bootstrap ML support over 90%) (Tennakoon et al. 2021). Therefore, in light of the
broader taxon sampling, monophyly of all genera, use of multiple genetic markers and statistical
support, Tennakoon et al. (2021) argued for a narrow generic concept in Teichosporaceae.
Jaklitsch et al. (2016b) criticised the introduction of new genera in Xylariales. Several recent
studies have shown Anthostomella to be highly polyphyletic (Daranagama et al. 2015, 2016, Konta
et al. 2021a, Samarakoon et al. 2022). Konta et al. (2020b, 2021a) revisited and introduced a new
genus for conspicuous stromatic species of Xylaria featuring conspicuous stromata. Samarakoon et
al. (2022) re-examined and re-sequenced previous taxa and provided fresh collections of
xylarialean taxa. With the addition of several new genera for anthostomella-like taxa, Samarakoon
et al. (2022) provided well-resolved taxonomic placements for xylarialean taxa, many of which
were especially those that were previously placed in Xylariomycetidae incertae sedis. It is
important to have a critical appreciation of the morphology and reliable molecular data associated
with such introductions. What we suggest here is that authors try to be less subjective in their
actions and reserve their conclusions until more data is available. There is no reason for researchers
to be critical of other researchers, and changes should only be made after sufficient molecular
evidence is available. Any taxonomic changes are invited to be submitted to the Outline of Fungi
and Fungus-like organisms which will be published yearly and updated in the webpage for this
publication series (Wijayawardene et al. 2020a, b). Undoubtedly, it is essential to discuss and
criticise the opinions or theories for the sake of the advancement of a particular discipline.
One very good example of subjective placement of genera in a single genus in a single family
is that of Jiang et al. (2021a) who introduced a new species in Ophioceras (Ophioceraceae). The
phylogenetic tree included 15 strains in Ophioceraceae and the authors considered that the two
genera and one species belonging to a different genus in the tree represented a single genus
(Ophioceras). With so few taxa in the tree, the molecular data provided evidence for a single genus,
but the authors did not look closely at the morphology. Since we presently may know
approximately only 10% of the species (Hyde et al. 2020a) and probably even less (approximately
2-4%) are sequenced, further studies would likely result in numerous taxa being found in this
family. It is, therefore, most likely that the present genera in Ophioceraceae are accepted and will
be well-resolved with further data. Unfortunately, future studies finding novel species in
Ophioceraceae will follow Jiang et al. (2021a) and probably will not consider morphology when
introducing new species and the situation will be confounded. Therefore, we believe that it was
premature to synonymise all genera under Ophioceras and we maintain this genus in the present
outline in this paper. A thorough study of the family is needed and should include a polyphasic
approach.
57
There are many genera and species with similar unresolved situations and our advice to
authors is to not make definitive conclusions or arguments for synonymies, until the genera or
species are thoroughly studied with molecular data using the best-established genes and a
polyphasic approach.
We have discussed the need to read the publications on what is a species?’ in the recent
issue of Fungal Diversity (Boekhout et al. 2021, Chethana et al. 2021a, Maharachchikumbura et al.
2021a, Voigt et al. 2021). Authors should only publish names of new taxa if they have followed
recommendations carefully to avoid introducing unnecessary names. Similarly, definitive decisions
should not be made as to species being synonyms or not unless detailed studies have been carried
out. Colletotrichum is a good example of a well-studied pathogenic genus (Jayawardena et al. 2019,
2021, Bhunjun et al. 2021a, b), where the numbers of extant species can relatively confidently be
predicted. However, there are many plants and geographical regions or countries where the genus
has not been researched, so even in this genus we could expect new taxa to be discovered, mainly
associated with non-economic crops (Bhunjun et al. 2021a, b). However, most saprobic genera
such as Hermatomyces have not been well-studied (Chethana et al. 2021b). It is not even clear if
species of Hermatomyces are endophytes or saprobes, which would be important to determine
whether species are host/genus/family specific or generalists. Therefore, we should not make
conclusions concerning species until a thorough molecular and morphological study has been
carried out based on the best genes for resolving species in the genus.
Updated outline
In this updated outline, we provide the current higher-level classification of the Kingdom
Fungi. According to Index Fungorum (2021) (access date 30.09.2021), ca. 5000 species have been
described in 2020 and 2021. In Table 1, we summarize the number of taxa introduced in 2020 and
2021. Table 2 and 3 provide summary of higher taxonomic ranks of Fungi and fungus-like taxa
respectively.
Table 1 Number of taxa introduced in 2020-2021.
Year
Taxa
Phyla
Classes
Families
Species
2020
-
1
52
3091
2021 (up to 31.12.2021)
1
2
37
3566
Table 2 Classes, orders and families of Kingdom Fungi. The number of genera in each family is
provided inside the brackets after the family name.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Aphelidiomycota
Aphelidiomycetes
Aphelidiales
Aphelidiaceae (4)
Ascomycota
Archaeorhizomycetes
Archaeorhizomycetales
Archaeorhizomycetaceae (1)
Arthoniomycetes
Arthoniales
Andreiomycetaceae (1)
Arthoniaceae (26)
Chrysotrichaceae (3)
Lecanographaceae (8)
Opegraphaceae (15)
Roccellaceae (42)
Roccellographaceae (3)
Arthoniales genera
incertae sedis (21)
Lichenostigmatales
Phaeococcomycetaceae (3)
Candelariomycetes
Candelariales
Candelariaceae (7)
Pycnoraceae (1)
Coniocybomycetes
Coniocybales
Coniocybaceae (2)
Dothideomycetes
Abrothallales
Lichenoconiaceae (2)
58
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Acrospermales
Acrospermaceae (4)
Acrospermales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Asterinales
Asterinaceae (18)
Asterotexaceae (1)
Cylindrohyalosporaceae (1)
Hemigraphaceae (1)
Lembosiaceae (2)
Melaspileellaceae (1)
Morenoinaceae (1)
Neobueliellaceae (1)
Oblongohyalosporaceae (1)#
Stictographaceae (5)
Arthoniales genera
incertae sedis (21)
Aulographales#
Aulographaceae (4)
Botryosphaeriales
Aplosporellaceae (2)
Botryosphaeriaceae (22)
Melanopsaceae (1)
Phyllostictaceae (2)
Planistromellaceae (2)
Saccharataceae (3)
Aureoconidiellales#
Aureoconidiellaceae (1)#
Botryosphaeriales
genera incertae sedis
(10)
Capnodiales
Aeminiaceae (1)
Antennulariellaceae (3)
Capnodiaceae (10)
Euantennariaceae (7)
Johansoniaceae (2)
Metacapnodiaceae (3)
Neoantennariellaceae (3)#
Piedraiaceae (1)
Readerielliopsidaceae (6) #
Xenodevriesiaceae (1)
Capnodiales genera
incertae sedis (10)
Catinellales
Catinellaceae (1)
Cladoriellales
Cladoriellaceae (1)
Cladosporiales
Cladosporiaceae (8)
Collemopsidiales
Xanthopyreniaceae (7)
Comminutisporales
Comminutisporaceae (1)
Coniosporiales#
Coniosporiaceae (1)#
Dothideales
Dothideaceae (14)
Neocelosporiaceae (3)
Saccotheciaceae (8)
Zalariaceae (1)
Dothideales genera
incertae sedis (6)
Dyfrolomycetales
Pleurotremataceae (3)
Eremithallales
Melaspileaceae (2)
Eremomycetales
Eremomycetaceae (2)
59
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Eremomycetales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Gloniales
Gloniaceae (3)
Holmiellales
Holmiellaceae (1)
Homortomycetales
Homortomycetaceae (1)
Hysteriales
Hysteriaceae (13)
Hysteriales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Jahnulales
Aliquandostipitaceae (8)
Manglicolaceae (1)
Kirschsteiniotheliales
Kirschsteiniotheliaceae (1)
Kirschsteiniotheliales
genera incertae sedis
(1)
Lembosinales
Lembosinaceae (1)
Lichenotheliales
Lichenotheliaceae (1)
Microthyriales
Microthyriaceae (12)
Microthyriales genera
incertae sedis (5)
Minutisphaerales
Acrogenosporaceae (1)
Minutisphaeraceae (1)
Monoblastiales
Monoblastiaceae (13)
Murramarangomycetal
es
Murramarangomycetaceae (1)
Muyocopronales
Muyocopronaceae (10)
Mycosphaerellales
Cystocoleaceae (1)
Dissoconiaceae (5)
Extremaceae (10)
Mycosphaerellaceae (119)
Neodevriesiaceae (2)
Phaeothecoidiellaceae (9)
Schizothyriaceae (10)
Teratosphaeriaceae (67)
Mycosphaerellales
genera incertae sedis
(7)
Myriangiales
Elsinoaceae (2)
Myriangiaceae (11)
Myriangiales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Mytilinidiales
Mytilinidiaceae (9)
Natipusillales
Natipusillaceae (1)
Neophaeothecales#
Neophaeothecaceae (1)#
Parmulariales
Parmulariaceae (35)
Patellariales
Patellariaceae (19)
Phaeothecales#
Phaeothecaceae (1)#
Phaeotrichales
Phaeotrichaceae (3)
Pleosporales
Acrocalymmaceae (1)
Aigialaceae (6)
Amniculicolaceae (6)
Amorosiaceae (5)
Anastomitrabeculiaceae (1)
Anteagloniaceae (4)
Aquasubmersaceae (1)
Arthopyreniaceae (2)
Ascocylindricaceae (1)
60
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Astrosphaeriellaceae (10)
Bambusicolaceae (4)
Biatriosporaceae (1)
Camarosporiaceae (2)
Camarosporidiellaceae (1)
Coniothyriaceae (5)
Corynesporascaceae (2)
Cryptocoryneaceae (1)
Cucurbitariaceae (13)
Cyclothyriellaceae (2)
Dacampiaceae (6)
Delitschiaceae (3)
Diademaceae (1)
Dictyosporiaceae (17)
Didymellaceae (44)
Didymosphaeriaceae (33)
Dothidotthiaceae (7)
Fuscostagonosporaceae (1)
Fusculinaceae (2)
Halojulellaceae (2)
Halotthiaceae (6)
Hermatomycetaceae (1)
Hypsostromataceae (1)
Latoruaceae (5)
Lentimurisporaceae (2)
Lentitheciaceae (14)
Leptosphaeriaceae (15)
Libertasomycetaceae (2)
Ligninsphaeriaceae (2)
Lindgomycetaceae (8)
Lizoniaceae (1)
Longiostiolaceae (3)
Longipedicellataceae (3)
Lophiostomataceae (30)
Lophiotremataceae (8)
Macrodiplodiopsidaceae (2)
Massariaceae (3)
Massarinaceae (11)
Melanommataceae (34)
Morosphaeriaceae (7)
Mycoporaceae (1)
Neocamarosporiaceae (2)
Neohendersoniaceae (5)
Neomassariaceae (1)
Neomassarinaceae (2)
Neophaeosphaeriaceae (1)
Neopyrenochaetaceae (1)
Nigrogranaceae (1)
Occultibambusaceae (5)
Ohleriaceae (1)
Parabambusicolaceae (9)
Paradictyoarthriniaceae (2)
Paralophiostomataceae (1)
Parapyrenochaetaceae (2)
Periconiaceae (4)
Phaeoseptaceae (2)
61
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Phaeosphaeriaceae (84)
Pleomassariaceae (6)
Pleomonodictydaceae (2)
Pleosporaceae (23)
Pseudoastrosphaeriellaceae
(3)
Pseudoberkleasmiaceae (1)
Pseudocoleodictyosporaceae
(2)
Pseudolophiotremataceae (2)
Pseudomassarinaceae (1)
Pseudopyrenochaetaceae (1)
Pyrenochaetopsidaceae (3)
Roussoellaceae (12)
Salsugineaceae (2)
Shiraiaceae (4)
Sporormiaceae (11)
Striatiguttulaceae (2)
Sulcatisporaceae (7)
Teichosporaceae (17)
Testudinaceae (10)
Tetraplosphaeriaceae (9)
Thyridariaceae (8)
Torulaceae (7)
Trematosphaeriaceae (7)
Tzeananiaceae (1)
Wicklowiaceae (1)
Zopfiaceae (6)
Pleosporales genera
incertae sedis (41)
Racodiales#
Racodiaceae (1)
Stigmatodiscales
Stigmatodiscaceae (1)
Strigulales
Strigulaceae (14)
Tenuitholiascaceae (1)
Superstratomycetales
Superstratomycetaceae (1)
Trypetheliales
Polycoccaceae (2)
Trypetheliaceae (19)
Tubeufiales
Bezerromycetaceae (3)
Tubeufiaceae (47)
Wiesneriomycetaceae (6)
Valsariales
Valsariaceae (3)
Venturiales
Cylindrosympodiaceae (5)
Sympoventuriaceae (17)
Venturiaceae (16)
Venturiales genera
incertae sedis (2)
Zeloasperisporiales
Zeloasperisporiaceae (1)
Incertae sedis
Alinaceae (1)
Argynnaceae (2)
Ascoporiaceae (2)
Balladynaceae (3)
Cleistosphaeraceae (1)
Coccoideaceae (3)
Cookellaceae (2)
Dimeriaceae (1)
Dubujianaceae (1)
62
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Dysrhynchisceae (1)
Endosporiaceae (2)
Englerulaceae (8)
Eremomycetaceae (3)
Eriomycetaceae (1)
Hyalomeliolinaceae (1)
Leptopeltidaceae (4)
Macrovalsariaceae (1)
Meliolinaceae (2)
Mesnieraceae (3)
Naetrocymbaceae (5)
Nematotheciaceae (3)
Neoparodiaceae (1)
Palawaniaceae (1)
Paranectriellaceae (2)
Parodiellaceae (1)
Perisporiopsidaceae (5)
Phaeodimeriellaceae (1)
Pododimeriaceae (2)
Polyclypeolinaceae (1)
Polystomellaceae (4)
Protoscyphaceae (1)
Pseudoperisporiaceae (4)
Pseudorobillardaceae (1)
Pyrenidiaceae (1)
Rhizodiscinaceae (1)
Seynesiopeltidaceae (1)
Stomatogeneceae (1)
Thyrinulaceae (3)
Toroaceae (1)
Trichopeltinaceae (7)
Trichothyriaceae (4)
Vizellaceae (3)
Dothideomycetes genera
incertae sedis (274)
Eurotiomycetes
Arachnomycetales
Arachnomycetaceae (2)
Chaetothyriales
Chaetothyriaceae (19)
Coccodiniaceae (4)
Cyphellophoraceae (2)
Epibryaceae (1)
Herpotrichiellaceae (17)
Lyrommataceae (1)
Microtheliopsidaceae (1)
Paracladophialophoraceae
(1)
Pyrenotrichaceae (2)
Trichomeriaceae (9)
Chaetothyriales genera
incertae sedis (11)
Coryneliales
Coryneliaceae (8)
Eremascaceae (2)
Eurotiales
Aspergillaceae (14)
Elaphomycetaceae (2)
Penicillaginaceae (1)#
Thermoascaceae (2)
Trichocomaceae (9)
63
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Mycocaliciales
Mycocaliciaceae (7)
Onygenales
Ajellomycetaceae (7)
Arthrodermataceae (11)
Ascosphaeraceae (3)
Gymnoascaceae (11)
Nannizziopsidaceae (1)
Onygenaceae (34)
Spiromastigaceae (4)
Onygenales genera
incertae sedis (3)
Phaeomoniellales
Celotheliaceae (11)
Phaeomoniellales
genera incertae sedis
(2)
Pyrenulales
Pyrenulaceae (12)
Pyrenulales genera
incertae sedis (2)
Sclerococcales
Dactylosporaceae (7)
Verrucariales
Adelococcaceae (3)
Sarcopyreniaceae (1)
Verrucariaceae (52)
Verrucariales genera
incertae sedis (4)
Incertae sedis
Rhynchostomataceae (2)
Eurotiomycetes genus
incertae sedis (1)
Geoglossomycetes
Geoglossales
Geoglossaceae (7)
Geoglossomycetes genera
incertae sedis (2)
Laboulbeniomycetes
Herpomycetales
Herpomycetaceae (1)
Laboulbeniales
Ceratomycetaceae (12)
Euceratomycetaceae (6)
Laboulbeniaceae (128)
Pyxidiophorales
Pyxidiophoraceae (3)
Laboulbeniomycetes
genera incertae sedis (4)
Laboulbeniomycetes genus
incertae sedis (1)
Lecanoromycetes
Acarosporales
Acarosporaceae (11)
Eigleraceae (1)
Acarosporales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Baeomycetales
Arctomiaceae (5)
Arthrorhaphidaceae (1)
Baeomycetaceae (5)
Cameroniaceae (1)
Hymeneliaceae (3)
Protothelenellaceae (3)
Trapeliaceae (12)
Xylographaceae (4)
Caliciales
Caliciaceae (36)
Physciaceae (18)
Graphidales
Diploschistaceae (35)
Fissurinaceae (6)
Gomphillaceae (26)
Graphidaceae (32)
64
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Redonographaceae (2)
Thelotremataceae (7)
Gyalectales
Coenogoniaceae (1)
Gyalectaceae (6)
Phlyctidaceae (2)
Sagiolechiaceae (1)
Trichotheliaceae (8)
Lecanorales
Biatorellaceae (1)
Bruceomycetaceae (2)
Catillariaceae (5)
Cladoniaceae (22)
Gypsoplacaceae (1)
Haematommataceae (1)
Lecanoraceae (29)
Malmideaceae (7)
Megalariaceae (2)
Parmeliaceae (70)
Pilocarpaceae (31)
Psilolechiaceae (1)
Psoraceae (6)
Ramalinaceae (40)
Ramboldiaceae (1)
Scoliciosporaceae (1)
Sphaerophoraceae (6)
Tephromelataceae (4)
Lecanorales genera
incertae sedis (14)
Lecideales
Lecideaceae (29)
Lopadiaceae (1)
Leprocaulales
Leprocaulaceae (3)
Micropeltidales
Micropeltidaceae (12)
Odontotrematales#
Odontotremataceae (10)
Ostropales
Phaneromycetaceae (1)
Spirographaceae (1)
Stictidaceae (30)
Ostropales genera
incertae sedis (5)
Peltigerales
Coccocarpiaceae (3)
Collemataceae (9)
Koerberiaceae (3)
Massalongiaceae (3)
Pannariaceae (30)
Peltigeraceae (17)
Placynthiaceae (3)
Vahliellaceae (1)
Peltigerales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Pertusariales
Agyriaceae (2)
Coccotremataceae (3)
Icmadophilaceae (9)
Megasporaceae (6)
Microcaliciaceae (1)
Ochrolechiaceae (1)
Pertusariaceae (3)
Varicellariaceae (1)
Variolariaceae (1)
65
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Rhizocarpales
Rhizocarpaceae (4)
Sarrameanales
Sarrameanaceae (2)
Schaereriales
Schaereriaceae (1)
Sporastatiales
Sporastatiaceae (2)
Teloschistales
Brigantiaeaceae (2)
Megalosporaceae (3)
Teloschistaceae (71)
Teloschistales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Thelenellales
Thelenellaceae (3)
Turquoiseomycetales
Turquoiseomycetaceae (1)
Umbilicariales
Elixiaceae (2)
Fuscideaceae (4)
Ophioparmaceae (3)
Ropalosporaceae (1)
Umbilicariaceae (3)
Incertae sedis
Epigloeaceae (1)
Helocarpaceae (1)
Micropeltidaceae (8)
Lecanoromycetes genera
incertae sedis (15)
Leotiomycetes
Chaetomellales
Chaetomellaceae (4)
Helotiales
Amicodiscaceae (1)
Arachnopezizaceae (5)
Ascocorticiaceae (3)
Ascodichaenaceae (2)
Bloxamiaceae (1)
Bryoglossaceae (3)
Calloriaceae (14)
Cenangiaceae (11)
Chlorociboriaceae (2)
Chlorospleniaceae (1)
Chrysodiscaceae (1)
Cordieritidaceae (18)
Cyttariaceae (1)
Dermateaceae (14)
Discinellaceae (12)
Drepanopezizaceae (8)
Erysiphaceae (20)
Gelatinodiscaceae (9)
Godroniaceae (5)
Helotiaceae (31)
Heterosphaeriaceae (1)
Hyaloscyphaceae (38)
Lachnaceae (17)
Leptodontidiaceae (1)
Loramycetaceae (2)
Mitrulaceae (1)
Mollisiaceae (19)
Myxotrichaceae (3)
Neolauriomycetaceae (3)
Patellariopsidaceae (1)#
Pezizellaceae (23)
Ploettnerulaceae (13)
Rutstroemiaceae (7)
Sclerotiniaceae (30)
66
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Tricladiaceae (1)
Vibrisseaceae (6)
Helotiales genera
incertae sedis (144)
Lahmiales
Lahmiaceae (1)
Lauriomycetales
Lauriomycetaceae (1)
Leotiales
Cochlearomycetaceae (2)
Leotiaceae (4)
Lichinodiaceae (1)
Mniaeciaceae (2)
Tympanidaceae (7)
Leotiales genera
incertae sedis (3)
Marthamycetales
Marthamycetaceae (9)
Medeolariales
Medeolariaceae (1)
Micraspidales
Micraspidaceae (1)
Phacidiales
Helicogoniaceae (7)
Phacidiaceae (9)
Phacidiales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Rhytismatales
Cudoniaceae (2)
Rhytismataceae (52)
Triblidiaceae (2)
Rhytismatales genera
incertae sedis (9)
Thelebolales
Pseudeurotiaceae (8)
Thelebolaceae (13)
Incertae sedis
Porodiplodiaceae (1)
Leotiomycetes genera
incertae sedis (21)
Lichinomycetes
Lichinales
Gloeoheppiaceae (3)
Lichinaceae (43)
Peltulaceae (1)
Neolectomycetes
Neolectales
Neolectaceae (1)
Novakomycetes
Novakomycetales
Novakomycetaceae (1)
Orbiliomycetes
Orbiliales
Orbiliaceae (14)
Orbiliales genus
incertae sedis (2)
Orbiliomycetes genus
incertae sedis (1)
Pezizomycetes
Pezizales
Ascobolaceae (5)
Ascodesmidaceae (11)
Caloscyphaceae (1)
Chorioactidaceae (6)
Discinaceae (5)
Glaziellaceae (1)
Helvellaceae (5)
Kallistoskyphaceae (1)
Karstenellaceae (1)
Morchellaceae (7)
Pezizaceae (48)
Pseudombrophilaceae (4)
Pulvinulaceae (3)
Pyronemataceae (65)
Rhizinaceae (3)
Sarcoscyphaceae (12)
67
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Sarcosomataceae (9)
Strobiloscyphaceae (1)
Tarzettaceae (6)
Tuberaceae (7)
Pezizales genera
incertae sedis (17)
Pezizomycetes genus
incertae sedis (1)
Pneumocystomycetes
Pneumocystidales
Pneumocystidaceae (1)
Saccharomycetes
Saccharomycetales
Alloascoideaceae (1)
Ascoideaceae (1)
Cephaloascaceae (1)
Debaryomycetaceae (13)
Dipodascaceae (5)
Lipomycetaceae (6)
Metschnikowiaceae (3)
Phaffomycetaceae (5)
Pichiaceae (10)
Saccharomycetaceae (18)
Saccharomycodaceae (2)
Saccharomycopsidaceae (2)
Trichomonascaceae (9)
Trigonopsidaceae (3)
Saccharomycetales
genera incertae sedis
(22)
Schizosaccharomycetes
Schizosaccharomycetal
es
Schizosaccharomycetaceae (1)
Sordariomycetes
Amphisphaeriales
Amphisphaeriaceae (4)
Apiosporaceae (4)
Beltraniaceae (9)
Castanediellaceae (1)
Clypeophysalosporaceae (4)
Hyponectriaceae (17)
Iodosphaeriaceae (1)
Melogrammataceae (1)
Oxydothidaceae (1)
Phlogicylindriaceae (3)
Pseudomassariaceae (4)
Pseudosporidesmiaceae (1)
Pseudotruncatellaceae (1)
Sporocadaceae (35)
Vialaeaceae (1)
Amphisphaeriales
genus incertae sedis (1)
Amplistromatales
Amplistromataceae (3)
Annulatascales
Annulatascaceae (13)
Annulatascales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Atractosporales
Atractosporaceae (2)
Conlariaceae (2)
Pseudoproboscisporaceae (2)
Boliniales
Boliniaceae (9)
Calosphaeriales
Calosphaeriaceae (4)
Pleurostomataceae (1)
68
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Calosphaeriales genera
incertae sedis (3)
Cancellidiales#
Cancellidiaceae (2)#
Catabotryales#
Catabotryaceae (1)
Cephalothecales
Cephalothecaceae (5)
Chaetosphaeriales
Chaetosphaeriaceae (52)
Helminthosphaeriaceae (4)
Leptosporellaceae (1)
Linocarpaceae (3)
Chaetosphaeriales
genera incertae sedis
(7)
Coniochaetales
Coniochaetaceae (2)
Cordanaceae (1)
Coniochaetales genera
incertae sedis (2)
Conioscyphales
Conioscyphaceae (1)
Coronophorales
Bertiaceae (2)
Ceratostomataceae (16)
Chaetosphaerellaceae (3)
Coronophoraceae (1)
Nitschkiaceae (13)
Scortechiniaceae (11)
Coronophorales genera
incertae sedis (3)
Delonicicolales
Delonicicolaceae (2)
Leptosilliaceae (1)
Diaporthales
Apiosporopsidaceae (1)
Apoharknessiaceae (2)
Asterosporiaceae (1)
Auratiopycnidiellaceae (1)
Coryneaceae (2)
Cryphonectriaceae (27)
Cytosporaceae (6)
Diaporthaceae (15)
Diaporthosporellaceae (1)
Diaporthostomataceae (1)
Dwiroopaceae (1)
Erythrogloeaceae (4)
Foliocryphiaceae (2)#
Gnomoniaceae (37)
Harknessiaceae (2)
Juglanconidaceae (2)
Lamproconiaceae (2)
Macrohilaceae (1)
Mastigosporellaceae (1)
Melanconidaceae (1)
Melanconiellaceae (7)
Neomelanconiellaceae (1)
Phaeoappendicosporaceae (2)
Prosopidicolaceae (1)
Pseudomelanconidaceae (3)
Pseudoplagiostomataceae (1)
Pyrisporaceae (1)
Schizoparmaceae (1)
Stilbosporaceae (4)
69
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Sydowiellaceae (16)
Synnemasporellaceae (1)
Tubakiaceae (8)
Diaporthales genera
incertae sedis (36)
Distoseptisporales
Distoseptisporaceae (1)
Falcocladiales
Falcocladiaceae (1)
Fuscosporellales
Fuscosporellaceae (6)
Glomerellales
Australiascaceae (1)
Glomerellaceae (1)
Malaysiascaceae (1)
Plectosphaerellaceae (24)
Reticulascaceae (4)
Glomerellales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Hypocreales
Bionectriaceae (47)
Calcarisporiaceae (1)
Clavicipitaceae (50)
Cocoonihabitaceae (1)
Cordycipitaceae (21)
Cylindriaceae (1)
Flammocladiellaceae (1)
Hypocreaceae (17)
Myrotheciomycetaceae (4)
Nectriaceae (70)
Niessliaceae (21)
Ophiocordycipitaceae (12)
Sarocladiaceae (2)
Stachybotryaceae (39)
Tilachlidiaceae (3)
Hypocreales genera
incertae sedis (30)
Jobellisiales
Jobellisiaceae (1)
Koralionastetales
Koralionastetaceae (2)
Lulworthiales
Lulworthiaceae (16)
Magnaporthales
Ceratosphaeriaceae (1)
Magnaporthaceae (24)
Ophioceraceae (2)
Pseudohalonectriaceae (1)
Pyriculariaceae (11)
Meliolales
Armatellaceae (1)
Meliolaceae (8)
Microascales
Ceratocystidaceae (11)
Chadefaudiellaceae (2)
Gondwanamycetaceae (2)
Graphiaceae (1)
Halosphaeriaceae (68)
Microascaceae (23)
Triadelphiaceae (2)
Microascales genera
incertae sedis (5)
Myrmecridiales
Myrmecridiaceae (2)
Xenodactylariaceae (1)
Ophiostomatales
Kathistaceae (3)
Ophiostomataceae (12)
Pararamichloridiales
Pararamichloridiaceae (1)
70
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Parasympodiellales
Parasympodiellaceae (1)
Phomatosporales
Phomatosporaceae (3)
Phyllachorales
Phaeochoraceae (4)
Phaeochorellaceae (1)
Phyllachoraceae (54)
Telimenaceae (1)
Phyllachorales genera
incertae sedis (2)
Pisorisporiales
Pisorisporiaceae (2)
Pisorisporiales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Pleurotheciales
Pleurotheciaceae (14)
Pseudodactylariales
Pseudodactylariaceae (1)
Savoryellales
Savoryellaceae (6)
Sordariales
Bombardiaceae (5)#
Chaetomiaceae (42)
Diplogelasinosporaceae (1)#
Lasiosphaeriaceae (7)
Lasiosphaeridaceae (1)#
Naviculisporaceae (4)#
Neoschizotheciaceae (8)#
Podosporaceae (3)
Schizotheciaceae (3)#
Sordariaceae (5)
Strattoniaceae (1)#
Zygospermellaceae (2)#
Sordariales genera
incertae sedis (29)
Spathulosporales
Hispidicarpomycetaceae (1)
Spathulosporaceae (2)
Sporidesmiales
Sporidesmiaceae (1)
Tirisporellales
Tirisporellaceae (3)
Togniniales
Togniniaceae (2)
Torpedosporales
Etheirophoraceae (2)
Juncigenaceae (6)
Torpedosporaceae (1)
Tracyllalales
Tracyllaceae (2)
Vermiculariopsiellales
Vermiculariopsiellaceae (3)
Xenospadicoidales
Xenospadicoidaceae (5)
Xylariales
Anungitiomycetaceae (3)
Barrmaeliaceae (2)
Cainiaceae (10)
Clypeosphaeriaceae (7)
Coniocessiaceae (2)
Diatrypaceae (22)
Fasciatisporaceae (1)
Graphostromataceae (5)
Hansfordiaceae (1)
Hypoxylaceae (18)
Induratiaceae (2)
Lopadostomataceae (4)
Microdochiaceae (3)
Polystigmataceae (1)
Nothodactylariaceae (1)
Requienellaceae (4)
Vamsapriyaceae (1)#
71
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Xyladictyochaetaceae (2)
Xylariaceae (38)
Zygosporiaceae (1)
Xylariales genera
incertae sedis (57)
Incertae sedis
Acrodictyaceae (1)
Aquapteridosporaceae (1)#
Barbatosphaeriaceae (3)
Batistiaceae (1)
Junewangiaceae (4)
Lautosporaceae (1)
Myelospermataceae (1)
Obryzaceae (1)
Papulosaceae (4)
Rhamphoriaceae (4)
Thyridiaceae (2)
Trichosphaeriaceae (11)
Woswasiaceae (3)
Sordariomycetes genera
incertae sedis (131)
Taphrinomycetes
Taphrinales
Protomycetaceae (6)
Taphrinaceae (1)
Xylobotryomycetes
Xylobotryales
Cirrosporiaceae (1)
Xylobotryaceae (1)
Xylonomycetes
Symbiotaphrinales
Symbiotaphrinaceae (1)
Xylonales
Xylonaceae (2)
Incertae sedis
Thelocarpales
Thelocarpaceae (2)
Vezdaeales
Vezdaeaceae (1)
Incertae sedis
Incertae sedis
Aphanopsidaceae (2)
Diporothecaceae (1)
Eoterfeziaceae (2)
Harpidiaceae (2)
Mucomassariaceae (1)
Saccardiaceae (6)
Seuratiaceae (2)
Strangosporaceae (1)
Ascomycota genera
incertae sedis (1466)
Basidiobolomycota
Basidiobolomycetes
Basidiobolales
Basidiobolaceae (2)
Basidiomycota
Agaricomycetes
Agaricales
Agaricaceae (59)
Amanitaceae (5)
Biannulariaceae (7)
Bolbitiaceae (15)
Broomeiaceae (1)
Callistosporiaceae (1)#
Chromocyphellaceae (1)
Clavariaceae (10)
Cortinariaceae (5)
Crassisporiaceae (2)
Crepidotaceae (6)
Cyphellaceae (16)
Cystostereaceae (7)
Entolomataceae (8)
Hemigasteraceae (1)
Hydnangiaceae (4)
Hygrophoraceae (27)
72
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Hymenogastraceae (10)
Inocybaceae (7)
Limnoperdaceae (1)
Lycoperdaceae (7)
Lyophyllaceae (19)
Macrocystidiaceae (1)
Marasmiaceae (10)
Mycenaceae (15)
Mythicomycetaceae (2)
Niaceae (9)
Omphalotaceae (16)
Phyllotopsidaceae (3)#
Physalacriaceae (28)
Pleurotaceae (5)
Pluteaceae (3)
Porotheleaceae (3)
Psathyrellaceae (21)
Pseudoclitocybaceae (7)
Pterulaceae (12)
Radulomycetaceae (2)#
Sarcomyxaceae (1)#
Schizophyllaceae (3)
Stephanosporaceae (5)
Strophariaceae (12)
Tricholomataceae (10)
Tubariaceae (7)
Typhulaceae (3)
Agaricales genera
incertae sedis (133)
Amylocorticiales
Amylocorticiaceae (12)
Atheliales
Atheliaceae (20)
Lobuliciaceae (1)#
Auriculariales
Auriculariaceae (12)
Hyaloriaceae (3)
Auriculariales genera
incertae sedis (36)
Boletales
Boletaceae (95)
Boletinellaceae (2)
Calostomataceae (1)
Coniophoraceae (6)
Diplocystidiaceae (4)
Gasterellaceae (1)
Gomphidiaceae (4)
Gyroporaceae (1)
Hygrophoropsidaceae (2)
Paxillaceae (10)
Protogastraceae (1)
Rhizopogonaceae (3)
Sclerodermataceae (5)
Serpulaceae (3)
Suillaceae (2)
Tapinellaceae (3)
Boletales genera
incertae sedis (4)
Cantharellales
Aphelariaceae (3)
Botryobasidiaceae (6)
73
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Ceratobasidiaceae (6)
Hydnaceae (22)
Oliveoniaceae (1)
Tulasnellaceae (2)
Cantharellales genera
incertae sedis (8)
Corticiales
Corticiaceae (13)
Dendrominiaceae (1)
Punctulariaceae (3)
Vuilleminiaceae (3)
Corticiales genera
incertae sedis (7)
Geastrales
Geastraceae (7)
Sclerogastraceae (1)
Geastrales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Gloeophyllales
Gloeophyllaceae (12)
Gloeophyllales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Gomphales
Clavariadelphaceae (2)
Gomphaceae (14)
Lentariaceae (3)
Hymenochaetales
Hymenochaetaceae (42)
Neoantrodiellaceae (1)
Nigrofomitaceae (1)
Oxyporaceae (1)
Rickenellaceae (9)
Schizoporaceae (14)
Hymenochaetales
genera incertae sedis
(15)
Hysterangiales
Gallaceaceae (3)
Hysterangiaceae (4)
Mesophelliaceae (8)
Phallogastraceae (2)
Trappeaceae (3)
Jaapiales
Jaapiaceae (1)
Lepidostromatales
Lepidostromataceae (3)
Phallales
Claustulaceae (5)
Gastrosporiaceae (1)
Phallaceae (26)
Phallales genera
incertae sedis (2)
Polyporales
Cerrenaceae (4)
Dacryobolaceae (7)
Fomitopsidaceae (25)
Fragiliporiaceae (1)
Ganodermataceae (3)
Gelatoporiaceae (4)
Grifolaceae (2)
Hyphodermataceae (1)
Incrustoporiaceae (5)
Irpicaceae (15)
Ischnodermataceae (1)
Laetiporaceae (3)
Meripilaceae (3)
74
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Meruliaceae (22)
Panaceae (2)
Phanerochaetaceae (18)
Podoscyphaceae (3)
Polyporaceae (90)
Sparassidaceae (3)
Steccherinaceae (23)
Polyporales genera
incertae sedis (67)
Russulales
Albatrellaceae (8)
Auriscalpiaceae (6)
Bondarzewiaceae (9)
Echinodontiaceae (3)
Hericiaceae (6)
Hybogasteraceae (1)
Peniophoraceae (16)
Russulaceae (7)
Stereaceae (22)
Terrestriporiaceae (1)
Xenasmataceae (3)
Russulales genera
incertae sedis (15)
Sebacinales
Sebacinaceae (8)
Serendipitaceae (1)
Stereopsidales
Stereopsidaceae (1)
Thelephorales
Bankeraceae (5)
Thelephoraceae (9)
Thelephorales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Trechisporales
Hydnodontaceae (13)
Trechisporales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Tremellodendropsidale
s
Tremellodendropsidaceae (1)
Agaricomycetes genera
incertae sedis (41)
Agaricostilbomycetes
Agaricostilbales
Agaricostilbaceae (3)
Chionosphaeraceae (6)
Jianyuniaceae (3)#
Kondoaceae (2)
Ruineniaceae (1)
Agaricostilbales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Agaricostilbomycetes
genus incertae sedis (1)
Atractiellomycetes
Atractiellales
Atractogloeaceae (1)
Hoehnelomycetaceae (2)
Phleogenaceae (7)
Bartheletiomycetes
Bartheletiales
Bartheletiaceae (1)
Classiculomycetes
Classiculales
Classiculaceae (2)
Cryptomycocolacomycetes
Cryptomycocolacales
Cryptomycocolacaceae (2)
Cystobasidiomycetes
Buckleyzymales
Buckleyzymaceae (1)
Cystobasidiales
Cystobasidiaceae (3)
Cystobasidiales genera
incertae sedis (2)
Erythrobasidiales
Erythrobasidiaceae (2)
75
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Erythrobasidiales
genera incertae sedis
(3)
Naohideales
Naohideaceae (1)
Sakaguchiales
Sakaguchiaceae (1)
Incertae sedis
Microsporomycetaceae (2)
Symmetrosporaceae (1)
Cystobasidiomycetes
genus incertae sedis (1)
Dacrymycetes
Dacrymycetales
Cerinomycetaceae (1)
Dacrymycetaceae (9)
Unilacrymales
Unilacrymaceae (1)
incertae sedis
Dacryonaemataceae (1)
Exobasidiomycetes
Ceraceosorales
Ceraceosoraceae (1)
Doassansiales
Doassansiaceae (11)
Melaniellaceae (1)
Rhamphosporaceae (1)
Entylomatales
Entylomataceae (2)
Exobasidiales
Brachybasidiaceae (6)
Cryptobasidiaceae (6)
Exobasidiaceae (4)
Graphiolaceae (2)
Laurobasidiaceae (1)
Georgefischeriales
Eballistraceae (1)
Georgefischeriaceae (2)
Gjaerumiaceae (1)
Tilletiariaceae (3)
Golubeviales
Golubeviaceae (1)
Microstromatales
Microstromataceae (1)
Quambalariaceae (1)
Volvocisporiaceae (1)
Microstromatales
genera incertae sedis
(4)
Robbauerales
Robbaueraceae (1)
Tilletiales
Erratomycetaceae (1)
Tilletiaceae (6)
Malasseziomycetes
Malasseziales
Malasseziaceae (1)
Microbotryomycetes
Heitmaniales#
Heitmaniaceae (1)#
Heterogastridiales
Heterogastridiaceae (3)
Kriegeriales
Camptobasidiaceae (3)
Kriegeriaceae (4)
Leucosporidiales
Leucosporidiaceae (1)
Microbotryales
Microbotryaceae (5)
Ustilentylomataceae (4)
Rosettozymales#
Rosettozymaceae (1)#
Sporidiobolales
Sporidiobolaceae (3)
Incertae sedis
Chrysozymaceae (4)
Colacogloeaceae (1)
Microbotryomycetes
genera incertae sedis (15)
Mixiomycetes
Mixiales
Mixiaceae (1)
Moniliellomycetes
Moniliellales
Moniliellaceae (1)
Pucciniomycetes
Helicobasidiales
Helicobasidiaceae (2)
Pachnocybales
Pachnocybaceae (1)
Platygloeales
Eocronartiaceae (5)
76
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Platygloeaceae (4)
Pucciniales
Araucariomycetaceae (1)#
Chaconiaceae (8)
Coleosporiaceae (7)
Cronartiaceae (3)
Crossopsoraceae (6)#
Endoraeciaceae (1)#
Gymnosporangiaceae (1)#
Melampsoraceae (1)
Mikronegeriaceae (3)
Milesinaceae (4)#
Neophysopellaceae (1)#
Ochropsoraceae (2)#
Phakopsoraceae (12)
Phragmidiaceae (13)
Pileolariaceae (2)
Pucciniaceae (20)
Pucciniastraceae (6)
Pucciniosiraceae (10)
Raveneliaceae (24)
Rogerpetersoniaceae (1)#
Skierkaceae (1)#
Sphaerophragmiaceae (2)
Tranzscheliaceae (2)#
Uncolaceae (2)
Uromycladiaceae (1)#
Uropyxidaceae (13)
Pucciniales genera
incertae sedis (25)
Septobasidiales
Septobasidiaceae (6)
Spiculogloeomycetes
Spiculogloeales
Spiculogloeaceae (2)
Spiculogloeomycetes genus
incertae sedis (1)
Tremellomycetes
Chionasterales#
Chionasteraceae (1)#
Cystofilobasidiales
Cystofilobasidiaceae (1)
Mrakiaceae (7)
Filobasidiales
Filobasidiaceae (5)
Piskurozymaceae (2)
Holtermanniales
Holtermanniaceae (2)
Tremellales
Bulleraceae (4)
Bulleribasidiaceae (6)
Carcinomycetaceae (1)
Cryptococcaceae (3)
Cuniculitremaceae (3)
Naemateliaceae (2)
Phaeotremellaceae (2)
Phragmoxenidiaceae (1)
Rhynchogastremaceae (3)
Sirobasidiaceae (1)
Tremellaceae (3)
Trimorphomycetaceae (4)
Tremellales genera
incertae sedis (8)
Trichosporonales
Tetragoniomycetaceae (3)
Trichosporonaceae (8)
77
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Tremellomycetes genera
incertae sedis (3)
Tritirachiomycetes
Tritirachiales
Tritirachiaceae (2)
Ustilaginomycetes
Uleiellales
Uleiellaceae (1)
Urocystidales
Doassansiopsidaceae (1)
Fereydouniaceae (1)
Floromycetaceae (2)
Glomosporiaceae (1)
Mycosyringaceae (1)
Urocystidaceae (7)
Ustilaginales
Anthracoideaceae (20)
Clintamraceae (1)
Geminaginaceae (1)
Melanotaeniaceae (3)
Pericladiaceae (1)
Ustilaginaceae (24)
Websdaneaceae (2)
Violaceomycetales
Violaceomycetaceae (1)
Ustilaginomycetes genera
incertae sedis (2)
Wallemiomycetes
Geminibasidiales
Geminibasidiaceae (2)
Wallemiales
Wallemiaceae (1)
Wallemiomycetes genus
incertae sedis (1)
Basidiomycota genera
incertae sedis (11)
Blastocladiomycota
Blastocladiomycetes
Blastocladiales
Blastocladiaceae (3)
Catenariaceae (2)
Paraphysodermataceae (1)
Sorochytriaceae (1)
Blastocladiales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Callimastigales
Callimastigaceae (1)
Catenomycetales
Catenomycetaceae (1)
Coelomomycetaceae (2)
Blastocladiomycetes genus
incertae sedis (1)
Physodermatomycetes
Physodermatales
Physodermataceae (1)
Calcarisporiellomycota
Calcarisporiellomycetes
Calcarisporiellales
Calcarisporiellaceae (2)
Caulochytriomycota
Caulochytriomycetes
Caulochytriales
Caulochytriaceae (1)
Chytridiomycota
Chytridiomycetes
Chytridiales
Asterophlyctaceae (2)
Chytridiaceae (6)
Chytriomycetaceae (11)
Phlyctochytriaceae (1)
Phlyctorhizaceae (1)
Pseudorhizidiaceae (1)
Scherffeliomycetaceae (1)
Zygorhizidiaceae (1)
Chytridiales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Nephridiophagales
Nephridiophagaceae (4)
Polyphagales
Polyphagaceae (1)
Saccopodiales
Saccopodiaceae (1)
Incertae sedis
Amoebochytriaceae (1)
Sparrowiaceae (1)
Sphaeromonadaceae (1)
78
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Tetrachytriaceae (1)
Thalassochytriaceae (1)
Chytridiomycetes genera
incertae sedis (39)
Cladochytriomycetes
Cladochytriales
Catenochytridiaceae (1)
Cladochytriaceae (1)
Endochytriaceae (2)
Nowakowskiellaceae (1)
Septochytriaceae (1)
Cladochytriales genera
incertae sedis (3)
Lobulomycetes
Lobulomycetales
Alogomycetaceae (1)
Lobulomycetaceae (4)
Lobulomycetales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Mesochytriomycetes
Gromochytriales
Gromochytriaceae (1)
Mesochytriales
Mesochytriaceae (1)
Polychytriomycetes
Polychytriales
Arkayaceae (1)
Polychytriaceae (4)
Rhizophydiomycetes
Rhizophydiales
Alphamycetaceae (3)
Angulomycetaceae (1)
Aquamycetaceae (1)
Batrachochytriaceae (1)
Collimycetaceae (1)
Coralloidiomycetaceae (1)
Dinomycetaceae (1)
Ericiomycetaceae (1)#
Globomycetaceae (2)
Gorgonomycetaceae (1)
Halomycetaceae (4)
Kappamycetaceae (1)
Operculomycetaceae (1)
Pateramycetaceae (1)
Protrudomycetaceae (1)
Rhizophydiaceae (1)
Staurastromycetaceae (1)
Terramycetaceae (2)
Uebelmesseromycetaceae (1)
Rhizophydiales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Rhizophlyctidomycetes
Rhizophlyctidales
Arizonaphlyctidaceae (1)
Borealophlyctidaceae (1)
Rhizophlyctidaceae (1)
Sonoraphlyctidaceae (1)
Spizellomycetes
Spizellomycetales
Powellomycetaceae (4)
Spizellomycetaceae (8)
Synchytriomycetes
Synchytriales
Synchytriaceae (4)
Synchytriales genus
incertae sedis (1)
incertae sedis
incertae sedis
Quaeritorhizaceae (1)#
Chytridiomycota genera
incertae sedis (3)
Entomophthoromycota
Entomophthoromycetes
Entomophthorales
Ancylistaceae (5)
Completoriaceae (1)
Entomophthoraceae (11)
Meristacraceae (1)
79
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Neozygitomycetes
Neozygitales
Neozygitaceae (3)
Entorrhizomycota
Entorrhizomycetes
Entorrhizales
Entorrhizaceae (1)
Talbotiomycetales
Talbotiomycetaceae (1)
Glomeromycota
Archaeosporomycetes
Archaeosporales
Ambisporaceae (1)
Archaeosporaceae (3)
Geosiphonaceae (1)
Polonosporaceae (1)#
Glomeromycetes
Diversisporales
Acaulosporaceae (1)
Diversisporaceae (7)
Pacisporaceae (1)
Sacculosporaceae (1)
Gigasporales
Dentiscutataceae (3)
Gigasporaceae (1)
Intraornatosporaceae (2)
Racocetraceae (2)
Scutellosporaceae (3)
Glomerales
Entrophosporaceae (3)
Glomeraceae (17)
Paraglomeromycetes
Paraglomerales
Paraglomeraceae (2)
Pervetustaceae (1)
Kickxellomycota
Asellariomycetes
Asellarialles
Asellariaceae (1)
Asellariales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Barbatosporomycetes
Barbatosporales
Barbatosporaceae (1)
Dimargaritomycetes
Dimargaritales
Dimargaritaceae (3)
Dimargaritales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Harpellomycetes
Harpellales
Harpellaceae (6)
Legeriomycetaceae (38)
Harpellales genus
incertae sedis (1)
Kickxellomycetes
Kickxellales
Kickxellaceae (11)
Ramicandelaberomycetes
Ramicandelaberales
Ramicandelaberaceae (1)
Monoblepharomycota
Hyaloraphidiomycetes
Hyaloraphidiales
Hyaloraphidiaceae (1)
Monoblepharidomycetes
Monoblepharidales
Gonapodyaceae (2)
Harpochytriaceae (1)
Monoblepharidaceae (1)
Oedogoniomycetaceae (1)
Telasphaerulaceae (1)
Mortierellomycota
Mortierellomycetes
Mortierellales
Mortierellaceae (13)
Mucoromycota
Endogonomycetes
Endogonales
Densosporaceae (1)
Endogonaceae (6)
Mucoromycetes
Mucorales
Backusellaceae (1)
Choanephoraceae (4)
Cunninghamellaceae (6)
Lentamycetaceae (1)
Lichtheimiaceae (9)
Mucoraceae (20)
Mycocladaceae (1)
Mycotyphaceae (1)
Phycomycetaceae (2)
Pilobolaceae (2)
Radiomycetaceae (1)
Rhizopodaceae (3)
Saksenaeaceae (2)
Syncephalastraceae (2)
80
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Umbelopsidomycetes
Umbelopsidales
Pygmaeomycetaceae (1)#
Umbelopsidaceae (1)
Mucoromycota genus
incertae sedis (1)
Neocallimastigomycota
Neocallimastigomycetes
Neocallimastigales
Neocallimastigaceae (19)
Olpidiomycota
Olpidiomycetes
Olpidiales
Olpidiaceae (4)
Rozellomycota
Rudimicrosporea
Metchnikovellida
Amphiacanthidae (1)
Metchnikovellidae (4)
Microsporidea
Amblyosporida
Amblyosporidae (17)
Caudosporidae (10)
Gurleyidae (13)
Amblyosporida genera
incertae sedis (5)
Neopereziida
Berwaldiidae (2)
Neopereziidae (6)
Tubulinosematidae (3)
Neopereziida genera
incertae sedis (2)
Ovavesiculida
Ovavesiculidae (3)
Ovavesiculida genus
incertae sedis (1)
Glugeida
Facilisporidae (1)
Glugeidae (9)
Myosporidae (1)
Pereziidae (4)
Pleistophoridae (7)
Spragueidae (7)
Thelohaniidae (15)
Unikaryonidae (4)
Glugeida genus
incertae sedis (1)
Nosematida
Encephalitozoonidae (2)
Enterocytozoonidae (6)
Heterovesiculidae (1)
Mrazekiidae (9)
Nosematidae (2)
Ordosporidae (1)
Nosematida genera
incertae sedis (16)
Incertae sedis
Abelsporidae (1)
Areosporiidae (1)
Burenellidae (3)
Cougourdellidae (1)
Cylindrosporidae (1)
Duboscqiidae (5)
Golbergiidae (3)
Microfilidae (1)
Neonosemoidiidae (1)
Pleistosporidiidae (1)
Pseudopleistophoridae (2)
Striatosporidae (1)
Telomyxidae (1)
Toxoglugeidae (2)
Tuzetiidae (4)
Incertae sedis
Chytridiopsida
Buxtehudiidae (2)
Chytridiopsidae (4)
81
Table 2 Continued.
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Hesseidae (1)
Rozellomycota genera
incertae sedis (4)
Sanchytriomycota#
Sanchytriomycetes
Sanchytriales
Sanchytriaceae (2)
Zoopagomycota
Zoopagomycetes
Zoopagales
Cochlonemataceae (7)
Helicocephalidaceae (4)
Piptocephalidaceae (3)
Sigmoideomycetaceae (4)
Zoopagaceae (7)
Zoopagales genus
incertae sedis (1)
(Orders/Families could be listed under different subclasses in the outline. In the table, we do
not consider auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic ranks. Newly introduced taxa are indicated by #).
Table 3 Classes, subclasses, orders and families of the Eumycetozoa with number of genera (in
brackets).
Class
Subclass
Order
Family
Dictyosteliomycetes
Acytosteliales
Acytosteliaceae (3)
Cavenderiaceae (1)
Dictyosteliales
Dictyosteliaceae (2)
Raperosteliaceae (4)
Incertae sedis (1)
Incertae sedis (1)
Ceratiomyxomycetes
Ceratiomyxales
Ceratiomyxaceae (1)
Protosporangiidae (2)
Myxomycetes
Lucisporomycetidae
Cribrariales
Cribrariaceae (3)
Reticulariales
Reticulariaceae (4)
Liceales
Liceaceae (2)
Trichiales
Dianemataceae (4)
Trichiaceae (8)
Incertae sedis (4)
Columellomycetidae
Echinosteliopsidales
Echinosteliopsidaceae (1)
Echinosteliales
Echinosteliaceae (3)
Clastodermatales
Clastodermataceae (1)
Meridermatales
Meridermataceae (1)
Stemonitidales
Amaurochaetaceae (7)
Stemonitidaceae (3)
Physarales
Lamprodermataceae (5)
Didymiaceae (4)
Physaraceae (9)
Incertae sedis (5)
Materials & Methods
Kingdom Fungi
We used Kirk et al. (2008, 2013) Lumbsch & Huhndorf (2010), Hyde et al. (2011, 2013),
Humber (2012), Wijayawardene et al. (2012, 2017a, b, 2018a, b), Species Fungorum (2021),
Catalogue of Life (http://www.catalogueoflife.org/), Benny et al. (2016), Lücking et al. (2016),
Spatafora et al. (2016), Desirò et al. (2017), Kraichak et al. (2018) and Tedersoo et al. (2018) to
compile genera and other higher taxonomic ranks into a single outline. Index Fungorum (2021),
82
LIAS names (http://liasnames.lias.net/) and MycoBank (http://www.mycobank.org/) were
consulted for supplementary information on synonyms. Number of speices accepted in each genus
is given in brackets. Notes are provided for recently introduced genera as well as changes in
classification (marked with an asterisk in the outline).
The subdivision of Rozellomycota at the order and family levels is interpreted according to
the phylogenetic relationships of the respective type genera representatives and follows
Wijayawardene et al. (2020a). The style of higher-rank taxa names of Rozellomycota reflects the
fact that historically Microsporidia were considered as a part of the Protozoa phylum within the
Animalia kingdom (Issi 2020). The list of genera is updated in accordance with the acknowledged
checklists (Becnel et al. 2014, Cali et al. 2017, Sokolova et al. 2018) and recent introductions of
novel genera (Bojko et al. 2020, 2021, Yakovleva et al. 2020) and species as well as some papers
missing from the compendium (Vavra et al. 2016).
Classification of the Glomeromycota
Classification of Glomeromycota, which includes all arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)
and Geosiphon pyriforme (Kütz.) F. Wettst., has been discussed for a long time with some
disagreements (Kaonongbua et al. 2010, Morton & Msiska 2010, Oehl et al 2011a, b, Goto et al.
2012, Redecker et al. 2013, Tedersoo et al. 2018, Wijayawardene et al. 2020a). We provide the
latest classification system (phyla to genera) based on the phylogenetic evidence available up to
now, using the available multigene phylogenies to confirm the supported taxa ranking (Jobim et al.
2019, Blaszkowski et al. 2019, 2020, 2021a, b).
Fungus-like taxa
The classification systems used for the Dictyosteliomycetes and Myxomycetes as presented
herein are based on the critical revisions of Sheikh et al. (2018) and Leontyev et al. (2019),
respectively. In each paper, the taxonomy of the particular group was strongly revised based on
original 18S rDNA phylogenies and analyses of morphological synapomorphies. The separation of
the order Echinosteliopsidales is based on phylogeny, published by Shchepin et al. (2019).
In this classification, we have included all genera of the Eumycetozoa accepted as valid in the
nomenclatural database of Lado (20052021), although some of the smaller myxomycete genera
will probably be incorporated into larger ones based on phylogenetic data (Leontyev et al. 2019).
This is likely to be the case for such genera as Arcyodes, Badhamia, Collaria, Colloderma,
Cornuvia, Elaeomyxa, Metatrichia, Diacheopsis, Listerella, Oligonema and Semimorula.
The monophyly of the genus Stemonitis was recently called into question based on the single-
gene phylogeny (Strelow et al. 2020). In the tree presented by these authors Stemonitis splits into
two branches, one of which belongs to the family Stemonitidaceae, and the other to
Amaurochateaceae. The second branch contains the type species of the genus, S. fusca Roth, and
this makes further use of the name Stemonitidacae impossible. However, these data contradict
previous phylogenies, based on the same gene (18S rDNA). Therefore, at this state of knowledge
we have refrained from corresponding taxonomic rearrangements in the group.
Phylogenetic methods
a. Multi-gene tree for Kingdom Fungi
A dataset from Wijayawardene et al. (2020a) was used to generate a phylogeny for the
Kingdom Fungi. This dataset was complemented with 18S rRNA (SSU), 28S rRNA (LSU), rpb1
and rpb2 sequences from one representative of each of the orders which have been introduced
recently (i.e. Aureoconidiellales, Cancellidiales, Catabotryales, Comminutisporales,
Coniosporiales, Heitmaniales, Holmiellales, Homortomycetales, Lineaolatales, Neophaeothecales,
Phaeothecales, Racodiales, Rosettozymales, Triblidiales and Xylonomycetales). The new sequences
of each gene region were aligned separately using MAFFT v. 7.407 (Katoh & Standley 2013) and
then manually incorporated into the Wijayawardene et al. (2020a) dataset. The final supermatrix
83
included 448 taxa and 7699 positions. A maximum likelihood phylogeny was inferred using
RAxML v. 8.2.10 (Stamatakis 2014) with 100 bootstrap replicates treating each gene region as a
separate partition.
b. Glomeromycota
The LSU rDNA sequences were retrieved from GenBank, aligned and processed as described
by de Souza et al. (2018). Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees were calculated using IQ-Tree
(http://www.iqtree.org/) with 1000 standard bootstraps (Minh et al. 2020) under the evolutionary
model GTR+F+R3 (Kalyaanamoorthy et al. 2017). The Bayesian inference was calculated using
MrBayes (Ronquist et al. 2012) under Mixed models with 4 chains and 2 runs, 50000000
generations, sampled every 1000 generations. That analysis was run online using the CIPRES
gateway (Miller et al. 2010). The generated tree is displayed in the discussion (Fig. 2).
Results
Phylogenetic analyses
The newly generated tree is displayed in Fig. 1. Placements of newly introduced orders agree
with the original publications.
Outline of fungi
APHELIDIOMYCOTA Tedersoo, Sanchez-Ramirez, Kõljalg, Bahram, M. Döring, Schigel, T.W.
May, M. Ryberg & Abarenkov
Aphelidiomycetes Tedersoo, Sanchez-Ramirez, Kõljalg, Bahram, M. Döring, Schigel, T.W. May,
M. Ryberg & Abarenkov
Aphelidiales Tedersoo, Sanchez-Ramirez, Kõljalg, Bahram, M. Döring, Schigel, T.W. May, M.
Ryberg & Abarenkov
Aphelidiaceae Tedersoo, Sanchez-Ramirez, Kõljalg, Bahram, M. Döring, Schigel, T.W. May, M.
Ryberg & Abarenkov
Amoeboaphelidium Scherff. (5)
Aphelidium Zopf (7)
Paraphelidium Karpov, Moreira, López-García (2)
Pseudaphelidium Schweikert & Schnepf (1)
ASCOMYCOTA Caval.-Sm.
Subphylum PEZIZOMYCOTINA O.E. Erikss. & Winka
Class Arthoniomycetes O.E. Erikss. & Winka
Arthoniales Henssen ex D. Hawksw. & O.E. Erikss.
Andreiomycetaceae B.P. Hodk. & Lendemer
Andreiomyces B.P. Hodk. & Lendemer (2)
Arthoniaceae Reichenb. ex Reichenb.
Amazonomyces Bat. (2)
Arthonia Ach. (ca. 50 + ca. 300 orphaned)
Arthothelium A. Massal. (10 + ca. 100 orphaned)
Briancoppinsia Diederich, Ertz, Lawrey & van den Boom (1)
Coniarthonia Grube (12)
Coniocarpon DC. (6)
Crypthonia Frisch & G. Thor (16)
Cryptophaea Van den Broeck & Ertz (1)
Cryptothecia Stirt. (ca. 65)
Diarthonis Clem. (1)*
84
Figure 1 Maximum likelihood phylogeny of the kingdom fungi based on nRNA LSU, nRNA
SSU, RPB1 and RPB2 sequence data. Numbers above branches indicate bootstrap support, only
values >50% are included.
85
Figure 1 Continued.
86
Figure 1 Continued.
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Figure 1 Continued.
88
Figure 1 Continued.
89
Eremothecella Syd. & P. Syd. (8)
Glomerulophoron Frisch, Ertz & G. Thor (1)
Helicobolomyces Matzer (2)
Herpothallon Tobler (ca. 50)
Inoderma (Ach.) Gray (5)
Leprantha Dufour ex Körb. (1)
Myriostigma Kremp. (7)
Naevia Fr. (3)*
Pachnolepia A. Massal. (1)
Reichlingia Diederich & Scheid. (7)
Snippocia Ertz, Kukwa & Sanderson (1)
Sporodophoron Frisch (4)
Staurospora Grube (1)*
Stirtonia A.L. Sm. (ca. 25)
Synarthonia Müll. Arg. (22)*
Tylophoron Nyl. ex Stizenb. (8 + 3 orphaned in Sporodochiolichen Aptroot & Sipman)
Chrysotrichaceae Zahlbr.
Chrysothrix Mont. (ca. 19)
Galbinothrix Frisch, G. Thor, K. H. Moon & Y. Ohmura (1)
Melarthonis Frisch & G. Thor (1)
Lecanographaceae Ertz, Tehler, G. Thor & Frisch
Alyxoria Ach. (18)
Heterocyphelium Vain. (2)
Lecanographa Egea & Torrente (ca. 40)
Mixtoconidium Etayo (2)
Phacographa Hafellner (3)
Phoebus R.C. Harris & Ladd (1)*
Plectocarpon Fée (ca. 40)
Zwackhia Körb. (6)
Opegraphaceae Körb. ex Stizenb.
Combea De Not. (1)
Dictyographa Müll. Arg. (2)
Dolichocarpus R. Sant. (2)
Fouragea Trevis. (6)
Ingaderia Darb. (2)
Llimonaea Egea & Torrente (3)
Nyungwea Sérus., Eb. Fisch. & Killmann (4)
Opegrapha Ach. (= Kalaallia Alstrup & D. Hawksw.) (ca. 100 + ca. 200 orphaned)
Paraingaderia Ertz & Tehler (1)
Paralecanographa Ertz & & Tehler (1)
Paraschismatomma Ertz & Tehler (1)
Pentagenella Darb. (6)
Schizopelte Th. Fr. (4)
Sclerophyton Eschw. (ca. 15)
Sparria Ertz & Tehler (2)
Roccellaceae Chevall.
Ancistrosporella G. Thor (5)
Austrographa Sparrius, Elix & A.W. Archer (3)
90
Austroroccella Tehler & Ertz (1)
Baidera Ertz & Diederich (1)*
Chiodecton Ach. (ca. 22)
Cresponea Egea & Torrente (21)
Crocellina Tehler & Ertz (1)
Dendrographa Darb. (7)
Dichosporidium Pat. (8)
Dirina Fr. (24)
Diromma Ertz & Tehler (1)
Enterodictyon Müll. Arg. (2)
Enterographa Fée (ca. 55)
Erythrodecton G. Thor (3)
Follmanniella Peine & Werner (1)
Gorgadesia Tav. (1)
Graphidastra (Redinger) G. Thor (4)
Gyrographa Ertz & Tehler (3)
Gyronactis Ertz & Tehler (2)
Halographis Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm. (1)
Haplodina Zahlbr. (3)
Isalonactis Ertz, Tehler, Eb. Fisch., Killmann, Razafindr. & Sérus. (1)
Lecanactis Körb. (ca. 30)
Mazosia A. Massal. (27)
Neosergipea M. Cáceres, Ertz & Aptroot (4)
Ocellomma Ertz & Tehler (1)
Protoroccella Follmann ex Follmann (2)
Pseudolecanactis Zahlbr. (1)
Pseudoschismatomma Ertz & Tehler (1)
Psoronactis Ertz & Tehler (1)
Pulvinodecton Henssen & G. Thor (2)
Roccella DC. (24)
Roccellina Darb. (29)
Sagenidiopsis R.W. Rogers & Hafellner (5)
Schismatomma Flot. & Körb. ex A. Massal. (10)
Sigridea Tehler (6)
Simonyella J. Steiner (1)
Sipmania Egea & Torrente (1)
Streimannia G. Thor (1)
Syncesia Taylor (ca. 25)
Tania Egea, Torrente & Sipman (2)
Vigneronia Ertz (5)
Roccellographaceae Ertz & Tehler
Dimidiographa Ertz & Tehler (3)
Fulvophyton Ertz & Tehler (11)
Roccellographa J. Steiner (4)
Arthoniales genera incertae sedis
Angiactis Aptroot & Sparrius (3)
Arthophacopsis Hafellner (2)
Bactrospora A. Massal. (35)
Bryostigma Poelt & Döbbeler (15)
Catarraphia A. Massal. (1)
91
Felipes Frisch & G. Thor (1)
Glyphopsis Aptroot (1)
Gossypiothallon Aptroot (1)
Helminthocarpon Fee (3)
Hormosphaeria Lév. (1)
Minksia Müll. Arg. (2)
Nipholepis Syd. (1)
Paradoxomyces Matzer (1)
Perigrapha Hafellner (5)
Phacothecium Trevis. (1)
Sporostigma Grube (1)
Synarthothelium Sparrius (2)
Tarbertia Dennis (1)
Trichophyma Rehm (2)
Tylophorella Vain. (1)
Wegea Aptroot & Tibell (1)
Lichenostigmatales Ertz, Diederich & Lawrey
Phaeococcomycetaceae McGinnis & Schell
Etayoa Diederich & Ertz (1)
Lichenostigma Hafellner (= Phaeosporobolus D. Hawksw. & Hafellner) (5 and 26 orphaned
species)
Phaeococcomyces de Hoog (5)
Class Candelariomycetes Voglmayr & Jaklitsch
Subclass Candelariomycetidae Timdal & M. Westb.
Candelariales