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Abstract

The efficiency of a material based on the plant Thymus vulgaris L. for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions is investigated. The estimation of optimal parameters influencing the Cu(II) adsorption was studied by the batch method. Optimum pH value was found to be about 4. Kinetic of Cu(II) adsorption was very fast. Equilibrium experimental data were fitted to linear isotherm and kinetic models. It was established that the Langmuir isotherm most adequately described the adsorption process. The possibility for desorption was also studied. The results showed that the investigated biosorbent has good potential for removal of Cu(II) from contaminated wastewaters.

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... The utilization of biomass as adsorbent for the control of Cu(II) is efficient and sustainable. Biomass-derived adsorbents are derived from bacteria, algae, fungi, yeasts, composite, and agricultural wastes [20,38,39,62]. The characteristics of biosorbents dictates the removal mechanism of heavy metal, which can be physical or chemical, monolayer or multilayer [63]. ...
... Heavy metal pollution has negative effects on the human body, animals and the environment. Toxicity, persistence, mobility and non-biodegradability of metals make these elements very harmful [3]. The main sources of lead are: burning fossil fuels, gasoline, automobile emissions, mining and industry. ...
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In this study, an effective and novel nanocomposite (Fe3O4@TAS) was prepared and applied for the removal of Cd(II), Cr(III) and Co(II) from liquid medium. The mechanism for the adsorption was elucidated by investigating the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics, thoroughly. The maximum adsorption capacities as found by the Langmuir model were 286, 370 and 270 mg g⁻¹ for Cd(II), Cr(III) and Co(II), respectively. The structure, size, porosity and magnetic property, of the prepared magnetic nanocomposite were investigated by FT-IR, XPS, SEM-EDX, BET, XRD, HRTEM and VSM analyses. The saturation magnetization and BET surface area for Fe3O4@TAS were 41.4 emu g⁻¹ and 210.34 m² g⁻¹, respectively. Fe3O4@TAS was easily separated from aqueous solution using external magnet and it was regenerated by simple washing with 0.01 M HCl solution. The thermodynamic parameters showed that the involved process was spontaneous and exothermic. The findings inferred that Fe3O4@TAS had the efficiency in treating wastewater with coexisting metals such as Cd(II), Cr(III) and Co(II) metal ions.
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The biosorption of Cu(II) ion on chemically modified Lagenaria vulgaris shell was investigated as a function of temperature at different initial metal ion concentrations. Also, the effects of particles size and agitation rate on the adsorption yield were studied. Efficiency of biosorbent based on chemically modified Lagenaria vulgaris shell for Cu(II) ion removal from aqueous solution was studied in batch conditions. The thermodynamic parameters of copper biosorption indicated the process was spontaneous and exothermic. Kinetic models applied to the sorption data at various particle size showed that Cu(II) ion uptake process followed the pseudo-second order rate model and the adsorption rate constants decreased with increasing dimension of particles. Desorption studies revealed that the studied biosorbent can be regenerated using 0.1M HNO3 and reused. The results indicate that the chemically modified Lagenaria vulgaris shell can be use as a promising alternative for the adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution.
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Solanum melongena leaves are relatively galore and used as inexpensive material. This paper presents the characterization and evaluation of potential of S. melongena leaf powder (SMLP) for removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution as a function of pH, biomass dosage, initial metal ion concentration, contact time and temperature. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of three kinetic models such as the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models and the results showed that the biosorption processes of Pb(II) followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. Langmuir isotherm described the equilibrium data very well, with a maximum monolayer sorption capacity of 71.42mg/g for Pb(II) ions at 323K. The biosorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature with negative ΔG° (-8.746, -8.509 and -7.983kJ/mol) and positive value for ΔH° (3.698kJ/mol).
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In this study, three agro-waste materials were used as biosorbents for removal of copper (Cu) from water. This work aims to optimise conditions for preparation of these materials to obtain maximum Cu adsorption capacity. The optimal conditions were determined in terms of Cu removal efficiency and/or energy consumption. The results indicate that banana peels dried at 120°C for 2h and ground into powder form led to a better performance in terms of both copper removal efficiency and energy consumption. For sugarcane bagasse and watermelon rind, 120°C was the suitable drying temperature. However, the best drying time was 1h for sugarcane bagasse and 3h for watermelon rind. The powder form with size of <150 μm was optimal for all biosorbents in terms of removal efficiency and equilibration time. The findings are beneficial to the application of these agro-waste materials for Cu removal from water and wastewater treatment.
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Root tissues of two common weeds, Amaranthus spinosus and Solanum nigrum, were found to adsorb dissolved Cu2+ in aqueous solutions. The adsorption can be represented by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The equilibrium adsorption level was determined to be a function of initial solution pH and temperature. The adsorption capacity decreased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. Alkaline pretreatment of the root tissue doubled the adsorption capacity. Ground powders of the root tissues were immobilized within alginate gel beads (3 mm diameter) for use in a packed-bed column. The mass transfer coefficient was calculated using the rate of metal ion adsorption to the gel beads. Surface film mass transfer resistance was important. Continuous adsorption/desorption cycles for removing and concentrating Cu2+ in solution were performed using the packed-bed column, which would be useful for treating wastewater containing trace amounts of copper ions.
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Water hyacinth roots were employed as a biosorbent to remove Cu(II) in aqueous media. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis revealed that the biosorbent was mesoporous with a relatively small surface area. Equilibrium biosorption isotherms showed that the water hyacinth roots possessed a high affinity and sorption capacity for Cu(II) with a monolayer sorption capacity of 22.7 mg g(-1) at initial pH 5.5. Kinetics study at different temperatures revealed that the sorption was a rapid and endothermic process. The activation energy for Cu(II) sorption was estimated to be 30.8 kJ mol(-1), which is typical of activated chemisorption processes. The sorption mechanism was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, effect of pH and calcium release. These analyses suggested that the biosorption mainly involved the ion exchange of Cu(II) with cations and complex formation with functional groups on the surface of the roots. All the results showed that water hyacinth roots are an alternative low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous media.
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In this study, copper uptake by sour orange residue (SOR) was investigated. Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were obtained and the effects of solution pH, temperature, and particle size were studied in batch experiments. Equilibrium was well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and kinetics was found to be best-fit pseudo-second order equations. Maximum uptake was observed at pH 5. With an increase in temperature from 20 to 50 degrees C, copper removal decreased about 20%. Additional chemical treatment of the biosorbent by NaOH, increased the biosorption capacity. It was found that increase in biosorbent particle size had no significant effects on the final equilibrium concentration, but decreased biosorption rate.
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The litter of natural trembling poplar (Populus tremula) forest (LNTPF) was used for the biosorption of Cu(II) ions in a batch adsorption experiments. The sorption capacity of LNTPF was investigated as a function of pH, particle size, agitating speed, initial Cu(II) concentration, adsorbent concentration and temperature. The efficiency of copper uptake by the used LNTPF increases with a rise of solution pH, adsorbent concentration, agitating speed, temperature, and with a decline of particle size and initial Cu(II) concentration. The biosorption process was very fast; 94% of Cu(II) removal occurred within 5 min and equilibrium was reached at around 30 min. Batch adsorption models, based on the assumption of the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order mechanism were applied to examine the adsorption kinetics. The pseudo-second order model was found to best fit the kinetic data. EPR studies combined with FTIR spectroscopy were used to represent the biosorption mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaH degrees, DeltaS degrees and DeltaG degrees were calculated. The adsorption process was found to be endothermic and spontaneous. Equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir adsorption model. This study proved that the LNTPF can be used as an effective, cheap and abundant adsorbent for the treatment of Cu(II) containing wastewaters.
Feasibility of two bulgarian medicinal plant materials for removal of Cu2+ ions from aqueous solutions
  • Ivanova
Study on the adsorption mechanism of copper (II) ions onto Anethum graveolens L
  • Ivanova
Biosorption of copper (II) from aqueous solution by Ocimum bacilicum seeds biomass
  • Adeel
  • L Ivanova
  • P Vassileva
L. Ivanova, P. Vassileva and A. Detcheva Materials Today: Proceedings 61 (2022) 1237-1242
Feasibility of two bulgarian medicinal plant materials for removal of Cu 2+ ions from aqueous solutions
  • L Ivanova
  • P Vassileva
  • G Gencheva
  • A Detcheva
L. Ivanova, P. Vassileva, G. Gencheva, A. Detcheva, Feasibility of two bulgarian medicinal plant materials for removal of Cu 2+ ions from aqueous solutions, J. Environ. Prot. Ecol. 21 (2020) 37-45.
Study on the adsorption mechanism of copper (II) ions onto Anethum graveolens L
  • L P Ivanova
  • V G Koleva
  • P S Vassileva
  • I A Avramova
  • A K Detcheva
L.P. Ivanova, V.G. Koleva, P.S. Vassileva, I.A. Avramova, A.K. Detcheva, Study on the adsorption mechanism of copper (II) ions onto Anethum graveolens L, C R Acad. Bulg. Sci. 74 (2021) 1305-1313.
Biosorption of copper (II) from aqueous solution by Ocimum bacilicum seeds biomass
  • H M Adeel
  • B Parveen
  • N Rasool
  • M Riaz
  • K G Ali
  • Y Gull
  • M Noreen
  • M Asghar
H.M. Adeel, B. Parveen, N. Rasool, M. Riaz, K.G. Ali, Y. Gull, M. Noreen, M. Asghar, Biosorption of copper (II) from aqueous solution by Ocimum bacilicum seeds biomass, Int. J. Chem. Biochem. Sci. 4 (2013) 38-45.