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Catalog of Ferns, Gymnosperms and Flowering Plants of the Department of Arequipa, Peru

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Abstract

The catalog describes 1362 species of ferns and flowering plants for the department of Arequipa, more than 200 species more as reported in the last systematic inventory by Quipuscoa, Dillon, & Ortíz in 2006. Ninety-five species are mentioned for the first time for Arequipa and 26 species mentioned in the literature for the department were excluded. In addition to a brief description of the species, the catalog includes information on their ecology, distribution, and human use. In addition to information on systematics and phylogeny, the most important synonyms are listed in the appendix.
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Senecio beltranii , a new species of Asteraceae ( Senecioneae ) belonging to S. ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi , is described from the highland mountains of southern Peru. Morphologically, S. beltranii is similar to S. algens , but can easily be distinguished by its subshrub matt-forming habit, the presence of scattered papillose trichomes on stems and leaves, its pinnatilobate leaf shape, larger involucre and pedicel length, calycular bracts nearly glabrous, larger phyllary length and by the larger number of phyllaries. The major differences between the species are outlined in a morphological comparison table and discussed. The IUCN status is defined as Vulnerable (VU).
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Two new species of Werneria (Compositae, Senecioneae) are described from the highlands of central Peru on the basis of morphological evidence, namely W. huascarana and W. rockhauseniana. In addition, the misinterpreted taxonomic entity W. weberbaueriana is properly circumscribed according to the protologue. A neotype is designated for the name W. weberbaueriana. A key to the Werneria species occurring in the Peruvian department of Ancash is also presented. When data are certain, conservation status is assessed. Citation: Calvo J., Trinidad H. & Beltrán H. 2020: Two new species of Werneria from Peru and re-circumscription of W. weberbaueriana (Compositae, Senecioneae). – Willdenowia 50: 5–12. doi: https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.50.50101 Version of record first published online on 21 February 2020 ahead of inclusion in April 2020 issue.
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Aristida surperuanensis sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The new species, from southern Moquegua (Peru), differs from A. flaccida in having contracted panicles, spikelets to 1–1.1 cm long and lemmas 5.5–6.5 mm long. The central awn is straight, ascending, 3–6 mm long and lacking a column, the lateral awns are ascending, 1–2.5 mm long and 1/3 as long as the central awns, and the caryopses are fusiform and 4–4.5 (–6) mm long. A key to the species of Aristida in Peru is included and the conservation status of the new species is evaluated. Keywords: Biodiversity, grasses, Moquegua, South America, taxonomy
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The Morelloid Clade, also known as the black nightshades or "Maurella" (Morella), is one of the 10 major clades within the mega-diverse genus Solanum L. The clade is most species rich in the central to southern Andes, but species occur around the tropics and subtropics, some extending well into the temperate zone. Plants of the group are herbaceous or short-lived perennials, with small white or purplish white flowers, and small juicy berries. Due to the complex morphological variation and weedy nature of these plants, coupled with the large number of published synonyms (especially for European taxa), our understanding of species limits and diversity in the Morelloid Clade has lagged behind that of other major groups in Solanum. Here we provide the second in a three-part series of revisions of the morelloid solanums treating the species occurring in North and Central America and the Caribbean (for the Old World see "PhytoKeys 106", the third part will treat species of South America). Synonymy, morphological descriptions, distribution maps, and common names and uses are provided for all 18 species occurring in this region. We treat 10 of these species as native, and eight as putatively naturalised, introduced and/or invasive in the region. We provide complete descriptions with nomenclatural details, including lecto- and neotypifications, for all species. Keys to all species occurring in the whole region and for each area within it (i.e., North America, Central America and Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean), illustrations to aid identification both in herbaria and in the field, and distribution maps are provided. Preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species. Details of all specimens examined are provided in three Supplementary materials sections.
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Petroravenia was until recently considered as a genus of three species (P. eseptata, P. friesii, and P. werdermannii) distributed along the Central Andes of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. This genus was included in the tribe Thelypodieae and was morphologically characterized by being tiny rhizomatous perennial herbs with rosulate leaves, dendritic trichomes, capsular silicles, and incumbent cotyledons. However, the phylogeny of Petroravenia, and its tribal placement, was never analyzed using molecular data. The lack of such studies, as well as the paucity of herbarium collections, suggesting that Petroravenia species are vulnerable and/or endangered, prompted us to address the molecular phylogeny of this genus. For this purpose, we generated comprehensive molecular phylogenies using nuclear (ITS) and plastid (trnL‐F and trnH‐psbA) data, and conducted morphological comparisons between these species and their closest related taxa. Results from the phylogenetic analyses showed that Petroravenia represents a polyphyletic group, with P. eseptata included in tribe Halimolobeae, and P. friesii and P. werdermannii placed within tribe Eudemeae and related to the genus Alshehbazia. Based on the results obtained from morphological and molecular data, we decided herein to retain the original circumscription of Petroravenia as monospecific within the tribe Halimolobeae and to transfer P. friesii and P. werdermannii to the genus Alshehbazia within the tribe Eudemeae. Systematic implications of these results are also discussed.
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A taxonomic treatment, phylogeny based on analysis of six DNA sequence markers (ITS, ndhA intron, rpl32-trnL , rps3 , rps16 intron and rps16-trnK ) and classification of Muhlenbergia for Peru is given. Seventeen species and one presumed hybrid are recognised. Muhlenbergiaromaschenkoisp. nov. is newly described from the Río Huallaga Valley, northeast of Huánuco. The type of Podosemumangustatum [≡ Muhlenbergiaangustata ] clearly aligns with what we had been referring to as the hybrid between this species and M.rigida . Therefore, we adopt the next available heterotypic name, Muhlenbergiacoerulea , for what we had been calling M.angustata and change the hybrid designation to M.coerulea × M.rigida . Lectotypes are designated for Epicampescoerulea Griseb., Muhlenbergiaaffinis Trin., Muhlenbergiaberlandieri Trin., Muhlenbergiabeyrichiana Kunth, Muhlenbergiaelegansvar.atroviolacea Kuntze, Muhlenbergiaelegansvar.subviridis Kuntze and Muhlenbergiaphragmitoides Griseb.
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In preparation of a monographic treatment for Nolana L. ex L. f. (Solanaceae-Nolaneae), four new species are described from department of Arequipa, southern Peru: N. bombonensis Quip. & M. O. Dillon, prov. Islay, district of Punta de Bombón, Lomas de Alto La Punta; N. callae Quip. & M. O. Dillon, prov. Islay, district of Punta de Bombón, Lomas de Jesús; N. quicachaensis Quip. & M. O. Dillon, prov. Caravelí, dist. Quicacha; and N. tricotiflora Quip. & M. O. Dillon, prov. Camaná, dist. Quilca, Lomas de Quilca. These species are diagnosed, described, illustrated and compared to nearest geographic neighbors in southern Peru. To aid in recognition, a key to Nolana species reported from Arequipa is provided.
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The Morelloid clade, also known as the black nightshades or “Maurella” (Morella), is one of the 10 major clades within Solanum L. The pantropical clade consists of 75 currently recognised non-spiny herbaceous and suffrutescent species with simple or branched hairs with or without glandular tips, with a centre of distribution in the tropical Andes. A secondary centre of diversity is found in Africa, where a set of mainly polyploid taxa occur. A yet smaller set of species is found in Australasia and Europe, including Solanumnigrum L., the type of the genus Solanum . Due to the large number of published synonyms, combined with complex morphological variation, our understanding of species limits and diversity in the Morelloid clade has remained poor despite detailed morphological studies carried out in conjunction with breeding experiments. Here we provide the first taxonomic overview since the 19 th century of the entire group in the Old World, including Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and islands of the Pacific. Complete synonymy, morphological descriptions, distribution maps and common names and uses are provided for all 19 species occurring outside the Americas (i.e. Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and islands of the Pacific). We treat 12 species native to the Old World, as well as 7 taxa that are putatively introduced and/or invasive in the region. The current knowledge of the origin of the polyploid species is summarised. A key to all of the species occurring in the Old World is provided, together with line drawings and colour figures to aid identification both in herbaria and in the field. Preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species.
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Aristida tovariana sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The new species, from southern Ayacucho, differs from A. achalensis in having spikelets 1–1.5 cm long, lemmas 5–6 mm long with awns 5.8–10 mm long, a twisted column not greater than 3 mm long, and fusiform caryopses with a ventral groove. A key to the species Aristida in Peru is included and the conservation status of the new species is evaluated.
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The Peruvian genus Machaerophorus has long been reduced to synonymy of several genera of various tribes. With the discovery of two new species described below, M. arequipa and M. laticarpus, and availability of material for molecular phylogenetic studies, the genus is reinstated for the first time in over a century and included within the South American “Cremolobeae-Eudemeae-Schizopetaleae” clade.
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Adiantum is among the most distinctive and easily recognized leptosporangiate fern genera. Despite encompassing an astonishing range of leaf complexity, all species of Adiantum share a unique character state not observed in other ferns: sporangia borne directly on the reflexed leaf margin or “false indusium” (pseudoindusium). The over 200 species of Adiantum span six continents and are nearly all terrestrial. Here, we present one of the most comprehensive phylogenies for any large (200+ spp.) monophyletic, subcosmopolitan genus of ferns to date. We build upon previous datasets, providing new data from four plastid markers (rbcL, atpA, rpoA, chlN) for 146 taxa. All sampled taxa can be unequivocally assigned to one of nine robustly supported clades. Although some of these unite to form larger, well-supported lineages, the backbone of our phylogeny has several short branches and generally weak support, making it difficult to accurately assess deep relationships. Our maximum likelihood-based ancestral character state reconstructions of leaf blade architecture reveal remarkable convergent evolution across multiple clades for nearly all leaf forms. A single unique synapomorphy—leaves once-pinnate, usually with prolonged rooting tips—defines the philippense clade. Although a rare occurrence in Adiantum, simple leaves occur in three distinct clades (davidii, philippense, peruvianum). Most taxa have leaves that are more than once-pinnate, and only a few of these (in the formosum and pedatum clades) exhibit the distinct pseudopedate form. Distributional ranges for each of the terminal taxa show that most species (75%) are restricted to only one of six major biogeographical regions. Forty-eight of our sampled species (nearly one-third) are endemic to South America. © International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) 2018, All rights reserved.
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RESUMEN Se presenta la diversidad de plantas vasculares de la Reserva Nacional de Salinas y Aguada Blanca, situada en los departamentos de Arequipa (provincias de Arequipa y Caylloma) y el departamento de Moquegua (provincia General Sánchez Cerro). Abarca una superficie de 366 936 hectáreas y las muestras proceden desde los 2600 m hasta casi 5000 m de elevación, correspondiendo la mayoría de su territorio a la puna seca. Consta de 463 especies, distribuidas en 227 géneros, 70 familias y tres divisiones. Del total de especies, la división Pteridophyta está representada por cinco familias, seis géneros y seis especies; Pinophyta es una división representada por una familia, un género y dos especies, y Magnoliophyta con 64 familias, 220 géneros y 455 especies. De esta última división, la clase Magnoliopsida (dicotiledóneas) es la más abundante con 52 familias, 173 géneros y 347 especies. Las familias con más de 10 géneros y mayor diversidad en especies son: Asteraceae con 45 géneros y 110 especies, Poaceae con 25 géneros y 79 especies, y Fabaceae 11 géneros y 36 especies. Los géneros con más de diez especies son: Senecio (22 spp), Calamagrostis (17 spp), Nototriche y Poa con 14 especies cada una, y Astragalus (11 spp). Las plantas crecen formando comunidades características de puna seca, destacando los pajonales, bosques de Polylepis o queñuales, tolares y comunidades cespitosas, principalmente los yaretales. ABSTRACT We present information on the vascular plant diversity of the Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve, a protected area found in the Department of Arequipa (Prov. Arequipa and Caylloma) and Moquegua (Prov. General Sánchez Cerro). It has an area of 366,936 ha, and our collections range between 2600 to 5000 m over the sea level, most from environments termed dry puna (puna seca). The total of vascular plants consists of 463 species, distributed into 227 genera, 70 families and three divisions. Out of the total of species, the Pteridophyta are represented by five families, six genera and six species. The Gymnosperms are represented only by a single family with one genus and two species. The Magnoliophyta are represented by 64 families, 220 genera and 455 species. From this last division, the Magnoliopsida (dicots) are the most abundant with 52 families, 173 genera and 347 species. The families with over 10 genera and the most diverse are the Asteraceae with 45 genera and 110 species, Poaceae with 25 genera and 79 species, and Fabaceae with 11 genera and 36 species. The genera with more than ten species include: Senecio (22 spp.), Calama-grostis (17 spp.), Nototriche (14 spp.), Poa (14 spp.), and Astragalus (11 spp.). The plants grow in characteristic communities of high-elevation habitats (puna seca), that including grasslands or seasonally wet areas, small forest pockets of Polylepis or "queñuales", and cushion-form plants called "yaretales" and "tolares".
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The Labiate are represented by 42 species in Chile. In general, they do not predominate in the plant formations in which they appear. About 700 sheets from the herbaria CONC, M, MA, and SGO, are studied. A key for genera is included, as well as, for each of them, another for species. For each species, its scientific name and basyonym, synonyms, original citations, iconography, common names, description, data on the habitat, flowering period, distribution in the insular regions and territories of Chile, and the transcription of the labels of the studied material are indicated. The 42 resulting species correspond to 18 genera. Four species previously cited for Chile have been discarded. In addition, the adventitious plants and all those that have been cultivated as ornamentals have been included. The new combination Lepechinia chilensis (Molina) R. Morales, comb. nov. is presented.
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Valeriana vilcabambensis Sylvester & Barrie (Valerianaceae), here described and illustrated, is found as a common constituent of the herbaceous layer in humid, high-elevation montane forests of the Cordilleras Urubamba and Vilcabamba, Peru, which are inaccessible to grazing livestock and the spread of human-induced ground fires. The species is unique in its combination of erect, simple, woody stems to 80 cm tall; pinnate-pinnatisect leaves with elliptic to obovate entire leaflets and usually with a gradually pinnatipartite apex; cymose inflorescence with purple-tinged white flowers and purple anthers; and glabrous pappose fruits. A key is provided to help distinguish it from other Peruvian species with cymose or cymose-paniculate inflorescences and pinnate, pinnatisect, or deeply pinnatifid leaves. RESUMEN. Valeriana vilcabambensis Sylvester & Barrie, aquí descrita e ilustrada, se encuentra como un constituyente comúncom´común en la capa herbácea del bosque montano h ´ umedo de alta-elevación de las Cordilleras Urubamba y Vilcabamba, PerúPer´Perú, que son inaccesibles al pastoreo y a la propagación de fuego inducido por el hombre. La especie esúnicaes´esúnica en su combinación de tallos le ~ nosos erectos simples de hasta 80 cm de alto, hojas pinnada-pinnatisectas con foliolos enteros de forma elíptica a obovada y usualmente con unápiceun´unápice gradualmente pinnatipartido, inflorescencia cimosa con flores blancas con tinción morada y anteras p ´ urpuras, y frutos paposos y glabros. Se proporciona una clave para ayudar a distinguirla de otras especies peruanas con inflorescencias cimosas o cimosa-paniculadas y hojas pinnadas, pinnatisectas o profundamente pinnatífidas.
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Based on a detailed study of morphology and a critical analysis of species limits, we present a synopsis of Senecio ser. Culcitium from Andean South America. In this synopsis, Senecio ser. Culcitium is circumscribed including Aetheolaena and Lasiocephalus, two genera which are nested within Senecio. Forty three species are recognized in S. ser. Culcitium that are either rosette or scapiform herbs or subshrubs (sometimes scandent) bearing usually entire leaves, discoid and nodding capitula usually with conspicuous calycular bracts, penicillate style arms with or without a tuft of long hairs, and microechinate pollen. The new combination Senecio hyoseridis is proposed. The following names are proposed as synonyms: Senecio comosus var. debilis and S. comosus var. blancus with S. comosus; Senecio cuencanus var. tomentella with S. cuencanus; Senecio decolor, S. iscoensis and S. rosanus with Senecio antisanae, Senecio eliseae with S. rhizomatus; Senecio hypsobates var. parvulus with S. hypsobates; Senecio mochensis with S. pindilicensis; Senecio modestus with S. candollei; Senecio neeanus and S. haenkeanus with S. nivalis; Senecio quitensis with S. superandinus; Senecio santanderensis with S. cocuyanus; Senecio yacuanquensis with S. otophorus; Senecio zoellneri with S. keshua. Ten species previously placed in Senecio ser. Culcitium, i.e., S. aspleniifolius, S. candidans, S. comosus, S. diemii, S. gilliesii, S. jarae, S. julianus, S. magellanicus S. martinensis and S. stylotrichus, are excluded. Two of them, Senecio gilliesii and S. candidans are placed within Senecio ser. Hualtatini mainly by their herbaceous habit, stems usually leafy up to the apex, and erect capitula. Senecio jarae and S. aspleniifolius are placed in a new series based on the previously described Senecio sect. Repentes because of their solitary erect capitula and entire or deeply lobed leaves. Lectotypes are designated for 13 names. Additionally, 11 new illustrations, distribution maps, and identification keys are presented.
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Presliophytum is a small genus of five species endemic to arid western South America, including coastal Peru and the Atacama Desert. The type species, Presliophytum incanum, was originally described in Loasa, but recognized as highly distinctive and placed into a monotypic section in the late 19th century. Together with Loasa heucheraefolia and a newly described species, it was placed into the genus Presliophytum in 1997. Subsequent molecular studies confirmed the monophyly of the genus and indicated a close relationship to two Chilean species, traditionally placed in Loasa series Malesherbioideae, a placement formalized in 2017 by providing the necessary new combinations. However, a detailed revision and description of the taxon has not been provided and the present study aims at filling this gap. We provide data on the morphology and micromorphology, distribution and ecology of the five species, as well as a key for all the species. Presliphytum incanum is the most common and widespread species, but also morphologically the most variable. There are differences in leaf and flower morphology between northern and southern populations, but these are difficult to discern in herbarium specimens. The species is therefore here maintained in the broader sense, since at present it seems impossible to clearly differentiate two morphologically discrete entities.
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This paper provides keys, illustrations, short descriptions, and voucher specimen citations for the ferns and lycophytes of Acre, Brazil. We recognize a total of 212 species in 66 genera and 28 families. Of these, the lycophytes are represented by 14 species, 4 genera, and 2 families, and the ferns by 8 varieties, 1 subspecies, 198 species, 62 genera, and 26 families. The total represents an increase of 22 species and two varieties compared to a checklist published in 2009. The six most species-rich genera are Adiantum (21 spp.), Asplenium (14), Selaginella (12), Trichomanes (11), Lindsaea, and Microgramma (9 each). None of the species treated here are endemic to Acre. A new combination is made for Meniscium chrysodioides Fée var. goyazense.
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A taxonomical study of the Chilean Stevia is herein presented since there is no agreement on current names and the number of species for Chile. A detailed morphological analysis of type and non-type specimens including new field observations was undertaken. In this work we recognized only one species of Stevia in Chile: S. philippiana. This species has a wide morphological variation mainly in leaf and pappus features. A lectotype of the name S. hyssopifolia was designated. Stevia hyssopifolia var. panulensis was regarded as a new synonym of S. philippiana. On the other hand, S. adenophora and S. chamaedrys were excluded from the Chilean flora. Finally, Porophyllym tarapacanum was excluded from the Tagetean genus Porophyllum and included as a new synonym of S. philippiana, too.
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A revision of Myrosmodes from Peru is presented. Seven species are recognized for the country. Each species is described and illustrated on the basis of a revision of type material, protologues and Peruvian specimens. Its distribution within the country is assessed. Myrosmodes nervosa is recorded for first time in Peru. New synonyms are proposed: M. cleefii is included under M. nubigena, M. inaequalis and M. pumilio under M. paludosa, M. weberbaueri under M. gymnandra, and M. cochlearis under M. rhynchocarpa. A key to identify the seven recognized species is also provided. A lectotype is designated for Aa chiogena. resumen: Se presenta una revisión de Myrosmodes del Perú. Se aceptan siete especies para el país. Se describe e ilustra cada especie con base en la revisión del material tipo, protólogos y material peruano. Se evalúa su distribución en el país. Myrosmodes nervosa se registra por primera vez para el Perú. Se proponen nuevos sinónimos: M. cleefii es incluido bajo la sinonimia de M. nubigena, M. inaequalis y M. pumilio bajo M. paludosa, M. weberbaueri bajo M. gymnandra y M. cochlearis bajo M. rhynchocarpa. También se proporciona una clave para identificar las especies reconocidas. Se designa un lectotipo para Aa chiogena.
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We propose a new classification for the South American species of the genus Bartsia L. and relatives recently included in an expanded treatment of the genus Bellardia (L.) All. This new classification reflects their evolutionary history, and is based on morphological and molecular evidence, biogeographic hypotheses, and rates of diversification for these species. Additionally, we rearranged the current taxonomic classification of close relatives so that the current circumscriptions encompass only monophyletic groups. Some of these changes include the creation of a new genus, Neobartsia Uribe-Convers and Tank (47 spp.), as well as the reclassification of Bellardia latifolia (L.) Cuatrec. back to Parentucellia latifolia (L.) Caruel. These taxonomic changes are important for proper communication within the large Rhinantheae clade of Orobanchaceae, and for the interpretation of biogeographic patterns and diversification processes of these species.
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Gamochaeta (tribe Gnaphalieae, Asteraceae) is composed of ca. 60 species primarily distributed in tropical and subtropical America. Within the tribe Gnaphalieae, the genus is characterized by capitula arranged in spikes or head-like clusters, few hermaphroditic central florets, truncate style branches with apical sweeping trichomes, pappus bristles connate at the base into a ring falling as a unit, and achenes with globose twin trichomes. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have suggested the paraphyly of the genus, but have not provided a basis for redefining generic limits due to incomplete taxon sampling. To address this problem, DNA sequences from the plastid (trnL-F) and nuclear (ETS and ITS) genomes were analyzed from a broad taxon sample representing the full range of morphological variation known in the genus. Our results affirm that Gamochaeta is paraphyletic as presently circumscribed. Two clades can be recognized: one clade that includes the majority of the species currently assigned to Gamochaeta and a second clade that includes Gamochaetopsis, Stuckertiella and seven species of Gamochaeta. We present here a new circumscription of Gamochaeta, including two new combinations, Gamochaeta alpina and Gamochaeta peregrina, and the resurrection of Gamochaeta capitata. Our results also show Omalotheca supina, O. norvegica and O. sylvatica, which were placed by some authors in Gamochaeta or in Gnaphalium, form a monophyletic group distantly related to both genera.
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Here, we describe Trifolium absconditum sp. nov., a new species of the T. amabile complex from South America. It differs from other Peruvian Trifolia of the complex by having smaller stipules, leaves, inflorescences, and floral pieces. A key for Peruvian species of the complex is presented, and typifications for them are made when necessary and material is available in Peruvian herbaria. Thus, the number of Peruvian species in the complex is elevated to three: T. amabile, T. absconditum, and a resurrected T. peruvianum. Finally, it is suggested that Chile must be excluded from the distribution of this complex.
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Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae) is a new species found in the province of Arequipa (departmentof Arequipa), South Peru. It is unique by its white to pale white (or pale lilac) flowers, outer tepals with purplishmaroon and dark yellow spots and stripes, and inner tepals with pale purplish and bluish spots and stripes. Tigridiaarequipensis is morphologically similar to T. raimondii and T. philippiana, it differs by having longer basal leaves,narrower and larger bracts, and outer tepals ovate and longer fruits.Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae) is a new species found in the province of Arequipa (department of Arequipa), South Peru. It is unique by its white to pale white (or pale lilac) flowers, outer tepals with purplish maroon and dark yellow spots and stripes, and inner tepals with pale purplish and bluish spots and stripes. Tigridia arequipensis is morphologically similar to T. raimondii and T. philippiana, it differs by having longer basal leaves, narrower and larger bracts, and outer tepals ovate and longer fruits. Resumen Tigridia arequipensis (Iridaceae: Tigridieae) es una nueva especie encontrada en la provincia de Arequipa (departamento de Arequipa), Sur de Perú. Es única por sus flores blancas a blanco claras (o lila pálido), los tépalos externos con puntuaciones y líneas lila-marrones y los tépalos internos con puntuaciones y líneas lila pálido con puntuaciones y líneas azuladas. Tigridia arequipensis es morfológicamente similar a T. raimondii y T. philippiana, se difiere por tener hojas basales más alargadas, brácteas angostas y alargadas, los tépalos externos ovados y frutos más alargados.
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During the study of Brazilian genera of the Inuleae-Plucheinae (Asteraceae), we have encountered a specimen representing an undescribed species, here described as Tessaria andina. The new species is characterized by having puberulous, tomentose, lanate, or glabrescent indumentum on its branches, a tomentose abaxial leaf surface, leaves with an apically serrate margin, corymbiform inflorescences, a cream to yellowish involucre, erect inner involucral bracts, and the corolla of male flowers with short-stalked glands and trichomes. So far, only one collection of this new species has been made, and that was more than forty years ago. The new species is described, illustrated, and its affinities are discussed. Furthermore, during this investigation we found out that the name Tessaria boliviensis is a nomen nudum, applied to material here shown to belong to Tessaria fastigiata. An identification key to the species of Tessaria is also presented.
Thesis
THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the collected vegetation data with other regional and interregional studies. This phytosociologic overview comprises the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province of Arequipa and besides the plant communities of Moquegua from the prepuna between 3470 and 3700 m, the puna between 3750 and 4500 m and the superpuna between 4450 and 4800 m. The Braun-Blanquet approach and multivariate ordination and classification methods have been applied to classify the different plant communities and to study the relation between plant communities and environmental variables, such as altitude, slope degree and exposition, rock and stone cover percentage, manure cover and grazing. Furthermore the results are presented of a phytogeographical analysis of the Andean puna flora (at vascular genus level) and its relation to other tropicalpine regions in South America. Finally, the descriptions of six recently published new species are included in this thesis. The results provide an important database for nature conservation issues, stressing the significance of protecting the fragile and diverse ecosystems of the Moqueguan Andes. The results of this vegetation survey can be used to prioritize the selection and assignment of nature reserves.
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An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) classification of the orders and families of angiosperms is presented. Several new orders are recognized: Boraginales, Dilleniales, Icacinales, Metteniusiales and Vahliales. This brings the total number of orders and families recognized in the APG system to 64 and 416, respectively. We propose two additional informal major clades, superrosids and superasterids, that each comprise the additional orders that are included in the larger clades dominated by the rosids and asterids. Families that made up potentially monofamilial orders, Dasypogonaceae and Sabiaceae, are instead referred to Arecales and Proteales, respectively. Two parasitic families formerly of uncertain positions are now placed: Cynomoriaceae in Saxifragales and Apodanthaceae in Cucurbitales. Although there is evidence that some families recognized in APG III are not monophyletic, we make no changes in Dioscoreales and Santalales relative to APG III and leave some genera in Lamiales unplaced (e.g. Peltanthera). These changes in familial circumscription and recognition have all resulted from new results published since APG III, except for some changes simply due to nomenclatural issues, which include substituting Asphodelaceae for Xanthorrhoeaceae (Asparagales) and Francoaceae for Melianthaceae (Geraniales); however, in Francoaceae we also include Bersamaceae, Ledocarpaceae, Rhynchothecaceae and Vivianiaceae. Other changes to family limits are not drastic or numerous and are mostly focused on some members of the lamiids, especially the former Icacinaceae that have long been problematic with several genera moved to the formerly monogeneric Metteniusaceae, but minor changes in circumscription include Aristolochiaceae (now including Lactoridaceae and Hydnoraceae; Aristolochiales), Maundiaceae (removed from Juncaginaceae; Alismatales), Restionaceae (now re-including Anarthriaceae and Centrolepidaceae; Poales), Buxaceae (now including Haptanthaceae; Buxales), Peraceae (split from Euphorbiaceae; Malpighiales), recognition of Petenaeaceae (Huerteales), Kewaceae, Limeaceae, Macarthuriaceae and Microteaceae (all Caryophyllales), Petiveriaceae split from Phytolaccaceae (Caryophyllales), changes to the generic composition of Ixonanthaceae and Irvingiaceae (with transfer of Allantospermum from the former to the latter; Malpighiales), transfer of Pakaraimaea (formerly Dipterocarpaceae) to Cistaceae (Malvales), transfer of Borthwickia, Forchhammeria, Stixis and Tirania (formerly all Capparaceae) to Resedaceae (Brassicales), Nyssaceae split from Cornaceae (Cornales), Pteleocarpa moved to Gelsemiaceae (Gentianales), changes to the generic composition of Gesneriaceae (Sanango moved from Loganiaceae) and Orobanchaceae (now including Lindenbergiaceae and Rehmanniaceae) and recognition of Mazaceae distinct from Phrymaceae (all Lamiales).
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A new species in Astragalus, endemic for Peru, is described for Leguminosae, Galegeae. Astragalus sagasteguii may be compared with the related A. dillinghami Macbride in Peru and A. diminutivus (Philippi) Gomez-Sosa in Bolivia and Argentina. The new combination Astragalas diminutivus is made, transferring the species from the genus Phaca. In addition, Astragalus deminutivus I. M. Johnston newly synonymizes to A. diminutivus. Further, Astragalus dielsii Macbride is recognized as a variety to A. diminutivus. The geographical distribution of Astragalus diminutivus var. dielsii extends from Peru into Bolivia and Argentina. Morphological description and comparison, illustration, as well as habitat and geographical distribution are provided.
Article
We present a phytosociological overview of the arid and semi-arid montane vegetation of the province of Arequipa in southern Peru. The xerophytic vegetation was studied after extreme rainfall had promoted exceptionally lush vegetation and a high aboveground floristic diversity. We used TWINSPAN for classification and Detrended Correspondence Analysis for gradient analysis of our releves. PC-ORD was used to show the hierarchical similarity structure of the syntaxa, and to compare them with related communities in Peru and surrounding countries from literature. We present a synoptic table, and describe the physiognomy, floristic composition, ecology and spatial distribution of the plant communities. In total, we recorded 187 plant species, including 50 endemics, in 196 phytosociological releves distributed over 2030 km(2) at an elevation between 2020 and 3260 m a.s.l. The releves were assigned to three alliances in the class Opuntietea sphaericae. The vegetation consists mainly of native species of trees, shrubs, grasses, succulents, annual herbs, and ferns. The most diverse families were Asteraceae, Cactaceae, Solanaceae, Malvaceae, Boraginaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae and Pteridaceae. Within the class Opuntietea sphaericae, three alliances have been distinguished of which two are new. The Ambrosio artemisioidis-Weberbauerocerion web erbaueri comprising six associations was recorded on barren hillsides between 2000 and 2900 m a.s.l. in the Arequipa city boundary zones. The Corryocaction brevistyli defines xerophytic scrub between 2700 and 3200 m a.s.l. in semi-dry regions bordering the puna grasslands. It contains the Balbisio weberbaueri-Ambrosietum artemisioidis and the Aloysio spathulatae-Corryocactetum brevistyli, all in need of further investigation as they lack diagnostic species. A unit clearly distinguished by Weberbauerocereus rauhii and Neoraimondia arequipensis is here described as a new alliance, Neoraimondio are quipensis-Weberbauerocerion rauhii. It grows in inter-Andean valleys in dry regions (1100-2200 m a.s.l.), with abundant cacti accompanied by few xerophytes.