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Several scholars have pointed out the importance of employees' strategic communication behaviors for organizational performance and employee wellbeing. Employees contribute to organizations by acting as brand ambassadors , boundary spanners and crisis communicators. Employees play such roles on top of assigned job tasks, which can lead to role overload, role conflicts and job stress. The analysis of employees' communication role enactment is hampered by the lack of a framework describing the complete range of active communication roles that employees are expected to play in the workplace. This article introduces the Active Employee Communication Roles Framework (AECR Framework), develops the conceptualization of eight communication roles, and discusses implications for strategic communication. The first four roles-the embodier, promotor, defender, and relationship builder role-describe ambassador roles. In addition, employees play the roles of scout, sensemaker, innovator, and critic to contribute to organizational development. The AECR framework provides a new lens which aids our understanding of the relationship between communication, and employee performance and wellbeing, and provides employees and employers a tool to analyze and calibrate mutual expectations regarding communication behaviors. The framework can also help employees to more strategically allocate resources when executing the various communication roles. This may help to alleviate employee role stress, and create healthier workplaces.
To advance the theoretical understanding of employees' advocacy on social media, this study aims to propose and test an integrative model that incorporates individual and organizational antecedents. Drawing from the relationship management theory in public relations and online behavior literature, the model specifically examines the collective impacts of the social media-related behavioral motivations of individuals and the quality of employee–organization relationship (EOR) on their positive information-sharing intentions about their company on personal social media.
An online survey was conducted with 419 full-time employees in the USA who use social media.
The results of an online survey with full-time employees in the USA showed that the EOR influenced by symmetrical internal communication significantly increases employees' advocacy intentions and social media-related motivations. Considerable and distinct effects of individuals' positive behavioral motivations on social media (i.e. self-enhancement, altruism, enjoyment) on advocacy intentions are also found.
This study is among the first attempts to test the value of strategic internal communication and relationship management approach in enhancing employee advocacy on the digital environment, social media and their motives of using such channel for benefiting their company.
The digital revolution challenges strategic communication. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Big Data, and the Internet of Things (IoT) create a rapidly changing environment for organizations as well as system complexities. To fulfill its task in ensuring the long-lasting success of organizations’ strategic communication needs to continuously adopt to this revolution. This article approaches the question of how strategic communication can adapt to the digitalization. In order to do so, the article conceptualizes the corporate nervous net and a predictive reporting indicator module with real-time feedback loops. As a result, the strategic communication body of knowledge is extended to include digital, assisted, decentralized communication. Decentralized strategic communication proposes a self-organizing, bottom-up approach of strategic communication under the principle of subsidiarity. It keeps complexity at a manageable level and enables the usage of local knowledge and quick adaptation to rapid changes. The proposed resilient approach to strategic communication uses the driving forces of the digital revolution of big data, AI and IoT in its favor instead of trying to control them.
Employees are sometimes assigned tasks that lie outside their official role. Employees may perceive such extra-role tasks (ERTs) as unreasonable or illegitimate. Grounded in role theory and leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, we conducted two studies that examined how ERTs are associated with supervisor-employee relationship quality and how the ERT assignment is communicated. While supervisor-subordinate relationship quality was unrelated to the likelihood and frequency with which supervisors assign ERTs to employees, employees with low-quality relationships evaluated ERTs as more unreasonable than those in high-quality relationships. Study 1 showed that ERT messages that included a request (vs. command), acknowledgement, explanation, and appreciation were associated with higher quality LMX relationships. Study 2 found that ERT message characteristics influenced the perceived unreasonableness of the task for employees in high-quality relationships, suggesting employees in such relationships are particularly vulnerable to “job creep” and role expansion.
This study examined the extent to which having colleagues as friends on Facebook influences departmental and organizational identification by blurring the boundaries between work and private life. Based on social identity theory and proxy efficacy, we argue that work-related friends on Facebook may affect employee identification with different levels of the organization. The results of an online panel study among Dutch employees (N = 1,002) show that the perceived quality of online relationships with work-related Facebook contacts increases departmental identification, whereas the perceived authority of such contacts strengthens identification with the organization. Therefore, we suggest that blurring boundaries between work and private life through social media can have positive effects on organizational functioning.
Although organizations increasingly acknowledge the communicative importance of employees, and increasingly frame communication as an employee responsibility, communication responsibility remains an unexplored topic in strategic communication research. To address this gap, this study introduces the concept employee communication responsibility and offers insight into factors influencing employees’ predisposition towards taking communication responsibility. Data were obtained from 4,726 employees working in ten Swedish organizations. Half the sample (2,244) was used for exploratory factor analysis that enabled the identification of a smaller number of factors to construct a model with four hypotheses, and half the sample (2,482) was used to test the proposed model through structural equation modeling (SEM). Hypotheses formulation was informed by previous research examining factors influencing employees’ communication. The study shows that all tested factors, internal communication climate openness, immediate supervisor communication, top management–employee communication, and perceived importance of communication significantly contribute to employees’ predisposition towards taking communication responsibility. Thus, the study provide knowledge useful to researchers interested in employees’ communication, and to strategic communication practitioners responsible for internal communication and employees’ communication.
The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion concerning the present position and future directions of strategic communication by looking into the past and offering some proposals and a vision of how to develop and advance the field further. Research in strategic communication has mostly focused on communication professionals working in communication departments or agencies as primary agents of communication. However, this reflects a limited comprehension of organizations. The article addresses the need to focus not only on communicators, but also on managers and coworkers as key actors when trying to understand and theorize the practice of strategic communication.
Recent developments within branding theory suggest a move towards co-created branding. In theory, this approach holds great promise in terms of engaging stakeholders in dynamic processes of creating the corporate brands, but a brand co-creation process also exposes the organization to, for example, loss of control, dilution of identity and potential disharmony between the multiple voices co-creating the brand. Paradoxically, while brand co-creation has received increased theoretical attention, the role of the internal stakeholders (especially the employees) in this process remains vastly uncharted. Therefore, through an empirical case study of the Danish National Gallery, this paper shows how a public organization, which has engaged in brand co-creation, struggles to orchestrate the many internal voices in the co-creational dialogue. The importance of considering internal stakeholders in the co-creation process is illustrated through the discovery of six diverse brand expressions that surface in the so-called touchpoints of co-creation, i.e. the museum’s communication with external stakeholders. Here, different professional groups of employees communicate their version of the brand, leaving the impression of a brand speaking with several, at times clashing, voices.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how employees’ work-related communication is managed in knowledge-intensive organizations.
The study was conducted by applying an exploratory, qualitative approach. The data were collected from six knowledge-intensive organizations operating in the professional service sector in Finland and the data-set used included altogether 23 interviews.
The interviews confirmed that employees’ work-related communication on social media is regarded as an increasingly important area, and that it has required companies to establish new managerial processes that are aimed to affect employees communication behaviors either as enablers or motivators. How companies apply these processes depend on contextual factors, and three different managerial approaches were identified, namely individual-oriented, corporate-oriented and business-oriented.
Based on the findings, this article proposes a new field for the communication management literature, Management of the Communicative Organization (MCO), which builds on behavior management knowledge and focuses on managing employee communicators in Multivocal Organizational Communication Systems (MOCS) that are dependent on employee-generated content.
The study advances the field of communication management and employee communication behavior by empirically proving that organizations manage their employees’ work related communication and the management processes and practices identified derive from behavioral management tradition. The proposed Management of Communicative Organization (MCO) framework introduces a novel area for academic discussion on how communication management affect employee communication behavior and attitudes, such as motivation.
To provide an employee perspective on ambassadorship in the context of corporate communication, the purpose of this paper is to explore how employees relate to and experience ambassadorship.
The study has a qualitative approach, and the empirical material consists of semi-structured interviews with, and focus groups of, employees of seven organizations in both the public and private sectors. The paper draws on a contemporary understanding of identity where identity is perceived as an ongoing reflexive process in which employees negotiate and construct of their selves through relating to role expectations and interacting with others. Therefore, ambassadorship is understood as a social-identity, or persona, that is referenced by employees in their identity work.
The findings indicate that employees embrace this persona as they imagine that external stakeholders, colleagues and managers expect it of them. However, the ambassador persona also gives rise to identity-tensions both during work and off work.
The paper contributes a novel way to understand ambassadorship as well as highlighting some of the more problematic aspects of it and furthering the understanding of the concept.
The findings highlight that ambassadorship can have problematic consequences that needs to be addressed. They suggest that the employee perspective should be taken into consideration in internal communication education and training.
The paper contributes a novel employee perspective on ambassadorship.
The purpose of this paper is to understand the motivations behind teleworkers’ role transitions in a coworking office and how these motivations shape role communication between independent workers in a shared office.
This paper draws upon observation, in-depth interviews ( n =23) and temporary membership in the organization.
Self-enhancement and self-validation motivations work in concert to prompt individuals to capitalize on the networking opportunities that come with membership in this office and individuals strategically position an occupation-framed version of their identity in these networks.
Only one coworking office was studied. However, this is countered by the richness of the data.
Communication managers whose organizations employ teleworkers are encouraged to provide ongoing social and task-related support to their teleworkers; coworking site proprietors are encouraged to ensure members understand what is expected of them when they join a coworking office.
As teleworking is a widely-used flexible work arrangement, this study advances knowledge of teleworker management.
Scholars have not yet explored how individuals use coworking spaces and what motivates teleworkers to establish their role identities in mixed offices.
Salespeople involved in the marketing of complex services often perform the role of “relationship manager.” It is, in part, the quality of the relationship between the salesperson and the customer that determines the probability of continued interchange between those parties in the future. A relationship quality model is advanced and tested that examines the nature, consequences, and antecedents of relationship quality, as perceived by the customer. The findings suggest that future sales opportunities depend mostly on relationship quality (i.e., trust and satisfaction), whereas the ability to convert those opportunities into sales hinges more on conventional source characteristics of similarity and expertise. Relational selling behaviors such as cooperative intentions, mutual disclosure, and intensive followup contact generally produce a strong buyer-seller bond.
This article demonstrates that when supervisors encourage subordinates to defer to their embodied expertise, subordinates are more likely to voice explicitly moralized upward dissent to an unethical business request. Working adults (N = 312) were randomly assigned to respond to an unethical business request from their boss in one of three scenarios that varied by how much the supervisor was known for encouraging deference to (a) embodied knowing, (b) intellectual reasoning, or (c) neither (i.e., a baseline control condition). Analyses revealed that participants were more than twice as likely to voice their private moral concerns explicitly with their boss when the supervisor was known for valuing subordinates’ embodied expertise (e.g., “going with your gut feelings”). In addition, participants also reported feeling significantly less communication anxiety in that same condition. Implications for leading organizational ethics conclude the article.
The notion of “communication as constitutive of organization” (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry presents CCO scholarship with regards to its underlying premises, main schools of thought, and key implications for strategic communication.
This article draws on a decade of research in strategic communication and especially on the contributions in this special issue to propose a new and more comprehensive definition of strategic communication. We argue that strategic communication encompasses all communication that is substantial for the survival and sustained success of an entity. Specifically, strategic communication is the purposeful use of communication by an entity to engage in conversations of strategic significance to its goals. Entity includes all kind of organizations (e.g., corporations, governments, or nonprofits), as well as social movements and known individuals in the public sphere. Communication can play a distinctive role for the formulation, revision, presentation, execution, implementation, and operationalization of strategies. While there are many ways to investigate these research objects, strategic communication as a discipline takes the perspective of the focal organization/entity and its calculus to achieve specific goals by means of communication under conditions of limited resources and uncertainty. The article takes a critical look at the current state of the field and outlines several requirements that will help scholars and practitioners alike to build a unique body of knowledge in strategic communication.
Interpersonal listening research is marked by a wealth of conceptual definitions and measurement instruments, with a consensus about neither. Therefore, we sought to discover how laypeople, rather than theoreticians, construe listening, and to construct a scale that reflects these perceptions. In Study 1, laypeople listed the features and characteristics of interpersonal listening in four different contexts (general, romantic, colleague-to-colleague, and manager–subordinate). In Study 2, a second sample of individuals rated the centrality of the features found in Study 1 for the definition of listening. These centrality ratings were similar to the frequency of good-listening features in Study 1. In Study 3, we used the features identified in Study 1 and 2 and asked a sample of employees to rate each one regarding their experience with their supervisor or one of their work colleagues listening to them. These ratings yielded a single factor. Thus, we conclude that, although people can describe the complexities of listening, they seem to perceive it as a holistic and unitary experience. Practically, a small set of good items pertaining to perceptions of listening may yield an acceptable, or even excellent, unidimensional reliability estimate.
This study investigates the communication elements within organizations that enhance social exchanges and influence an individual’s willingness to spread positive information about their employer. Findings from a survey of employees in a United States–based health care organization (N = 223) indicate that organizational commitment mediates the relationship between employee-centered internal communication by organizations and employee advocacy. Employees with strong organizational commitment perceive that their organization values the exchange relationship, and employees, in turn, report they are likely to take extra steps to support their organization. To encourage organization-supportive employee advocacy behavior, organizations should engage in open and supportive communication with employees and cultivate lasting relationships with them.
Coworkership includes coworkers' engaged communication practices, not only in relation to middle‐ and top‐level managers but also in relation to customers, citizens, and other kinds of external stakeholders. This chapter aims to challenge the dominant, management‐centered perspective on employee engagement and outlines an alternative perspective in which the perspective of coworkers is put in the center. It describes and discusses two contrasting perspectives on employee engagement—the dominant, functionalistic perspective versus the alternative perspective grounded in communication constitutes organization (CCO). The chapter further develops the implications of the alternative perspective by discussing communicative aspects of coworker engagement in relation to two areas: leadership processes and strategy work. It argues that in the traditional, dominant perspective, engagement is viewed as dependent upon managers who engage passive followers with the purpose of achieving common shared goals. A prerequisite of organizational ambassadorship is trustful internal relationships between managers and coworkers, which is a result of investment in internal communication.
The aim of this article is to gain new knowledge of how organizational errors can be used to early detect signals of impending crises and thereby develop internal crisis communication. Three communication processes –organizational culture, leadership and learning –that are particularly important for the development of internal crisis communication are focused. The article also discuss what kind of learning error management supports, and suggests how crisis communication as a practice can be developed. The thesis is that intensified work of improving internal crisis communication is a vital step of becoming a communicative organization, where all coworkers are understood and act as strategic communicators.
This empirical study is part of a three-year research project on internal crisis communication within a Swedish university hospital. This article is based on a sub-study with 37 qualitative semi-structured interviews with nurses, physicians, managers and crisis management specialists within the hospital.
The article offers knowledge how internal crisis communication can be developed by focusing on errors as resource to anticipate a crisis and as material for organizational learning. Coworkers are focused in the article and seen as important sources and strategic communicators. It is further emphasized that error management not is a matter of technological solutions, but rather a question of communicative aspects of leadership and organizational culture.
It is suggested that initiatives to develop internal crisis communication is an important step for organizations in becoming communicative organizations, and communication professionals have an important role to facilitate this development.
This article gives a new understanding of internal crisis communication and the importance of leadership and culture.
Corporate and employee volunteering is increasingly significant within the context of organisational behaviour, receiving increased attention around the world. The research exploring this is scattered and uneven, with different perspectives shaping disparate discourses. While there is limited definitional consensus, corporate and employee volunteering is considered an employee engagement initiative and a corporate social responsibility activity. Placing emphasis on the behaviour of individuals, the giving of time, planned activity and the recipient as external, non-profit or charitable organisation Rodell et al. (J Manag 42(1):55–84, 2016: 57) defines employee volunteering as “employed individuals giving time during a planned activity for an external non-profit or charitable group or organization”. While Volunteering Australia (n.d.) promotes corporate volunteering as the provision of opportunities to employees to develop staff and teams skills which can bolster a company’s reputation within the community .
This article aims to enhance understanding of employee anonymous online dissent (EAOD), a controversial phenomenon in contemporary digital environments. We conceptualise and scrutinise EAOD as a communicative and interactional process among four key actors: dissenting employees, online outlet administrators, audiences, and targeted organisations. This multi-actor, dialectical process encompasses actor-related tensions that may generate unethical consequences if single voices are not brought out and confronted. Appropriating a Habermasian ethical and discursive lens, we examine and disentangle three particular challenges emerging from the EAOD process: lack of accountability and potential opportunism; equal participation and resolution of actor-related tensions; and organisational participation and internalisation of dissent. We show that EAOD can initiate plural dialogue that helps co-construct and balance different voices within an informal and noninstitutionalised context for interaction and public deliberation. We conclude our inquiry by offering reflections on practical implications and a research agenda for further investigation.
Research on whistle-blowing has been hampered by a lack of a sound theoretical base. In this paper, we draw upon existing theories of motivation and power relationships to propose a model of the whistle-blowing process. This model focuses on decisions made by organization members who believe they have evidence of organizational wrongdoing, and the reactions of organization authorities. Based on a review of the sparse empirical literature, we suggest variables that may affect both the members’ decisions and the organization’s responses. The authors wish to thank H. Randolph Bobbitt and Jeffrey Ford for their comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript.
Integrating social exchange (SET) and conservation of resources (COR) theories, this research investigates whether employees' personal resource investment in commitment and effort, mediate the relationships between social resources (i.e., co-workers' and supervisors' support) and employee advocacy behaviors. In addition, whether such indirect effects are contingent on the boundary condition of perceived recognition. We test the model using data of employees of a large health insurance company in Australia. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results showed commitment and effort mediate the relationships between co-workers' and supervisors' support and advocacy. Moderated-mediation results showed that the indirect effect of commitment is stronger between co-workers' support and supervisors' support with advocacy, when perceived recognition is low. In contrast, the indirect effect of effort is stronger between co-workers' support and supervisors' support with advocacy when perceived recognition is high. Findings of this study advance theoretical development of employee advocacy behaviors, and help managers design supportive work environments.
This study seeks to understand the effectiveness of an organization’s communication strategy in enhancing its crisis management capability in public management. The relationships between two types of communication strategies (bridging and buffering), crisis management capability in public management, relational improvement, reputational improvement, and conflict avoidance have been tested to suggest how an organization’s overall strategic orientation may help its ability to weather a crisis. A survey of communication managers was conducted in South Korea with 105 responses, representing 105 organizations. Results revealed that organizations which are predisposed toward adopting the bridging strategy as their main communication strategy also report better crisis management capability in public management, and as a result, experience positive relational and reputational outcomes.
An organizational role is the configuration of expectations and interpretations of behavior associated with a particular position within an organizational context. The concept of roles emerged from the theater metaphor, which captures the idea that organizational dynamics can be described in terms of a play, in line with a script where different people have a part to play in a performance. The interpretation and managing of different roles can be challenging in various ways. Part of the complexity and the way forward in this change is a consistent assumption through all the different approaches to roles, that they are defined in relation to other roles.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is said to be resting on a fundamental dilemma: a dilemma between ethical obligations towards society versus economic duties of maximising profits. In other words: A clash occurs between business and morality. In this chapter, we explore how this fundamental dilemma is replicated in CSR communication contexts. The purpose is to conceptually explore CSR dilemmas in communication contexts in order to develop an integrative framework for understanding the complexity of and communicative dilemmas embedded in CSR. Framed by three communication disciplines (integrated marketing communication, organisational communication and corporate communication), we outline how CSR is applied, and how it changes and redefines key concepts within each discipline. CSR generates new stakeholder demands and social expectations towards the organisation; the question is how the organisation manages and communicates this new role of responsibility. On that basis, we discuss how the CSR dilemma manifests as three communicative dilemmas: A self-promotion dilemma related to challenges of promoting CSR without simultaneously demonstrating its organisational anchoring; an identification dilemma related to the challenges of creating CSR value for employee identification without becoming a normative tool of employee identity control; and a relation dilemma, which is concerned with the challenges related to stakeholder engagement and the balancing of how to integrate the multivocality of different, opposing stakeholders without compromising the ideal of representing one unified corporate entity. The insights of the chapter contribute to the literature on CSR and CSR communication by providing a more nuanced understanding of the challenges and complexity of CSR communication, manifested as communicative dilemmas.
The article is based upon empirical data from a Swedish three-year research project entitled “Communicative Organizations”, investigating the value of communication for organizations. The project is involves eleven organizations. Based upon empirical data from a quantitative survey (n = 6486) the perceived value of strategic communication and communication professionals, mainly among managers and co-workers, is analyzed. Two conceptual models are used for analysis: the communicative organization and the four-by-four model of strategic public relations. The results shows that the self-identity of communication professionals and the normative model of strategic public relations partly mirror and partly collide with the perceptions of managers and coworkers. The study confirms that managers and coworkers find communication crucial for their organizations at a strategic level, but that the role of communication professionals is rather unclear. A majority of the respondents do not understand the core role or roles of communication professionals.
Internal social media (ISM) or social intranets provide organizations with a communication arena in which coworkers can actively contribute to organizational communication. Coworkers are, however, far from impulsive and spontaneous when they communicate on ISM. A case study in a Danish bank found that coworkers considered carefully the consequences of their posts or comments before publishing them. These coworkers perceived four different risks associated with ISM communication, and they used seven self-censorship strategies to ensure that both the content and the formulation of their communication were relevant and appropriate. Coworkers not only censor themselves by withdrawing, as previous studies have suggested, but they also postpone publishing content, phrase or frame content differently, imagine responses from organizational members, ask others for a second opinion, choose another channel, or write only positive comments. Through these seven self-censorship strategies, coworkers retain the quality of communication on ISM and prevent conflict or relational damage. Future research should explore the self-regulation strategies underlying self-censorship in order to improve understanding of the circumstances that increase the likelihood of responsible use of ISM. The potential dark side of self-censorship also requires exploration: when can self-censorship threaten coworkers’ freedom of expression, and develop into organizational silence?
The use of social media technologies—such as blogs, wikis, social networking sites, social tagging, and microblogging—is proliferating at an incredible pace. One area of increasing adoption is organizational settings where managers hope that these new technologies will help improve important organizational processes. However, scholarship has largely failed to explain if and how uses of social media in organizations differ from existing forms of computer-mediated communication. In this chapter, we argue that social media are of important consequence to organizational communication processes because they afford behaviors that were difficult or impossible to achieve in combination before these new technologies entered the workplace. Our review of previous studies of social media use in organizations uncovered four relatively consistent affordances enabled by these new technologies: Visibility, persistence, editability, and association. We suggest that the activation of some combination of these affordances could influence many of the processes commonly studied by organizational communication theorists. To illustrate this point, we theorize several ways through which these four social media affordances may alter socialization, knowledge sharing, and power processes in organizations.
Within the theoretical frameworks of strategic communication and legitimation and through the use of a case study analysis, this article investigates the creation of managerial legitimation towards internal stakeholders in text and talk as a particular mode of strategic communication in a public sector organization. Following a theoretical discussion of the interconnectedness of strategic communication and managerial legitimation, we present a case study analysis of management talk at three interrelated management meetings dealing with the implementation of New Public Management-based (NPM) reforms in a public sector organization. The context of NPM in the case study is particularly relevant for our investigation, because it sets the stage for the creation of legitimation by the public sector managers. Our analysis finds that these public sector managers use the integration of ‘voices’ (voices of authorization, rationalization and moral evaluation) of different actors (e.g., the Ministry, the organizational members, competitors, and partners) as a means of establishing legitimation. Specifically, this research shows how the integration of these (strong or weaker) ‘voices’ in management talk happens at a microlevel and is used as a particular mode of strategic communication.
This chapter presents an analysis of a thread of intranet postings from a Swedish web consultancy at the time of its pursuit of a tobacco company as a client. Prior to the data collection, the tobacco company was to launch a new brand of snus, or moist snuff, and invited online marketing proposals from various web consultancy firms. During the proposal writing process, the Creative Director from this study’s focus company, hereafter referred to as WEB, posted on the company-wide intranet a brief announcement of the proposal work along with a 25-question survey concerning the habits and preferences of snuff-using colleagues. It was via this post that other employees learned of the company’s intentions to pursue the tobacco company, hereafter referred to as SNUFF, as a client. While the original intranet post presenting the survey did not indicate or acknowledge any anticipation of conflict or debate, a number of employees immediately called into question, problematized or even vilified the pursuit of SNUFF as a potential client. Other employees posted in defense of WEB’s decision to submit a proposal, and in this way a specific conflict about the ethical issues of pursuing a tobacco company unfolded, and a general debate over corporate vision and goals as well as moral responsibilities emerged.
In the information systems, customer relationship management (CRM) is the overall process of building and maintaining profitable customer relationships by delivering superior customer value and satisfaction with the goal of improving the business relationships with customers. Also, it is the strongest and the most efficient approach to maintaining and creating the relationships with customers. However, to the best of our knowledge and despite its importance, there is not any comprehensive and systematic study about reviewing and analyzing its important techniques. Therefore, in this paper, a comprehensive study and survey on the state of the art mechanisms in the scope of the CRM are done. It follows this goal by looking at five categories in which CRM plays a significant role: E-CRM, knowledge management, data mining, data quality and, social CRM. In each category, a couple of studies are presented and determinants of CRM are described and discussed. The major development in these five categories is reviewed and the new challenges are outlined. Also, a systematic literature review (SLR) in each of these five categories is provided. Furthermore, insights into the identification of open issues and guidelines for future research are provided.
– The purpose of this paper is to examine and analyze the prevailing form of rationality that governs the challenges, goals and roles of communication professionals. The authors will also explore alternative forms of rationality and discuss what these would imply.
– The paper is based on survey results from The European Communication Monitor (ECM) and qualitative interviews with communication managers in Sweden. First, the authors present the ECM data and the Swedish interview material, i.e. the authors depict the practitioners’ perceptions of what they understand as important work tasks and roles. The interviews focus on the actual practices of linking communication goals to business goals. Second, the results are challenged from a reflexive perspective, using theories from the paradox turn and questioning the “taken-for-granted thinking” in corporate communications.
– The ECM data show that the main challenge in practice is “linking business strategy and communication.” The Swedish respondents stand out when it comes to “building and maintaining trust” since this is considered to be almost as important. The qualitative interview study strengthens the results in the ECM. The interviewees seem to do their work according to the traditional management agenda – i.e. they break down overall business goals and translate these to measurable communication goals. The results are reflected upon using paradox theory. Two paradoxes are discussed: between managerialism and professionalism, and strategic generalists and operational specialists.
– The study is based on survey data that have been collected through a convenience sample, and the interview study is a pilot study.
– The paper focuses conflicts between normative practitioner ideals and reality, and helps practitioners to reflect upon mainstream thinking.
– Based on the empirical findings in the ECM, the interviews and the theoretical framework, the authors conclude that if the idea of The Communicative Organization is to be fruitfully realized, it is necessary to depart from a multi-dimensional rationality and question ideas that are taken for granted. The use of paradox theory and concepts such as functional stupidity is rather original in corporate communication research. Additional research could further explore paradoxes in order to spark dialogue, which may undermine one-dimensional thinking and functional stupidity.
Dissent is a vital process of organizational communication. Prior research has explored the variables that shape dissenters’ choices regarding what they say and to whom they say it. Less is known about the ways in which dissent events are situated in past dissent experiences. Additionally, few studies have examined the extent to which dissent expressed via social media and e-mail differs from face-to-face conversations. This case study examined the points of view of a dissenter, a supervisor, a skip-level supervisor, and two coworkers. Such a multiperspective analysis allowed a detailed exploration of how dissent events chained together and how dissenters’ choices about communication channels shaped the ways in which others responded to the dissent.
PurposeThis chapter offers new insights into the understanding of internal (employee) perceptions of organizational corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and strategies.
Methodology/approachThis study explores the significance of employees’ involvement and scepticism upon CSR initiatives and focuses on the effects it may have upon word of mouth (WOM) and the development of employee–organisation relationships. Desk research introduces the research questions. Data for the research questions were gathered through a self-completion questionnaire distributed in a hardcopy form to the sample.
FindingsAn individual’s level of scepticism and involvement appears to affect the development of a positive effect on employees’ WOM. Involvement with the domain of the investment may be a central factor affecting relationship building within the organization, and upon generation of positive WOM.
Practical implicationsThe chapter offers a conceptual framework to public relations (PR) and corporate communications practitioners, which may enrich their views and understanding of the use and value of CSR for communication strategies and practices.
Social implicationsFor-profit organisations are major institutions in today’s society. CSR is proffered as presenting advantages for (at macro level) society and (micro level) the organization and its employees.
Originality/value of chapterConcepts, such as involvement and scepticism, which have not been rigorously examined in PR and corporate communication literature, are addressed. By examining employee perceptions, managers and academic researchers gain insights into the acceptance, appreciation and effectiveness of CSR policies and activities upon the employee stakeholder group. This will affect current and future CSR communication strategies. The knowledge acquired from this chapter may be transferable outside the for-profit sector.