ArticlePDF Available

From Reality to Virtuality: Re-discussing Cities with the Concept of Metaverse

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The increase in the transaction volume of cryptocurrencies, the widespread use of blockchain technology, and increase in the number of augmented reality devices (virtual, augmented, and mixed reality) have led to the formation of a suitable environment for Metaverse. Metaverse is a virtual or augmented reality created beyond the physical world via an internet connection with augmented reality devices, game consoles, computers, tablets or mobile phones. This universe may be beyond the real world, or it is created by the virtualization of real world objects to a certain extent. While Metaverse has the opportunity to be applied comfortably in all areas of daily life, it can also be designed as an urban policy design tool. In the study, the conceptual framework of the metaverse will be presented, the metaverse investments of global companies will be determined, the concept of metaverse will be examined in the context of virtual reality relationship, the reflections of metaverse applications on the city will be examined, and finally, the effects and role of the metaverse in urban policy production will be discussed and conclusions and evaluations will be given.
Content may be subject to copyright.
UniversePG l www.universepg.com 12
From Reality to Virtuality: Re-discussing Cities with the Concept of
Metaverse
Abidin Kemec*
Department of Office Services and Secretariat, Uşak University, Karahallı Vocational School, Uşak, Turkey.
*Correspondence: abidinkemec@gmail.com (Abidin Kemec, PhD, Department of Office Services and Secretariat, Uşak
University, Karahallı Vocational School, Uşak, Turkey).
ABSTRACT
The increase in the transaction volume of cryptocurrencies, the widespread use of blockchain technology,
and increase in the number of augmented reality devices (virtual, augmented, and mixed reality) have led to
the formation of a suitable environment for Metaverse. Metaverse is a virtual or augmented reality created
beyond the physical world via an internet connection with augmented reality devices, game consoles,
computers, tablets or mobile phones. This universe may be beyond the real world, or it is created by the
virtualization of real world objects to a certain extent. While Metaverse has the opportunity to be applied
comfortably in all areas of daily life, it can also be designed as an urban policy design tool. In the study, the
conceptual framework of the metaverse will be presented, the metaverse investments of global companies
will be determined, the concept of metaverse will be examined in the context of virtual reality relationship,
the reflections of metaverse applications on the city will be examined, and finally, the effects and role of the
metaverse in urban policy production will be discussed and conclusions and evaluations will be given.
Keywords: Metaverse, City reality, Virtuality, Reality, Augmented Reality, and Metaverse applications.
INTRODUCTION:
The word 'metaverse' was first used by Neal Step-
henson. He described it as a gigantic virtual universe
parallel to the world, from the metaverse in the dys-
topian and cyberpunk novel Snow Crash (Joshua,
2017). Since then, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg
has had a significant impact on the concept of the
metaverse. Ever since Zuckerberg announced his
decision to rebrand the company as Meta on October
28, 2021, there has been intense interest in the con-
cept of the "metaverse". In addition to Zuckerberg's
statement, developing information and communi-
cation technologies, mobile phone applications and
social media platforms also contributed significantly.
As the number of people using the Internet increa-
sed, cyberspace began to develop. Virtual universes
have been created through devices in various fields,
including social media applications, videos, mee-
tings and games. Virtual universes, although per-
manent and disconnected, have brought different
levels of digital transformation to users. The term
"Metaverse" has facilitated digital transformation in
all areas of life. At the heart of metadata is an im-
mersive vision of the internet as a huge, joint, shared
and permanent space. Driven by technologies such
as augmented reality, blockchain, and artificial intel-
ligence (AI), the metaverse concept big bang is
imminent (Lee et al., 2021).
In virtual spaces created in the metaverse, people can
connect with each other through digital avatars. The
digital avatar can act as a close replica of a real per-
son. People can create their digital avatars in virtual
reality. This technology could allow coworkers to sit
and chat over coffee, escape worries by attending
virtual concerts, and stay in a virtual space that feels
real (Analytics steps, 2021).
International Journal of Management and Accounting, 4(1), 12-20, 2022
Publisher homepage: www.universepg.com, ISSN: 2707-4641 (Online) & 2707-4633 (Print)
https://doi.org/10.34104/ijma.022.012020
International
Journal
of
Management
and
Accounting
Journal homepage:
www.universepg.com/journal/ijma
Kemec A / International Journal of Management and Accounting, 4(1), 12-20, 2022
UniversePG l www.universepg.com 13
Metaverse Concept
On a global scale, an estimated every ten years, tech-
nology platforms have undergone a paradigm shift.
Computer communication in the 1990s, in order of
paradigms in the following decades; website, mobile
communication and the metaverse. In the Metaverse
concept, digital users/avatars interact with each other
socially and economically through 3D virtual and
multi-user online environments. Now the real space
is connected to the virtual space through metastore
transformations (Lee, 2021).
Looking at the history of the metaverse, the greatest
progress has been made from the video game
industry through games such as Wolfenstein 3D,
Duke Nukem 3D, Ever-Quest, Ultima Online and
Doom. In these games, 3D game playing experience
is provided for the users (Cammack, 2010). Meta-
verse is an advanced form of online gaming. In terms
of the connection between reality and virtuality, the
metaverse has a stronger connection between reality
and virtuality. The way Metaverse users participate
is also different from before. Users can participate
more freely than in existing online games, with the
way they create their own stories rather than narra-
tives such as role-playing and drama using the space
(Han et al., 2021). Caulfield defines the concept of
metaverse as synergistic, jointly and immersive
shared three-dimensional virtual world(s) (Caulfield,
2021). Metaverseis virtual shared spaces that create a
universe, allowing the user to choose an avatar, build
homes and businesses, hold meetings, attend classes,
find partners, and do the seemingly impossible
(Srushti, 2021).
In another study, it was emphasized that the meta-
verse serves as a virtual spatial background that
enables users to participate in social, economic and
cultural activities through avatars (Hendaoui et al.,
2008). I can be used to incorporate intelligence into
the Metaverse for enhanced user experience such as
efficient object creation, intelligent chatbots, and
user-generated content. For example, Epic Games
company's Meta Human project used AI to quickly
create lifelike digital characters (Lim et al., 2022).
For a metaverse to meet real-world requirements, at
least; a shared 3D environment, avatar, communi-
cation (interpersonal, group, audience), real-time in-
teraction, creative expression (personal and environ-
mental) and financial resources are needed (Cam-
mack, 2010). There with all the metaverse is a com-
plex digital environment based on seven different
layers. These layers (xrtoday.com, 2021a):
1) Infrastructure- 5G, Wi-Fi and processors
2) Human interface - devices used to connect in
metadata (VR headsets, AR glasses, haptics,
and other technologies)
3) Decentralization- Blockchain, edge compu-
ting, artificial intelligence
4) Spatial computing- 3D visualization and mo-
deling frameworks
5) Creative economy- Various design tools, digi-
tal assets and e-commerce establishments
6) Discovery- Ads, social media, ratings, re-
views, etc. A content engine that provides
inter-action, including.
7) Experiences- Game, event, work, shopping
etc. for digital applications.
Metaverse is a new investment area for companies.
The world's leading global companies carry out
R&D studies for different kind of software and hard-
ware. The goals of the companies on the metaverse
Nare shown in the Table 1. Apple virtual reality
equipment; Creating content in the Amazon media
industry; Creating a virtual city in Decentraland;
Google metadata transfer; Facebook invests in pro-
viding unique experiences on social networks.
Metaverse, Reality-Virtual Relation:
Virtual, augmented, augmented and mixed reality
applications are the leading technologies that are
effective in the use of Metaverse in many areas
today. These reality practices are linked with many
technological developments in the fields of entertain-
ment, health, education, automotive industry (Ling et
al., 2020; Zhou et al., 2020; Lawson et al., 2016;
Adikari et al., 2020; Huang et al., 2020; Cammack,
2010).
While in earlier times the use of XR was limited to
"in the laboratory" or only in private areas, it has
now led to wider acceptance in society, such as in
civil defense, aviation, emergency preparedness and
evacuation planning, and almost all educational
disciplines, besides the private sector (Çöltekin et
al., 2020). Whether on devices in virtual and augm-
ented reality or on a display or console, the promise
of the metaverse is to allow a greater overlap of
virtual and real lives in wealth, socializing, pro-
ductivity, shopping, and entertainment (Clark, 2021).
Kemec A / International Journal of Management and Accounting, 4(1), 12-20, 2022
UniversePG l www.universepg.com 14
Table 1: Companies Targeting Metaverse Investment (Analyticssteps, 2021; Xrtoday, 2021a).
Chapter 1
Extended Reality
Augmented reality refers to all real and virtual
combined environments and human-machine inter-
actions created by computer technology, wearable
technology, and game consoles. The concept of aug-
mented reality encompasses all forms of reality such
as augmented reality, virtual reality, mixed reality. In
addition, augmented reality can be defined as a
simple concept that combines three realities in a
single term (Medium, 2018). XR encompasses imm-
ersive technologies that expand experienced reality
by involving users in a human-machine converged
reality through an integrated cyber and physical
environment using computers and wearables (Al-
nagrat et al., 2021).
Fig. 1: Applications of Extended Reality (envision-
is.com, 2022).
Technologies seen as tools to create unique environ-
ments, experiences and interactions, XR represents a
powerful opportunity for businesses and consumers
alike. The XR market, valued at US$26.05 billion in
2020, has grown at an incredible pace. Experts think
that XR will reach a value of $ 463.7 billion by 2026
and achieve a growth of over 62.67%.The market of
augmented reality applications has seen a significant
increase in 2020 and 2021.
The pandemic (COVID-19) has increased interest in
the creation of virtual experiences in many industries
to strengthen business and collaboration. XR has
also developed into institutionalism. Nowadays com-
panies now include augmented reality when planning
their digital transformation strategies (Xrtoday,
2021b). In the research report published by the Ac-
centure Company in 2021, it was claimed that global
companies are heavily transitioning to augmented
reality technology. While companies take initiatives
to increase employee participation and provide more
effective and flexible learning opportunities, they
assign important missions to XR technologies. In
addition, a highly effective learning experience can
be experienced by creating a safe and fully inter-
active environment (Accenture, 2021).
Extended reality glasses can be made more func-
tional by adding different equipment. In order for
these glasses to serve various purposes; Camera,
microphones, speaker and sensors can be mounted.
Kemec A / International Journal of Management and Accounting, 4(1), 12-20, 2022
UniversePG l www.universepg.com 15
Fig. 2: XR Glasses (Cualcomm, 2020).
Chapter 2
Augmented Reality
Augmented reality is the realization of virtual en-
vironment by adding virtual information to a phy-
sical real world environment. Augmented reality
adds virtual information not only to the real environ-
ment, but also to video and game streams, giving the
user a simpler view. Augmented reality is a visual
augmentation technique that transfers computer-
generated data (text, video, graphics, and GPS data)
onto a real-world image as captured from the camera
of a tablet, notebook, computer, mobile phone, or
game console (Kounavis, 2012). Augmented reality
applications; fixed indoor, fixed outdoor, mobile
indoor, mobile outdoor and mobile indoors and out-
door systems are divided into five categories. Mobile
systems allow the user to move around without being
limited to a room, thus making it easy for the user to
move around using a wireless system. Fixed systems
cannot be moved. In this system, users can only use
the system where it is installed (Carmigniani et al.,
2011).
Chapter 3
Virtual Reality
Virtual reality is a human-computer desire simu-
lating an advanced world. They can browse virtually
online (Zheng et al., 1998). VR is an artificial appli-
cation created by different devices in a real-life
environment. This application helps users experience
the transformed reality in a different way by adap-
ting the senses such as sight and hearing in addition.
Virtual reality has features such as disconnecting
experiences and interactions from the real world or
blending them with the real world, making real and
virtual similar. For these reasons, the number of
users has increased rapidly in recent years (Ramos et
al., 2018). The main aim of the Virtual Reality sys-
tem is to use technology to change reality and create
an immersive environment. It means that the display
must be completely immersive, with a wide field of
view and 3D graphics rendered as realistically as
possible. The land of view is the size of the user's
screen. So the larger the land of view, the higher the
intensity level (Azuma, 1997).
Chapter 4
Mixed Reality
Ideas have been put forward that AR and VR are
closely related to each other and that it is necessary
to deal with the two concepts together. In augmented
reality (AR), the real world is enriched with virtual
content. In augmented virtuality (AV), most of the
content is virtual, but the objects found in the world
have been added to some extent. In mixed reality
(MR), objects that exist in the real and virtual worlds
are blended (Skarbez et al., 2021). In a study pub-
lished in 1994 by Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino,
mixed reality was able to mimic properties of phy-
sical reality, creating a world in which the participant
observer is completely immersed in a virtual world,
where the physical laws governing gravity, time, and
material properties of the existing or fictional real-
world environment no longer apply but it is also des-
cribed as a view that can cross borders. A real env-
ironment is any environment consisting only of real
objects (Fig. 2). A virtual environment is an environ-
ment made up of virtual objects. In this framework, a
general Mixed Reality (MR) environment, real world
and virtual world objects are presented on a single
screen.
Kemec A / International Journal of Management and Accounting, 4(1), 12-20, 2022
UniversePG l www.universepg.com 16
Fig. 3: Reality and Virtuality Plane (Milgram et al.,
1995).
When comparing the three realities (Fig. 3), augm-
ented reality and mixed reality headsets are
used, while special headsets or smart glasses are
used in virtual reality. While creating a completely
digital environment in virtual reality, it is presented
in augmented and mixed reality blended with real
life. The main difference between augmented reality
and mixed reality relates to the level of awareness of
virtual objects. In mixed reality, there are perfectly
rendered virtual objects that are indistinguishable
from real objects, while in augmented reality virtual
objects can be described according to their nature
and behavior.
Table 2: Collation of the Reality Fields (Rokhsaritalemi et al., 2020)
Different application Areas Of Metaverse In The
city
The application of metaverse finds its practical app-
lication in many areas (science, health, culture, art,
economy and daily life) of the city. In the report pub-
lished by Thomas Alsop, among the smart cities best
XR/AR/VR/MR applications in America in 2020,
navigation solutions and improvements in urban
planning are the two best applications of innovator
technologies in smart cities. These two are respect-
ively; smart traffic signaling management, smart
parking and smart building management systems
follow (statista.com, 2020). Realtors use XR allow-
ing buyers to view and experience properties without
being physically present. Interior designers and arc-
hitects also experiment with their designs and can
avoid mistakes. The comfort of seeing a whole house
while living in a another city or even in a different
country and seeing the harmony of the furniture with
the interior design of the house will be a great break-
through for the real estate sector (logicsimplified.
com, 2022). As an example, IKEA's latest mobile
app, IKEA Place, uses XR to make a profound
impact on the way we shop for furniture at home.
Those who want to shop through the mobile appli-
cation can choose a product from the catalog and
place digital furniture anywhere in the room. The
selected product is quickly fitted to the specified area
(viget, 2017).
Image 1: IKEA Place Mobil Application (ikea.com,
2022).
Kemec A / International Journal of Management and Accounting, 4(1), 12-20, 2022
UniversePG l www.universepg.com 17
Metaverse offers a completely different experience
for customers/users to co-create experiences in the
retail industry and to better design services, increase
customer engagement, and strengthen communic-
ation. The product types offered by Metaverse retai-
ling span a range from virtual digital to digital for
offline to purchasing real-life physical items for use
(Gadalla et al., 2013). There is a direct link between
the recent increase in NFT (Non-Fungible Token)
sales and Metaverse. Many artifacts sold as NFTs are
protected in the digital worlds. These works will be
exhibited in the Metaverse universes in the future
and will be sold by auction. In the Metaverse uni-
verse, these digital artworks are put up for sale by
signing contracts and transferring money securely,
thanks to blockchain technology. Through block-
chain-based smart contract mechanisms, metaverse
service providers can manage and automate complex
interactions between various entities in the Meta-
verse, such as users and digital content creators
(Nguyen et al., 2021). Recently, it is on the agenda
to get a collection of virtual terrain, marketplace,
avatar or NFT in different metaverse universes.
Within the scope of the metaverse, two different
universes are created, either a copy of the real world
or independent of the world. Decentraland, the first
fully decentralized virtual world, is controlled by
computer codes through the Decentralized Autono-
mous Organization, which owns smart contracts and
assets (decentraland.org, 2022). Next Earth is the
only blockchain-based virtual land ownership plat-
form on a full copy of the world. On the Next Earth
platform, one can instantly buy and sell digital land
and land NFT collections in a non-intermediary,
NFT-based, transparent manner. Next Earth has
three land types: water, urban and non-urban (next-
earth.io, 2022). Decentraland Company has imple-
mented Metaverse in real estate by combining virtual
reality and blockchain technology. Decentraland has
made it possible to buy land, a virtual real estate,
using the cryptocurrency MANA. Users can freely
place buildings on land purchased from Decen-
traland, generate income by adding billboards to
buildings, or hold exhibitions by collecting rare digi-
tal content. These unique assets are made through
smart contracts that enable decentralized autono-
mous organization, transactions regarding stocks,
bonds, loans, mortgages, smart property (Jeon et al.,
2021). Samsung plans to enter the metadata ware-
house by opening a store in Decentraland (MANA).
The company will open the shop for a limited time to
offer users unusual digital adventures. Named Sam-
sung 837X in reference to the physical store located
at 837 Washington Street, it will still be open for a
limited time. The purpose of this store is to offer
digital adventures to its users. Users will be able to
join a game to get NFT and wearables. It has also
been noted that these NFTs will be available in
limited quantities (medium.com, 2022).
Image 2: Samsung Company's Metaverse Store
(samsung.com, 2022)
Another dimension of Metaverse is that it offers a
digital economy environment where users can create,
buy and sell goods. Cryptocurrencies can be used in
the metaverse universe. Cryptocurrency exchanges
list many zcoins in relation to the metaverse. Meta-
verse coins are (coinmarketcap.com, 2022); Decen-
traland (MANA), Axie Infinity (AXS), The Sandbox
(SAND), THETA (THETA), UFO Gaming (UFO),
Enjin Coin (ENJ), WEMIX (WEMIX), Starlink (ST-
ARL). These platforms act as virtual reality plat-
forms that allow users to create content and appli-
cations, create, experience and monetize digital as-
sets in the form of a game, interacting without vio-
lating personal data, powered by the Ethereum-
blockchain.
CONCLUSION:
There has been a general rise in digital literacy levels
with the increase in internet infrastructure and usage,
the number of people using technological devices
and digital applications. As the level of digital liter-
acy increases, the journey from physical to virtual
has become more reliable, understandable and us-
able. Innovative applications such as the metaverse
of the digital age have been met by millions of
people. Firms engaged in physical merchandising
activities (Samsung, Zara, Ikea etc.) have opened
virtual stores. Game companies have provided a
stronger connection between reality and virtuality in
Kemec A / International Journal of Management and Accounting, 4(1), 12-20, 2022
UniversePG l www.universepg.com 18
online games, allowing players to move more freely.
Thanks to the metaverse applications of the pan-
demic in business, shopping, education, sports,
social, cultural and artistic activities in cities, a new
experience has been experienced. In parallel with the
increase in the internet infrastructure and usage, the
number of people using technological devices and
digital applications, there has been a general increase
in people's digital literacy levels. As the level of
digital literacy increases, the journey from physical
to virtual has become more reliable, understandable
and usable. Firms engaged in physical merchant-
dising activities (Samsung, Zara, Ikea, etc.) have
provided users with a unique experience with the
virtual stores they opened in different metaverse
universes. Game companies have provided a stronger
connection between reality and virtuality in online
games, allowing players to move more freely. Due to
the pandemic, participation in cultural and artistic
activities where people participate collectively has
decreased significantly all over the world. With Met-
averse applications, a new experience has been exp-
erienced in business, shopping, education, sports,
social, cultural and artistic activities in cities. Meta-
verse applications have radically transformed pro-
perty relations. It has been possible to purchase and
lease real estate from different metaverse universes.
Establishing a world-independent virtual universe
(Decentraland) and real-world lands and NFTs can
be rented or purchased again virtually (Next Earth)
over the metaverse. Metaverse applications are seen
as a blessing of the new age. However, as with all
digital applications, it is also concerned that it will
pose a risk due to personal privacy and data security.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
I would like to thank the authors of the literature
sources I have used in this article.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST:
The author of the article has no conflict of interest
with any institution or person.
REFERENCES:
1) Accenture, (2021). The mobile future of ex-
tended reality (xr),
https://www.accenture.com/_acnmedia/PDF-164
/Accenture-Immersive-learning.pdf#zoom=40
2) Adikari, S. B., Ganegoda, N. C., Meegama, R.
G., Wanniarachchi, I. L. (2020). Applicability
of a single depth sensor in real-Time 3D
clothes simulation: Augmented reality virtual
dressing room using kinect sensor. Advances
in Human-Computer time Interaction, 2020.
3) Alnagrat, A. J. A., Ismail, R. C., & Idrus, S. Z.
S. (2021). Extended reality (xr) in virtual labo-
ratories: A review of challenges and future
training directions. In Journal of Physics:
Conference Series, IOP Publishing, 1874(1).
4) Analyticssteps.com, (2021). 8 top companies
leading the metaverse technology,
https://www.analyticssteps.com/blogs/8-top-com
panies-leading-metaverse-technology
5) Azuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented
reality. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual
Environments, 6(4), 355-385.
6) Binance. (2021). 6 global companies building
up the metaverse,
https://academy.binance.com/en/articles/global-
companies-building-up-the-metaverse
7) Cammack, R. G. (2010). Location-based ser-
vice use: a metaverse investigation. Journal of
Location Based Services, 4(1), 53-65.
8) Carmigniani, J., Furht, B., Anisetti, M., Cera-
volo, P., Damiani, E., Ivkovic, M. (2011).
Augmented reality technologies, systems and
applications. Multimedia tools and applic-
ations, 51(1), 341-377.
9) Clark, P.A. (2021). The metaverse has already
arrived. Heres what that actually means,
https://time.com/6116826/what-is-the-metaverse/
10) Caulfield, B. (2021). "What is the metaverse?"
The official Nvidia Blog,
https://blogs.nvidia.com/blog/2021/08/10/what-
is-the-metaverse/
11) Coinmarketcap.com, (2022), Largest Metaverse
by market cap,
https://coinmarketcap.com/tr/view/metaverse/
12) Çöltekin, A., Lochhead, I., Madden, M., et al.,
(2020). Extended reality in spatial sciences: A
review of research challenges and future dire-
ctions. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-
Information, 9(7), 439.
13) Decentraland.org, (2022). Decentraland,
https://decentraland.org/
14) Envision, (2022). Envision innovative solutions
to animate U.S. Capitol using augmented reality,
https://envision-is.com/xr/
15) Gadalla, E., Keeling, K., & Abosag, I. (2013).
Metaverse-retail service quality: A future
framework for retail service quality in the 3D
internet. Journal of Marketing Management,
29(13-14), 1493-1517.
Kemec A / International Journal of Management and Accounting, 4(1), 12-20, 2022
UniversePG l www.universepg.com 19
16) Han, J., Heo, J., You, E. (2021). Analysis of
metaverse platform as a new play culture:
Focusing on roblox and ZEPETO. In Procee-
dings of the 2nd International Conference on
Human-centered Artificial Intelligence (Com-
puting4 Human 2021). CEUR Workshop Proc-
eedings, Da Nang, Vietnam.
17) Hendaoui, A., Limayem, M., Thompson, C.W.
(2008). 3D social virtual worlds: research iss-
ues and challenges. IEEE Internet Compu-ting,
12(1), 88 92,
https://doi.org/10.1109/MIC.2008.1
18) Huang, H., Lin, C., Cai, D. (2020). Enhancing
the learning effect of virtual reality 3D mode-
ling: a new model of learners design collab-
oration and a comparison of its field system
usability. Universal Access in the Information
Society, 1-12.
19) Ikea.com. (2022). IKEA Place,
https://about.ikea.com/en/newsroom/2018/03/19/
ikea-place-app-launches-on-android-allowing-mi
llions-of-people-to-reimagine-home-furnishings-
using-ar?assetID=B724AB72-104C-4703-B941-
D617E402836A
20) Jeon, H. J., Youn, H. C., Ko, S. M., & Kim, T.
H. (2021). Blockchain and AI meet in the
metaverse,
https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/77823
21) Joshua, J. (2017). Information bodies: Comp-
utational anxiety in Neal Stephenson's Snow
Crash. Interdisciplinary Literary Studies, 19
(1), 17-47.
22) Kounavis, C. D., Kasimati, A. E., & Zamani, E.
D. (2012). Enhancing the tourism experience
through mobile augmented reality: Challenges
and prospects. International Journal of Engin-
eering Business Management, 4, 10.
23) Lawson, G., Salanitri, D., & Waterfield, B.
(2016). Future directions for the development
of virtual reality within an automotive manu-
facturer. Applied ergonomics, 53, 323-330.
24) Lee, L. H., Braud, T., Zhou, P., Wang, L., P.
(2021). All one needs to know about meta-
verse: A complete survey on technological sin-
gularity, virtual ecosystem, and research agenda.
arXiv preprint.
https://doi.org/arXiv:2110.05352
25) Lee, J. Y. (2021). A study on metaverse hype
for sustainable growth. International journal
of advanced smart convergence, 10(3), 72-80.
26) Liang, C. J., Start, C., Boley, H., et al., (2020).
Enhancing stroke assessment simulation exp-
erience in clinical training using augmented
reality. Virtual Reality, 1-10.
27) Lim, W. Y. B., Xiong, Z., Niyato, D., et al.,
(2022). Realizing the metaverse with edge
intelligence: A match made in heaven. arXiv
preprint. https://doi.org/arXiv:2201.01634
28) Logicsimplified.com, (2022). Extended Reality
(XR): The rising star of virtual world,
https://logicsimplified.com/newgames/extended-
reality-xr-the-rising-star-of-virtual-world/
29) Medium. (2018). What really is the difference
between AR/MR/VR/XR ?
https://medium.com/@northof41/what-really-is-t
he-difference-between-ar-mr-vr-xr-35bed1da1a4e
30) Medium.com, (2022). Samsung enters the met-
averse by opening a store in Decentraland
(MANA),
https://medium.com/coinmonks/samsung-enters-
the-metaverse-by-opening-a-store-in-decentralan
d-mana-11a4e619d7d5
31) Milgram, P., Takemura, H., Utsumi, A., Kis-
hino, F. (1995, December). Augmented reality:
A class of displays on the reality-virtuality
continuum. In Tele manipulator and telepre-
sence technologies, 2351, 282-292.
32) Nextearth.io, (2022). Next Earth,
https://nextearth.io/
33) Nguyen, C. T., Hoang, D. T., Nguyen, D. N.,
Dutkiewicz, E. (2021). MetaChain: A novel
blockchain-based framework for metaverse
applications. arXiv preprint.
https://doi.org/arXiv:2201.00759
34) Qualcomm, (2020). The mobile future of exte-
nded reality (xr), Qualcomm Technologies,
Inc.,
https://www.qualcomm.com/media/documents/fi
les/the-mobile-future-of-extended-reality-xr.pdf
35) Ramos, F., Trilles, S., Torres-Sospedra, J.,
Perales, F. (2018). New trends in using aug-
mented reality apps for smart city contexts.
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Inform-
ation, 7(12), 1-23.
36) Rokhsaritalemi, S., Sadeghi-Niaraki, A., Choi,
S. M. (2020). A review on mixed reality: Cur-
rent trends, challenges and prospects. Applied
Sciences, 10(2), 636.
37) Sami HM. (2021). Portfolio construction using
financial ratio indicators and classification
Kemec A / International Journal of Management and Accounting, 4(1), 12-20, 2022
UniversePG l www.universepg.com 20
through machine learning, Int. J. Manag.
Account. 3(4), 83-90.
https://doi.org/10.34104/ijma.021.083090
38) Skarbez, R., Smith, M., Whitton, M. C.
(2021). Revisiting Milgram and Kishino's rea-
lity-virtuality continuum. Frontiers in Virtual
Reality, 2, 27.
39) Statista.com. (2020). XR/AR/VR/MR applica-
tions in the United States in 2020,
https://www.statista.com/statistics/1185244/appli
cations-immersive-technologies-xr-ar-vr-mr-sma
rt-cities/
40) Samsung.com, (2022). Samsung 837X,
https://www.samsung.com/us/explore/metaverse-
837x/
41) Srushtiimx.com, (2021). Does the virtual world
advertising work in metaverse,
https://srushtiimx.com/blog/virtual-world-adverti
sing-work-in-metaverse/
42) Viget, (2017). A definitive guide to navigating
the landscape of extended reality,
https://www.viget.com/articles/xr-vr-ar-mr-what
s-the-difference/
43) Xrtoday.com, (2021a). What is extended reality?
Demystifying XR tech,
https://www.xrtoday.com/mixed-reality/what-is-e
xtended-reality/
44) Xrtoday.com, (2021b). Who is building the
metaverse? A group of 160+ companies
https://www.xrtoday.com/virtual-reality/who-is-b
uilding-the-metaverse-a-group-of-160-companies-
and-you/
45) Zheng, J. M., Chan, K. W., Gibson, I. (1998).
Virtual reality. IEEE Potentials, 17(2), 20-23.
46) Zhou, X., Tang, L., Lin, D., Han, W. (2020).
Virtual & augmented reality for biological mic-
roscope in experiment education. Virtual Re-
ality & Intelligent Hardware, 2(4), 316-329.
Citation: Kemec A. (2022). From reality to virtuality: re-discussing cities with the concept of metaverse,
Int. J. Manag. Account.
4(1), 12-20. https://doi.org/10.34104/ijma.022.012020
... Böylece markalar önemli markalama faaliyetleri, marka değeri güçlendirme ve etkin iletişim yolları ile rekabet avantajı elde edebilirler. Sadece giyim ve aksesuar markaları değil, metaverse dünyasında alan, arazi, bina satışları da gerçekleştirilmektedir (Kemeç, 2022). Second Life bünyesinden kiralık daireler avatarlara (bireylere) sağlanmaktadır. ...
Chapter
Dijital kimlik denince akla ilk gelen kavram artık metaverse dünyasıdır. Metaverse kavramı kısa zaman içerisinde son zamanların en dikkat çeken kavramı haline gelmiştir. Blockchain, nesnelerin interneti (IoT), sanal dünyalar (VW), yapay zekâ (AI) ve benzeri gelişmeler nedeni ile teknoloji endüstrisinde dikkat çeken popüler bir terimdir. Bütün bu kavramların birbiri ile entegrasyonu hızlı bir gelişim göstermek ile birlikte eş zamanlı da kullanılabilmektedir. Metaverse sanal dünyası bireylerin ticaret yapabildikleri, eğitim alabildikleri, tıp alanında çalışmalar yürütebildikleri, sosyal ağ oluşturabildikleri üç boyutlu alanlardır. Gerçek dünyanın sanal dünya ile sorunsuz bir şekilde şekillendirilerek bütünleştirilebildiği bir simülasyon ortamıdır. Metaverse ekonomisi, dijital dünyada yaratma, değiş tokuş ve tüketim gibi dijital üretime dayalı ekonomik davranışları ifade etmektedir. Dijital ekonominin hızlı gelişimi metaverse alanına ilgili yoğunlaştırırken, metaverse aynı zamanda da yeni nesli internetin alt yapısı olarak da kabul edilmektedir. Dijital ekonomik sistemin hızlı gelişimi metaverse en zorlu görevlerinden biri olarak kabul edilebilir. Çünkü sanal dünyada ticareti yapılabilen dijital varlıkların üretimi ve tüketimi, geleneksel ekonomistlerin karşılaşmadığı bir olgudur.
... Users can interact with each other through virtual reality by developing and using their avatars representing themselves [47]. By using the shared space of the virtual world, users can find partners, hold meetings, conduct businesses and even build homes [48]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Issues related to mental health are major concern for professionals of all industries throughout the world. Likewise in the sector of painting and arts, factors like stress, depression and loneliness affect the mental health of the individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between Metaverse-based painting, social connectedness, aesthetic awareness and mental health. This research also aimed to investigate the mediating role of social connectedness and aesthetic awareness. A cross-sectional research design was used and the data was collected from 244 painters by using the convenience sampling technique. Usable response rate of the study was 70.90%. Further data was examined through using PLS-SEM by using smart PLS 3.3.9 as a tool. The findings of the study confirmed that social connectedness has a significant positive effect to improve the mental health of painters. Moreover, aesthetic awareness also had a significant effect on mental health. Additionally, metaverse technology is an important contributor to improving social connectedness and enhancing the aesthetic awareness of painters. Also, the mental health of the painters was improved through metaverse technology. Finally, the mediating role of aesthetic awareness and social connectedness was also supported in the study. The outcomes of this research assist the literature by providing valuable insight regarding the relationship between metaverse technology and mental health. This research also discusses practical and theoretical contributions.
... According to its history, Metaverse is an advanced form of online gaming. Wolfenstien 3-D, Duke Nukem 3-D, and doom are examples of video games that have transformed gaming into a 3-D experience (Kemec, 2022). These video games were widely popular, and they helped to establish the popular computer gaming first-person shooting genre (Cammack, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Before Covid-19, the metaverse was viewed as merely an entertainment experience for the community, such as a place to spend time and play games. However, following the pandemic, a future second world for society emerged in the Metaverse. The metaverse is quickly becoming a part of our physical and digital life, including city life. Cities can use the metaverse in a variety of ways, ranging from simple to advanced applications of the technology. Cities in Asian, such as Seoul and Shanghai, are quickly moving to be the first to capitalize on the emerging metaverse. They also chose to develop a strategic plan and begin investing in the metaverse, believing that the virtual world will provide benefits such as increased information sharing, more accessible city services, stronger connections with and among community members, and a new virtual economy. Then, how are Indonesian cities dealing with the metaverse's rapid expansion. As a preliminary qualitative study, this research provides an overview by reviewing various relevant literature published in the last 5 years, explaining the concept of the metaverse and how it affects city life during IoT and the virtual world's rapid development. Taking lessons from two major Asian cities in responding to the development of the metaverse, it is hoped that this will deliver like a reflection and policy framework for Indonesian cities in the future.
... kripto para birimleri kullanılır (Akkus vd., 2022;27-28). Bu platformlar, kullanıcıların içerik ve uygulamalar oluşturmasına, bir oyun biçiminde dijital varlıklar oluşturmasına, deneyimlemesine ve para kazanmasına olanak tanıyan, Ethereum blok zincir tarafından desteklenen, kişisel verileri ihlal etmeden etkileşime geçilmesine olanak sağlayan sanal gerçeklik platformu görevi görmektedir (Kemeç, 2022). ...
... Böylece markalar önemli markalama faaliyetleri, marka değeri güçlendirme ve etkin iletişim yolları ile rekabet avantajı elde edebilirler. Sadece giyim ve aksesuar markaları değil, metaverse dünyasında alan, arazi, bina satışları da gerçekleştirilmektedir (Kemeç, 2022). Second Life bünyesinden kiralık daireler avatarlara (bireylere) sağlanmaktadır. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Çalışmada, öncelikle Blockchain teknolojisi hakkında bilgi verilerek, bu teknolojinin çalışma mantığı, sektörlere sunduğu fırsatlar, avantaj ve dezavantajları, uygulanması durumunda yaşanabilecek iş modeli senaryoları medya sektörü bazında incelenmiştir. Bölümün sonunda özellikle işletmelerin gelecek işlemlerini ve iş yapma yöntemlerini ilgilendiren ve Blockchain teknolojisine dayanan akıllı sözleşmeler hakkında ayrıntılı bilgi yer almaktadır.
... Böylece markalar önemli markalama faaliyetleri, marka değeri güçlendirme ve etkin iletişim yolları ile rekabet avantajı elde edebilirler. Sadece giyim ve aksesuar markaları değil, metaverse dünyasında alan, arazi, bina satışları da gerçekleştirilmektedir (Kemeç, 2022). Second Life bünyesinden kiralık daireler avatarlara (bireylere) sağlanmaktadır. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Çalışmada, öncelikle Blockchain teknolojisi hakkında bilgi verilerek, bu teknolojinin çalışma mantığı, sektörlere sunduğu fırsatlar, avantaj ve dezavantajları, uygulanması durumunda yaşanabilecek iş modeli senaryoları medya sektörü bazında incelenmiştir. Bölümün sonunda özellikle işletmelerin gelecek işlemlerini ve iş yapma yöntemlerini ilgilendiren ve Blockchain teknolojisine dayanan akıllı sözleşmeler hakkında ayrıntılı bilgi yer almaktadır.
Article
Amaç: Bu araştırmanın amacı son zamanlarda gündemde olan metaversin, akıllı kent uygulamalarını ne yönde etkileyeceğini örnekler üzerinden ortaya koymaktır. Bilim kurgu romanlarıyla temelleri atılan, bilgisayar oyunları ile sanal dünyaları keşfetmemizi sağlayan geleceğin üç boyutlu interneti metavers; sağlık, eğitim, alışveriş, turizm, kültür, sanat, ekonomi, akıllı kent vb. birçok alanda yenilik yaratan inovasyon ekosistemidir. Fiziksel dünyanın bir benzeri olan metavers; blockchain, yapay zekâ, nesnelerin interneti, 5G, artırılmış gerçeklik (AR, VR, MR) vb. birçok teknolojinin birleşiminden meydana gelmiştir. Tasarım/Yöntem: Tanımlayıcı bir makale türü olması nedeniyle dolaylı ve alıntısal yöntem kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Değerlendirmede metaversin akıllı kent hizmetlerine etkisinin önümüzdeki dönemlerde daha çok artacağı, tüm akıllı kent uygulamalarına yayılarak kent yaşamını etkileyeceği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Sınırlılıklar: Metavers konusunda çalışmaların henüz yeni olması nedeniyle araştırma sadece üç şehir ile sınırlı kalmıştır. Özgünlük/Değer: Global teknoloji firmalarının ciddi yatırımlar yaptığı metavers, teknolojinin yoğun olarak kullanıldığı inovasyonun yansıması olan akıllı kentleri de birçok yönden etkileyecektir. Modern medeniyetlerin merkezi olan kentler sanal dünyada dijital ikizleri ile birçok etkinliğin, dijital çözümün merkezinde olma yolunda ilerlemektedir. Bu makalede son günlerde popüler olan metavers kavramı akıllı kent kavramı ile birlikte ele alınmış, kent hizmetlerine etkileri Santa Monica, Şangay, Seul gibi örnekler üzerinden analiz edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Dijital ikiz, blockchain, nesnelerin interneti, yapay zekâ, Web 3.0, artırılmış gerçeklik vb. teknolojilere değinilmiştir. Metaversin akıllı kentler üzerinde yaratacağı etkileri örnekler üzerinden değerlendirmek ve geleceğe yönelik olarak bu alanda kentlerin uygulayabileceği stratejileri ortaya koymak araştırmanın özgün değerini oluşturmaktadır.
Chapter
In this work we investigate how combining open-source game engines and graphic-related software can support planning and interventions in multiple scales, starting from something as small as a room. The proposed methodology allows the creation of a high fidelity 3D mesh representation of reality, using a small dataset, together with photogrammetric and topographic techniques. The 3D mesh can be imported to a game engine and be used during planning. The case study deals with the creation of a storage furniture setup, inside a small room, following a number of manufacturing restrictions. The storage space is designed using proposed tools. Manufactured items required minor to none changes, during assembly.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
تمثل الهدف الرئيسي للورقة البحثية في تقديم مدخل مقترح لاستخدام تقنية Metaverse كأحد تقنيات تكنولوجيا المعلومات، واستخلاص تأثير هذا الاستخدام على جودة المحتوى المعلوماتي للتقارير المالية، كما نوهت الورقة البحثية عن التغيرات التي ستحدث في بيئة العمل نتيجة استخدام هذه التقنية المستحدثه بوجه عام وفي مجال المحاسبة والمراجعة على وجه التحديد، وبيان أهم محددات الاستخدام الجيد من جانب، ومزايا ومخاطر التطبيق من جانب أخر. وخلصت الورقة البحثية إلى مجموعة من النقاط الهامة يأتي في مقدمتها: أنه في ظل استخدام تقنية Metaverse سيحدث تغيرات كبيرة في شكل ومحتوى التقارير المالية وكذلك طرق إعدادها وتوقيتها، نتيجة تقديمها العديد من المزايا والمنافع الناتجة عن استخدام التقنيات الرقمية، كما تدعم هذه التقنية المستحدثة تقديم أشكال مختلفة للتقارير المالية وتعزيز امكانية الوصول إليها والتفاعل معها، وكذلك تعميق قضايا البحث عن البيانات، والتي يمكن أن تخلق تغيرات جوهرية من شأنها أن تحول ممارسات إعداد التقارير الحالية للشركات إلى تقارير تفاعليه ومن ثم إجراء تحديثات في الوقت الفعلي/ الحقيقي التي تدعم اتخاذ العديد من القرارات الإدارية والاستثمارية.  الكلمات الدالة: تقنية Metaverse، الواقع المُعزز، الواقع الافتراضي، جودة التقارير المالية.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Since the popularisation of the Internet in the 1990s, the cyberspace has kept evolving. We have created various computer-mediated virtual environments including social networks, video conferencing, virtual 3D worlds (e.g., VR Chat), augmented reality applications (e.g., Pokemon Go), and Non-Fungible Token Games (e.g., Upland). Such virtual environments, albeit non-perpetual and unconnected, have bought us various degrees of digital transformation. The term `metaverse' has been coined to further facilitate the digital transformation in every aspect of our physical lives. At the core of the metaverse stands the vision of an immersive Internet as a gigantic, unified, persistent, and shared realm. While the metaverse may seem futuristic, catalysed by emerging technologies such as Extended Reality, 5G, and Artificial Intelligence, the digital `big bang' of our cyberspace is not far away. This survey paper presents the first effort to offer a comprehensive framework that examines the latest metaverse development under the dimensions of state-of-the-art technologies and metaverse ecosystems, and illustrates the possibility of the digital `big bang'. First, technologies are the enablers that drive the transition from the current Internet to the metaverse. We thus examine eight enabling technologies rigorously - Extended Reality, User Interactivity (Human-Computer Interaction), Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain, Computer Vision, IoT and Robotics, Edge and Cloud computing, and Future Mobile Networks. In terms of applications, the metaverse ecosystem allows human users to live and play within a self-sustaining, persistent, and shared realm. Therefore, we discuss six user-centric factors -- Avatar, Content Creation, Virtual Economy, Social Acceptability, Security and Privacy, and Trust and Accountability. Finally, we propose a concrete research agenda for the development of the metaverse.
Chapter
Full-text available
With new technologies related to the development of computers, graphics, and hardware, the virtual world has become a reality. As COVID-19 spreads around the world, the demand for virtual reality increases, and the industry represented by the Metaverse is developing. In the Metaverse, a virtual world that transcends reality, artificial intelligence and blockchain technology are being combined. This chapter explains how artificial intelligence and blockchain can affect the Metaverse.
Article
Full-text available
laboratories are essential to the education process in all fields of engineering, technology has changed the scientific laboratory landscape. The role of using Extended Reality (XR) technology after the COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented, the virus had affecting almost all countries concurrently, resulting in an economic crisis, the education sector was the most affected as students could not go to the laboratory to conduct experiments due to the containment of the disease. From this point on, the use of virtual laboratories became a great and effective role for students and the university, as it cost little in the budget compared to the real laboratory. In this paper, the role of virtual laboratories, using extended reality technology, and its impact on education and the future of virtual training in increasing students' efficiency will be discussed in this paper.
Article
Full-text available
Since its introduction in 1994, Milgram and Kishino's reality-virtuality (RV) continuum has been used to frame virtual and augmented reality research and development. While originally, the RV continuum and the three dimensions of the supporting taxonomy (extent of world knowledge, reproduction fidelity, and extent of presence metaphor) were intended to characterize the capabilities of visual display technology, researchers have embraced the RV continuum while largely ignoring the taxonomy. Considering the leaps in technology made over the last 25 years, revisiting the RV continuum and taxonomy is timely. In reexamining Milgram and Kishino's ideas, we realized, first, that the RV continuum is actually discontinuous; perfect virtual reality cannot be reached. Secondly, mixed reality is broader than previously believed, and, in fact, encompasses conventional virtual reality experiences. Finally, our revised taxonomy adds coherence, accounting for the role of users, which is critical to assessing modern mixed reality experiences. The 3D space created by our taxonomy incorporates familiar constructs such as presence and immersion, and also proposes new constructs that may be important as mixed reality technology matures.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Laboratory laboratories are essential to the education process in all fields of engineering, technology has changed the scientific laboratory landscape. The role of using Extended reality xr technology after the COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented, the virus had affecting almost all countries concurrently, resulting in an economic crisis, the education sector was the most affected as students could not go to the laboratory to conduct experiments due to the containment of the disease. From this point on, the use of virtual laboratories became a great and effective role for students and the university, as it cost little in the budget compared to the real laboratory. In this paper, the role of virtual laboratories, using extended reality technology, and its impact on education and the future of virtual training in increasing students' efficiency will be discussed in this paper.
Article
Full-text available
The development of extended reality in recent years is opening doors for using extended reality devices (virtual reality, augmented, and mixed reality devices) in education and healthcare. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the use of augmented reality in teaching healthcare practitioners in a stroke assessment simulation designed for clinical training, where students at nursing school are targets in the study. To conduct our feasibility, a simulation application was developed for the mixed reality device that projects a human face displaying facial drooping (a symptom of stroke) onto a computerized training mannequin. Nursing students were then placed in a clinical simulation wherein they wore the mixed reality device and performed an assessment of their mannequin patient to identify the symptom of stroke and act accordingly. The students completed a survey following their simulations, and then provided feedback on the device and the quality of their experience. The results of the study show that most students enjoyed the simulation and felt that extended reality would be a very useful educational tool for clinical training and healthcare. Further development of the program and device is underway, and future tests will be conducted. The results from this study will be helpful in further progressing the development of extended reality, and the use of these devices in healthcare training.
Article
Full-text available
Background Mixed-reality technologies, including virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) , are considered to be promising potential tools for science teaching and learning processes that could foster positive emotions, motivate autonomous learning, and improve learning outcomes. Methods In this study, a technology-aided biological microscope learning system based on VR/AR is presented. The structure of the microscope is described in a detailed three-dimensional (3D) model, each component being represented with their topological interrelationships and associations among them being established. The interactive behavior of the model was specified, and a standard operating guide was compiled. The motion control of components was simulated based on collision detection. Combined with immersive VR equipment and AR technology, we developed a virtual microscope subsystem and a mobile virtual microscope guidance system. Results The system consisted of a VR subsystem and an AR subsystem. The focus of the VR subsystem was to simulate operating the microscope and associated interactive behaviors that allowed users to observe and operate the components of the 3D microscope model by means of natural interactions in an immersive scenario. The AR subsystem allowed participants to use a mobile terminal that took a picture of a microscope from a textbook and then displayed the structure and functions of the instrument, as well as the relevant operating guidance. This flexibly allowed students to use the system before or after class without time and space constraints. The system allowed users to switch between the VR and AR subsystems. Conclusions The system is useful for helping learners (especially K-12 students) to recognize a microscope's structure and grasp the required operational skills by simulating operations using an interactive process. In the future, such technology-assisted education would be a successful learning platform in an open learning space.
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of 3D modeling design is crucial for industrial designers. Therefore, 3D modeling learning is a crucial subject in industrial design education. In this study, a 3D modeling practice field based on virtual reality (VR) technology was constructed to modify the traditional 3D modeling learning model. Students can learn 3D modeling under a new VR design collaboration framework and complete design goals. This new design collaboration model includes the concept of a learning community. The learning experience of learners in the VR field was explored through this new design collaboration model. A total of 60 college students from the Department of Industrial Design were invited to participate in VR modeling learning experience experiment. The field system usability of traditional 3D modeling and VR 3D modeling was investigated using the system usability scale. In addition, designs produced using the two aforementioned fields were evaluated and compared. The results indicated that the system usability of the VR modeling practice field (VRMPF) was significantly superior to that of the traditional modeling learning field (p < 0.01). The learners were more creative and motivated in the VRMPF and emphasized that through the new design collaboration model, they could effectively learn 3D modeling in VR. VR technology brings different learning experiences to the 3D modeling learning process. This study also proposes a 3D modeling design collaboration model in the VR field.
Article
Dubbed "the successor to the mobile Internet", the concept of the Metaverse has recently exploded in popularity. While there exists lite versions of the Metaverse today, we are still far from realizing the vision of a seamless, shardless, and interoperable Metaverse given the stringent sensing, communication, and computation requirements. Moreover, the birth of the Metaverse comes amid growing privacy concerns among users. In this article, we begin by providing a preliminary definition of the Metaverse. We discuss the architecture of the Metaverse and mainly focus on motivating the convergence of edge intelligence and the infrastructure layer of the Metaverse. We present major edge-based technological developments and their integration to support the Metaverse engine. Then, we present our research attempts through a case study of virtual city development in the Metaverse. Finally, we discuss the open research issues.