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The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence

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... It was believed that humanity, before then, had but one language, one speech and one ambition: to reach heaven. Yet as recently as only 500 years ago, human beings spoke 14,000 languages of which less than 7,000 now remain, with 40% of the world's population speaking one of eight main languages (Deardorff 2011(Deardorff , 2009). ...
... People have to live with these differences. Despite the prediction of further reductions in global cultural differences as people become more and more amalgamated, the possibility of ever having a world of one people with one language is not eminent (Deardorff 2009). People can only strive to happily "live together with difference". ...
... Successful intercultural integration demands the cultivation of intercultural competence. This competence turns on three main points: awareness of the presence of the self and other; understanding of the differences between them; and appreciation of common grounds, similitudes and mutual benefits (Deardorff 2009). These characteristics help foster openness to others along with understanding and respect for cultural traits diverging from one's own, listening to and interaction with others amidst differences, having sufficient self-awareness and awareness of others, and developing clear intercultural communication that facilitates intercultural flexibility (Barrett 2011). ...
Article
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Rising global multidimensional migration has altered human/cultural interaction where one now needs to welcome another and the other needs to be welcome. Notwithstanding the intensified interaction, the resulting intercultural paradigm encounters myriad dehumanizing, alienating and subjugating challenges. While juxtaposing Europe’s and Quebec’s intercultural experiences, this article examines these challenges as fallouts of the difficulties or the unwillingness to complement the integration and recognition of self and other in fostering interactive intercultural communication to achieve intercultural living together. It underscores the exploitation of a pragmatic aptitude toward applied intercultural ethics – otherwise known as practical wisdom – to enhance deliberative reciprocity and motivate introversive and extroversive enhancements of the transition from simple living together to intercultural living together.
... Research in science education indicates that many educators lack a deep conceptual understanding of ICC, lacking adequate training in how to support all students participating objectively, equitably, and inclusively in intercultural relationships (Clifford, 2009;Etherington, 2014). According to Deardoff (2009), ICC is defined as "a person's ability to interact effectively and appropriately in cross-cultural situations based on his or her intercultural attitudes, knowledge and comprehension, and skills" (Deardoff, 2009). Three core components are addressed when developing an educator's ICC; attitudes or assumptions, knowledge or comprehension, and skills (Deardoff, 2009). ...
... Research in science education indicates that many educators lack a deep conceptual understanding of ICC, lacking adequate training in how to support all students participating objectively, equitably, and inclusively in intercultural relationships (Clifford, 2009;Etherington, 2014). According to Deardoff (2009), ICC is defined as "a person's ability to interact effectively and appropriately in cross-cultural situations based on his or her intercultural attitudes, knowledge and comprehension, and skills" (Deardoff, 2009). Three core components are addressed when developing an educator's ICC; attitudes or assumptions, knowledge or comprehension, and skills (Deardoff, 2009). ...
... According to Deardoff (2009), ICC is defined as "a person's ability to interact effectively and appropriately in cross-cultural situations based on his or her intercultural attitudes, knowledge and comprehension, and skills" (Deardoff, 2009). Three core components are addressed when developing an educator's ICC; attitudes or assumptions, knowledge or comprehension, and skills (Deardoff, 2009). Educators must be intrinsically motivated to learn, value, and respect other cultures to avoid ethnocentric attitudes or cultural assumptions of one's own culture (Gopal, 2011). ...
Article
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In response to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, there was a worldwide pivot of education to online communication and the utilization of diverse digital technologies to enhance global learning and foster cultural understanding. Within higher education, educators faced unprecedented challenges in the conversion of face-to-face interactions into online, virtual classrooms, with many educators unprepared and untrained to do so. Yet, the introduction of online digital technologies for pedagogical interactions expanded the internationalization of previously limited curriculum prospects, to create global interconnectedness with the potential to invoke Students’ awareness and appreciation of cultural differences in communication, leadership, and conflict. The development of international knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and the linkage between the two is key for the internationalization of the curriculum. With the growth of new digital communication, learning opportunities such as Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL), aims to foster the development of intercultural competencies (ICC) in our students for future career advancement in an expanding global community. Despite the acknowledgment that faculty are underprepared and lack pedagogical knowledge to translate their lived experiences into their curriculum, there remains a tenable lack of available tools for educators to facilitate students actively participating in objective, equitable and inclusive intercultural communication. Herein, is proposed the novel application of a conceptual tool, a “content representation” or CoRe matrix, which explicitly separates a particular topic into divergent, yet linked dimensions of the knowledge and skills attributed to its content, teaching, and learning. It was hypothesized the CoRe tool could be applied to enhance an educator’s PCK of ICC, providing the valuable link between international and pedagogical knowledge, for effective internationalization of the curriculum. The novel ICC CoRe matrix successfully addressed the 4 dimensions of ICC demonstrating the robust nature of the application of the CoRe matrix in the development of an educator’s ICC PCK in the COIL classroom. With the exponential increase in digital technologies creating dynamic worldwide networks in education and the workplace, the development of conceptual tools such as the ICC CoRe matrix has the potential to develop and integrate an educator’s pedagogical knowledge with ICC, to support the development of effective, objective and inclusive student participation in global twenty-first-century classrooms and beyond.
... 6 Methodology � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 75 6.1 Qualitative Research vs. Quantitative Research � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 75 6.2 Interviews � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 75 6.2.1 Research Design and Conceptualization of Interviews � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 76 6.2.2 Interview Analysis � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 79 6.2.2.a nato -act � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 79 6.2.2.b United States Armed Forces -USCENTCOM � � � � � � � � � � 111 6.2.2.c German Armed Forces -BMVg � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 153 6.2.3 Findings -Interview Analysis � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 178 6.2.4 Research Results � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 184 7 Conclusion and Outlook � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 191 NATO zu bestimmen, um anhand eines Modells Generalisierungen zu ermöglichen. Dieses Modell wird mithilfe der Theorie der Hegemonie von Antontio Gramsci erstellt sowie des akademischen Diskurses zur interkulturellen Kompetenz, der hauptsächlich durch Darla K. Deardorff et al. (2009) ...
... Cross-cultural competence (3C) has been theorized and researched for over 40 years. Many concepts and models have thus been established, reviewed, and listed, including in "The Sage Handbook of Intercultural Competence" (see Deardorff et al., 2009). Most of the research stresses the preventative character that 3C has to help build relationships and trust and avoid conflicts; above all is the genuine interaction with the individual from a different cultural background (see Deardorff et al., 2009, p. 269). ...
... The last domain, "behavioral," covers relationship building, listening and problem solving, empathy, and information gathering. Moreover, Deardorff (2009) defines three components that constitute intercultural competence: knowledge / comprehension, skills, and attitudes. Whereas the first components are interdependent, the latter is more considered to be an enhancer. ...
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This paper examines the function that cross-cultural competence (3C) has for NATO in a military context while focusing on two member states and their armed forces: the United States and Germany. Three dimensions were established to analyze 3C internally and externally: dimension A, dealing with 3C within the military organization; dimension B, focusing on 3C in a coalition environment/multicultural NATO contingent, for example while on a mission/training exercise abroad; and dimension C, covering 3C and NATO missions abroad with regard to interaction with the local population. When developing the research design, the cultural studies-based theory of hegemony constructed by Antonio Gramsci was applied to a comprehensive document analysis of 3C coursework and regulations as well as official documents in order to establish a typification for cross-cultural competence. As the result, 3C could be categorized as Type I – Ethical 3C, Type II – Hegemonic 3C, and Type III – Dominant 3C. Attributes were assigned according to each type. To validate the established typification, qualitative surveys were conducted with NATO (ACT), the U.S. Armed Forces (USCENTCOM), and the German Armed Forces (BMVg). These interviews validated the typification and revealed a varied approach to 3C in the established dimensions. It became evident that dimensions A and B indicated a prevalence of Type III, which greatly impacts the work atmosphere and effectiveness for NATO (ACT). In contrast, dimension C revealed the use of postcolonial mechanisms by NATO forces, such as applying one’s value systems to other cultures and having the appearance of an occupying force when 3C is not applied (Type I-II). In general, the function of each 3C type in the various dimensions could be determined. In addition, a comparative study of the document analysis and the qualitative surveys resulted in a canon for culture-general skills. Regarding the determined lack of coherence in 3C correlating with a demonstrably negative impact on effectiveness and efficiency as well as interoperability, a NATO standard in the form of a standardization agreement (STANAG) was suggested based on the aforementioned findings, with a focus on: empathy, cross-cultural awareness, communication skills (including active listening), flexibility and adaptability, and interest. Moreover, tolerance of ambiguity and teachability, patience, observation skills, and perspective-taking could be considered significant. Suspending judgment and respect are also relevant skills here. At the same time, the document analysis also revealed a lack of coherency and consistency in 3C education and interorganizational alignment. In particular, the documents examined for the U.S. Forces indicated divergent approaches. Furthermore, the interview analysis disclosed a large discrepancy in part between doctrine and actual implementation with regard to the NATO Forces.
... The rationale of the common cultural method for enhancing intercultural competence aims to understand the universal influence of culture on human behavior through different learning methods. Skills are specific behaviors that we act to make communication work According to Deardorff (2009), the understanding of intercultural communication competence refers to the management of appropriate and effective interactions between people who are equal or different from the affective, cognitive and behavioral orientations of the world. This orientation will normatively be represented in the scope of nationality, race, ethnic and religion. ...
... The following is a model of intercultural communication competence based on the "Causal Path Models" from Deardorff (2009). This model describes a highly interdependent systemic process in which both "interlocutors" simultaneously provide input and output in the system. ...
... This model describes a highly interdependent systemic process in which both "interlocutors" simultaneously provide input and output in the system. (Deardorff, 2009) ...
Article
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The cross-cultural adaptation in different ethnic and religious communities is not an easy process. Stereotype factors, prejudice, and ethnocentrism will affect the process. In most cases, the cross-cultural adaptation process cannot be optimal and cause psychological pressure and disharmonious interactions between immigrants and hosts. However, the Javanese-Muslim Pagayaman and Balinese Hindus can adapt well. The success of the cross-cultural adaptation is supported by the cultural competence and local wisdom of the two communities. This study aims to determine the cultural competence and local wisdom of Javanese-Muslim Pagayaman and Balinese Hindus in the village of Pagayaman located in Buleleng Regency, Bali Province, during the cross-cultural adaptation process. The study uses the theory of cultural adaptation from Young Yun Kim and a qualitative approach and case study methods from Robert K Yin. Research participants are community and religious leaders. The findings show that the adaptation model performed by both Balinese Hindus and Pagayaman Muslims is integration. Successful adaptation is supported by cultural competencies such as respect (valuing other cultures, cultural diversity), openness (to intercultural learning and people from other cultures, withholding judgment), curiosity, and discovery (tolerating ambiguity and uncertainty).
... Así, según Cohen-Emerique (2013) en general, los discursos sobre competencias interculturales (que han adquirido mucha importancia con la globalización), empiezan haciendo referencia a la necesaria empatía por la alteridad y el enriquecimiento que se obtiene de la diversidad. A lo largo de estos años se han publicado numerosos estudios y manuales conceptuales en el ámbito educativo que ponen de relevancia la necesidad de desarrollo de la competencia intercultural en todo el alumnado, para facilitar una comunicación e interacción efectiva y apropiada, creando relaciones positivas y constructivas ante los desafíos a los que se enfrentan las actuales sociedades multiculturales, globalizadas y conectadas (Barrett, 2018;Beacco et al., 2016;Bennett, 2004Bennett, , 2009Council of Europe, 2016;Deardorff, 2006Deardorff, , 2009Deardorff, , 2020Díetz, 2018;Escarbajal & Leiva, 2017;Hernández et al., 2017;Huber, 2012;Huber & Reynolds, 2014;Neuner et al., 2003;Portera, 2020;Spitzberg & Changnon, 2009;UNESCO, 2013aUNESCO, , 2017 (2011) hacen alusión a otra referente sobre la materia (Deardorff, 2006), autora del primer estudio que documenta el consenso sobre la competencia intercultural compartido y reconocido por los estudiosos de la temática (Deardorff, 2011 Este modelo está orientado hacia los resultados internos y externos de la competencia intercultural, basada en el desarrollo de actitudes, conocimientos y habilidades específicos inherentes en la misma (Deardorff, 2006(Deardorff, , 2009(Deardorff, , 2011. El punto de inicio del modelo son las actitudes, pieza clave a partir de la que se realiza un movimiento a nivel individual (actitudes a nivel de interacción y resultados externos deseados). ...
... Así, según Cohen-Emerique (2013) en general, los discursos sobre competencias interculturales (que han adquirido mucha importancia con la globalización), empiezan haciendo referencia a la necesaria empatía por la alteridad y el enriquecimiento que se obtiene de la diversidad. A lo largo de estos años se han publicado numerosos estudios y manuales conceptuales en el ámbito educativo que ponen de relevancia la necesidad de desarrollo de la competencia intercultural en todo el alumnado, para facilitar una comunicación e interacción efectiva y apropiada, creando relaciones positivas y constructivas ante los desafíos a los que se enfrentan las actuales sociedades multiculturales, globalizadas y conectadas (Barrett, 2018;Beacco et al., 2016;Bennett, 2004Bennett, , 2009Council of Europe, 2016;Deardorff, 2006Deardorff, , 2009Deardorff, , 2020Díetz, 2018;Escarbajal & Leiva, 2017;Hernández et al., 2017;Huber, 2012;Huber & Reynolds, 2014;Neuner et al., 2003;Portera, 2020;Spitzberg & Changnon, 2009;UNESCO, 2013aUNESCO, , 2017 (2011) hacen alusión a otra referente sobre la materia (Deardorff, 2006), autora del primer estudio que documenta el consenso sobre la competencia intercultural compartido y reconocido por los estudiosos de la temática (Deardorff, 2011 Este modelo está orientado hacia los resultados internos y externos de la competencia intercultural, basada en el desarrollo de actitudes, conocimientos y habilidades específicos inherentes en la misma (Deardorff, 2006(Deardorff, , 2009(Deardorff, , 2011. El punto de inicio del modelo son las actitudes, pieza clave a partir de la que se realiza un movimiento a nivel individual (actitudes a nivel de interacción y resultados externos deseados). ...
... El punto de inicio del modelo son las actitudes, pieza clave a partir de la que se realiza un movimiento a nivel individual (actitudes a nivel de interacción y resultados externos deseados). Las actitudes de apertura, respeto (que se manifiestan diferente en las culturas) y curiosidad se consideran fundamentales para la adquisición de conocimientos y habilidades que conducirán a los cambios conceptuales y de comportamientos necesarios para incrementar la competencia intercultural (resultados internos y externos deseados) (Deardorff, 2006(Deardorff, , 2009). ...
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Esta tesis tiene como objeto de estudio el análisis de la presencia de la perspectiva intercultural en la Educación Primaria en España (desde las políticas educativas hasta los discursos y prácticas educativas desarrolladas en las escuelas); abarcando un plano territorial amplio incluyendo todas las comunidades y ciudades autónomas españolas. Este trabajo forma parte del proyecto “La diversidad cultural en la escuela: discursos, políticas y prácticas”, financiado por el Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (CS02017-84872-R). El trabajo empírico se ha fundamentado en una metodología mixta. Por una parte, se ha realizado investigación dentro de metodología cualitativa mediante análisis documental y entrevistas semiestructuradas a representantes técnicos y políticos de las administraciones educativas españolas. Por otra parte, se ha utilizado metodología cuantitativa mediante la implementación de una encuesta telefónica a 1730 miembros de equipos directivos de escuelas de todo el territorio español. Los resultados generales primeramente han evidenciado un déficit de políticas educativas con perspectiva intercultural, sin una presencia generalizada en todo el territorio español. La legislación y los planes y/o programas educativos de óptica intercultural se encuentran incluidos en un modelo de inclusión educativa y de trabajo para la convivencia escolar. También los resultados muestran que la identificación del discurso intercultural en los centros educativos está vinculado a la presencia de alumnado de origen extranjero, obstaculizando una mirada más abierta hacia todo el alumnado, que consiga desarrollar la competencia intercultural del mismo, entre otros aspectos. Por último, en relación a las prácticas educativas de óptica intercultural, se evidencia una dificultad de aplicación de las mismas en los centros educativos (solo un 42% de los centros educativos entrevistados identifican prácticas con matiz intercultural). Estas prácticas vinculadas a la presencia de alumnado extranjero, tienen generalmente una orientación hacia acciones educativas de carácter específico, con divergencia entre comunidades y ciudades autónomas.
... Although most people interact with individuals from various cultural backgrounds on a daily basis, unfamiliarity is believed to be linked to a lack of meaningful intercultural contact (Allport, Clark, & Pettigrew, 1954;Deardorff, 2009). Intercultural contact refers to interaction and communication between people from different cultural backgrounds (Sousa, Gonçalves, & Santos, 2019). ...
... Effective interaction in situations characterised by cultural differences is related to intercultural competence (ICC). ICC is a broad concept that consists of personality characteristics, worldviews, and intercultural capabilities (Chen, 2014;Deardorff, 2009;Leung, Ang, & Tan, 2014). In this thesis, cultural intelligence (CQ) is the concept used as a proxy for intercultural capabilities (Ang & Van Dyne, 2008). ...
... Studying in multi-cultural universities allows students the opportunity to develop their ICC (Deardorff, 2009). However, studies that have explored students' experiences have reported negative results amongst students from Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups (Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2019; Kwon, Hernandez, & Moga, 2019). ...
Article
In providing health services, it is important not just to follow good care pathways but also to recognise the diversity in the population and adapt the way we care for patients to reflect this. If health professionals do not recognise the cultural needs of patients this is likely to result in poorer health outcomes for those patients. Whilst education is seen as the method of enhancing intercultural competence of future pharmacists, the diversity of the academic environment in which students learn can affect their development of intercultural competence. Ensuring students appreciate the impact of interculturally competent practice and providing them with the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to be interculturally competent health professionals can result in better patient care. The literature suggests that pharmacists in the United Kingdom (UK) are not always competent in providing services to a diverse patient population. Few studies in the literature have considered the role of cultural education in pharmacy schools in the UK. This thesis aims to understand the cultural intelligence of pharmacy students and test an educational intervention at the University of Nottingham (UoN). The thesis employed a mixed methods approach through conducting a series of studies. Firstly, a questionnaire was distributed to all final year pharmacy students at the UoN (UK campus). Ninety-eight out of 241 (40%) students completed the questionnaire for the academic year 2017/18. Results suggest a lack of cultural knowledge and the need for cultural training. This was followed by semi-structured interviews with 35 final year pharmacy students, which found that students from different cultures had different attitudes towards their peers and raised student-chosen racial segregation as a barrier to effective intercultural contact. Finally, a novel educational intervention was designed and tested with 14 final year pharmacy students for the academic year 2018/19. The intervention focused on two areas, interaction with peers, and with patients. Results provide convincing evidence that suggest the need for wider testing of the effectiveness and duration of effect of the educational intervention. Despite the opportunities provided during their time at the UoN, students identified some challenges for educational providers in that their intercultural interactions and capability were affected by prior experiences, speaking more than one language, and sharing accommodation with people from different cultural backgrounds. This research was only implemented with one cohort of students in the School of Pharmacy at the University of Nottingham and so needs to be tested in other schools and institutions to provide a knowledge base that can direct future research and policies. Work also needs to be done at the organisational level to develop policies and practices that lead to positive outcomes in the community. The findings provide educators, researchers, students, and pharmacists with insights about factors that may facilitate or hinder the development of cultural intelligence among pharmacy students. These insights can be used to improve the academic environment and also training for pharmacists providing pharmaceutical services.
... (as cited in Lange, 2011, p. 12) Accordingly, Bennett understands developing a positive attitude towards otherness in terms of a gradable process that takes place within three ethnocentric stages followed by three ethnorelative ones. He also explains that during the ethnocentric stages, although the individual experiences a certain progress towards engaging positively with otherness, his world-viewing is still centered on his own culture (Deardorff, 2009 -Acceptance stage: The individual accepts and respects cultural differences. ...
... In spite of not being primarily designed for FL classes (Liddicoat, 2011), Bennett's model has inspired many FL policy makers and practitioners (Deardorff, 2009;Lange & Paige, 2003). ...
... According to Bennett, acculturation is a hard psychological experience. For this reason, developing ICC is a continuous process, an implementation of which requires a long-term perspective syllable design along determining students' developmental stage before proceeding with any designing or teaching practices (Bennett as cited in Deardorff, 2009). ...
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The purpose of the current study is to shed light on EFL classroom discourse at the Algerian secondary school level being one of the contexts where foreign ethnicity potentially hinders intercultural communication, and by consequence EFL learning. This study is based upon two main assumptions. The first states that by enhancing intercultural sensitivity, EFL learners would display an ethnorelative discourse towards ethnic other. The second assumption states that EFL learners’ ethnorelative ideology would legitimate ethnic other’s non-ideological meaning. Adopting van Dijk’s model of Ideological Discourse Analysis as well as van Leeuwen’s Model (2008) of (De) Legitimation, we have two objectives in mind: First, to check potential shift from ethnocentric to ethnorelative ideology as well as to examine how these former would be (de)legitimated. The sample of this study is a group of EFL learners at the Algerian secondary school. The experimental group is represented by the entire number of second year scientific stream classroom at Saadaoui Rachid secondary school. The analysis of learners’ written discourse reveals that the first hypothesis is confirmed with one exception. The second hypothesis is confirmed.
... Deardorff's 2006 Process model of IC, shown in Figure 1, captures this socialization process very well. It emphasizes that individuals develop IC in communication and (Deardorff 2006(Deardorff , 2009. Used by permission. ...
... In our study, intercultural competence was assessed as a multicomponent concept (Deardorff 2006(Deardorff , 2009, with elements relating to knowledge, skills, behaviours and attitudes. As our data have shown, when students do participate in IaH initiatives, this has a bearing on their IC. ...
Article
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Intercultural competence is an increasingly desirable life skill in a multicultural and globalized world. To promote this learning outcome, higher education institutions can offer internationalization activities both at home and abroad. Research investigating to what extent ‘Internationalization at home’ (IaH) initiatives, as opposed to study abroad, affect the development of intercultural competence (IC) in students, especially in universities where the home student population is still mainly white, like at the university in focus in this paper, is scarce. This survey study aimed to gain insights into the intercultural competence of 506 Flemish university students, and the factors predominantly positively affecting IC development. Our findings reveal that study abroad, participation in cocurricular IaH initiatives, foreign language mastery and use, and the personality traits agreeableness and openness have a bearing on IC and feature among the main explanatory factors. Overall, the findings suggest that the 60,000 student European research university in focus appears successful at having created a study environment that is truly international and can contribute to IC development over the years of study. Via the integration of international and intercultural dimensions into the formal and informal curriculum for all students within domestic learning environments, it contributes to developing international and intercultural mindsets in students. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
... D esde principios de los años dos mil, la competencia intercultural ha jugado un papel primordial en la enseñanza (Consejo de Europa, 2001; Instituto Cervantes, 2007) hasta llegar a considerarse una competencia clave para los estudiantes universitarios (Deardorff, 2009). En nuestro artículo, destacamos la relevancia de los refranes y canciones populares procedentes de México y Centroamérica en los cursos de español como segunda lengua y como lengua extranjera (ele) en el contexto educativo institucionalizado de Canadá. ...
... La evolución de la enseñanza del ele está estrechamente ligada con la evolución de la sociedad (Vez, 2015); al estar nuestra propuesta inscrita en el proceso de reconciliación, buscamos, además, desarrollar una de las competencias clave de la enseñanza universitaria: la interculturalidad (Deardorff, 2009 ...
Article
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En este artículo destacamos la relevancia lingüística y cultural de los refranes y canciones populares de México y Centroamérica para incluirlos en cursos de ele institucionalizados, concretamente en Canadá, así como para conciliar el desarrollo de las competencias intercultural y lingüística. Analizamos 30 refranes y 10 canciones y los clasificamos según los niveles y léxico temático del Plan Curricular (PC). Los resultados indican la presencia de rasgos lingüísticos —por ejemplo, nahuatlismos— y culturales propios de México y Centroamérica que normalmente están ausentes de los cursos y manuales de ele, cuya inclusión permitirá formar hablantes interculturales y ciudadanos globales.
... Linguistic competence plays a key role" (Byram, 1997;Deardorff, 2006). According to Deardorff (2006Deardorff ( , 2009 and her intercultural competence model, the desired external outcome will be to behave and communicate effectively and to achieve one's goals. The desired internal outcome is to be adaptable to different communication styles and behaviours and be able to adjust and adapt to previously unknown cultural contexts; to be flexible, and finally, to have an ethno-relative view or empathy towards the multicultural other. ...
... The desired internal outcome is to be adaptable to different communication styles and behaviours and be able to adjust and adapt to previously unknown cultural contexts; to be flexible, and finally, to have an ethno-relative view or empathy towards the multicultural other. It is key to work on the development of specific skills such as cultural self-awareness, the acquisition of deep knowledge and understanding of culture, as well as the ability to listen, observe, analyse, and evaluate, and to develop the curiosity to discover and to get to know new things with respect and openness (Deardorff, 2006;2009). It should be recognised that the acquisition of intercultural competence is an ongoing development process, and it groups key competencies for 21st-century graduates (World Economic Forum Report 2019). ...
Article
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The internationalisation of higher education institutions is mainly focused on mobility programs. Increasingly programs try to improve the intercultural learning of their students through internationalising their curriculum and assessing their intercultural experiences. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the acquisition of intercultural competence and professional skills of higher education students during a specific short Erasmus+ mobility program. Thirty-two students came from four different countries and fields of study: Spain, Belgium, France, and China. A specific teaching methodology was used to promote the development of intercultural and professional competencies. A mixed methods approach was developed to collect data. The results showed that the students acquired intercultural competence and important professional skills. They improved their awareness of the importance of working in multicultural teams and settings; for 100% of them, this was just the first step in a developmental process. The participants reflected on their intercultural learning experiences and learned how to reflect and learn about intercultural and professional misunderstandings using coping mechanisms to face these issues.
... In this sense, Alvarez (2005) states that intercultural competence, especially in the teaching and learning process in formal education, can be understood as the ability to efficiently develop their tasks or functions in multicultural contexts. For Deardorff (2009), this approach seeks to rethink the good exercise of citizenship, as intercultural learning is transformative and requires experiences, often acquired beyond the classroom. Deardorff, 2006) In this regard, Rosa and Orey (2017) argue that the dialogic approach (glocalization) of ethnomodelling helps researchers and educators to become more aware of the forms of hegemony prevailing in mathematics classrooms. ...
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The application of modelling methods makes sense to researchers and educators when these professionals examine the mathematical patterns developed by members of distinct cultures. Currently, an important issue in mathematics education is its tendency towards valuing a local orientation in its research paradigm. Thus, a search for innovative methodologies such as ethnomodeling is necessary to record the historical forms of mathematical ideas, procedures, and practices developed in diverse cultural contexts. Yet, ethnomodeling is not an attempt to replace globalized school/academic mathematics, however, it is necessary to recognize the existence of local mathematical knowledge in the school curriculum. This context enabled the emergence of creative insubordination of ethnomodeling as it evoked a disturbance that caused a revision of the rules and regulations in the mathematical modelling process. This process triggered a debate about the nature of mathematics in relation to culture by proposing a dialogue between local and global approaches in dialogical ways. Thus, the main objective of this article is to discuss the philosophy of ethnomodeling as a creative insubordination of mathematics education and also as a process of glocalization.
... Farklı kültürel deneyimlerden gelen insanlarla etkili iletişim kurabilme yanında farklı kültürleri anlayabilme ve o kültürler arasında aracılık pozisyonda olabilme, günümüz dünyasının hem insan profilini tanımlamakta hem de beklentilerini karşılamaktadır (Sarli ve Phillimore, 2022). Kültürel çeşitliliğe yönelik uzun süreli ve anlamlı deneyimler, kültürlerarası duyarlılığımızı ve yeterliliğimizi besleyen ve şekillendiren en önemli kaynaklardan biridir (Chen, 2010;Deardorff, 2009). Araştırmacılar bu sürecin gelişiminin doğrusal bir yapıda olmadığını, durağanlığın ve gerilemelerin yer aldığı bir yapıdan oluştuğunu ifade etmektedirler (Fantini, 2009). ...
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ÖZ Kültürel farklılıkları bilme ve anlama, yaşam kalitesi ve sosyal kültürel iyi oluş hali için çok önemlidir. Çünkü bu süreç farklı kültürlerden insanların kültürlerarası diyalog vasıtası ile toplumsal anlama ve kabul perspektifinin gelişimine katkıda bulunmalarına yardımcı olur. Bu kültürlerarası anlamayı geliştirmek için gerekli olan becerilerden birisi de kültürlerarası duyarlılıktır. Bu çalışmanın amacı kültürlerarası duyarlılık ölçeğinin Türkçe diline uyarlamasına yönelik geçerlilik ve güvenirlilik çalışmalarını gerçekleştirmektir. Faktör analizi ve güvenirlik çalışmaları için 375 üniversite öğrencisinden veri toplanmıştır. Yapılan çalışmalarda 35 maddeden oluşan altı faktörlü bir yapı elde edilmiştir. Uyarlanan ölçme aracının iç tutarlılık katsayısı tüm ölçek için .82 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ölçeğin alt faktörlerine ilişkin güvenirlik değerlerinin .50 ve .69 arasında değiştiği görülmektedir. Güvenirlilikle ilgili çok yüksek değerler ortaya çıkmamasına rağmen ölçeğin alt faktörlerine ilişkin güvenirlilik değerlerin kabul edilebilir sınırlarda olduğu ifade edilebilir. Başka bir deyişle ölçekteki maddelerin birbirleriyle ilişkili (homojen) olduğu ve aynı yapıyı ölçtüğü söylenebilir. Bunun yanında yapılan doğrulayıcı faktör analizinden elde edilen uyum iyilik değerleri (CFI, TLI, RMSA, SRMR) uyarlanan ölçeğin bu yapıda Türkçe dili kontekstinde de kullanılabileceğini göstermiştir. ABSTRACT Knowledge and comprehension of cultural differences are vital for life quality and sociocultural well-being since it allows people from different cultures to contribute to the development of the community from a perspective of understanding and acceptance through intercultural dialogue. One of the skills to develop this understanding is intercultural sensitivity. This study aims to conduct validity and reliability studies for adapting the intercultural sensitivity scale to The Turkish language. Data were collected from 375 university students for factor analysis and reliability studies. In the studies, a six-factor structure consisting of 35 items was obtained. The internal consistency coefficient of the adapted measurement tool was calculated as .82 for the whole scale. It is seen that the reliability values of the subscales of the full scale varied between .50 and .69. Although high values for reliability did not emerge, it can be stated that the reliability values for the subscales were within acceptable limits. In other words, it can be said that the items in the scale are related (homogeneous) and measure the same structure. In addition, the goodness of fit values (CFI, TLI, RMSA, SRMR) obtained from the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the adapted scale could also be used in the Turkish language context in this structure.
... Many experts have elaborated the conceptualization of ICC by providing crucial components involved in the acquisition of intercultural competence; the study considers the model of (Deardorff, 2009) as the background model of this study that falls deeply into the realm of this research; the former included knowledge, attitudes and skills as three basic foundations of ICC consisting of being knowledgeable about one's own culture and the host culture, being aware of cultural values and socio-linguistic concepts, learning the good attitudes and finally acquiring the essential skills to ensure an effective and successful interaction. ...
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This article attempts to analyze the development of intercultural communicative competence in Moroccan universities to identify whether the pedagogy administered by teachers and educators caters to the intercultural competence goals and teaching objectives and whether students manage to develop their competencies over their undergraduate program. The researcher conducts questionnaires with 875 university students from three different English departments in three different universities and 40 observation classes. Besides, investigations are implemented on the curriculum content, the materials, and the teaching strategies involved in developing intercultural competence. Findings generated from data demonstrate that most Moroccan university students partly develop their intercultural competence from S2 to S6 on particular intercultural components, including attitudes, skills, and values. Conclusions attest that more efforts are to be considered by policymakers and educators to rethink the factors halting this development and design more advanced strategies and syllabi that contribute to the improvement of all intercultural components central to adequate and appropriate foreign communications.
... These competencies are essential to prevent interpersonal interactions that result in misunderstanding, withdrawal of students from interaction, strengthening of stereotypical behavior of the 'other' party, and conflicts between culturally diverse individuals. In order to avoid such misinterpretation, faculty should be adequately trained (Deardorff, 2009;Qiang, 2003;Verbik 2007). According to Adrian-Taylor, Noels, and Tischler (2007), contact with and support from teachers is particularly important for foreign graduate students' academic success and effective intercultural interaction (Mikhaylov, 2014). ...
... Lastly, making the pedagogical emphasis and the intercultural education vision of this study explicit through the choice of the term 'intercultural learning (IL)' over that of 'intercultural competences (ICs)' has been felt to be pertinent to the focus of the study on teacher education. The different uses of the concept of IC are evident in two chapters of the same edited volume on IC (Deardorff, 2009). In one chapter that analyses the concptualisations of IC, IC is defined as the 'effective management of interaction between people with different orientations to the world' (Spitzberg and Chagnon, 2009, p.6), with no reference to social justice whatsoever. ...
... In current debates, intercultural competence is being questioned by some scholars in light of "an increasingly polarized world that seems to be characterized by conflicts, inequalitie s and injustices" (O'Dowd 2021). Some authors (see the volume edited by Deardorff 2009, also Jackson 2020) acknowledge the difficulty of defining intercultural competence with the takenfor-granted assumption that doing so will lead to greater understanding and reduction of ethnocentric attitudes. Many empirical studies have been conducted in educational settings using online intercultural exchanges because of the opportunities these provide for learners to engage in intercultural communication. ...
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This paper reports on a project designed to promote intercultural learning and understanding between language students across three universities in Australia, Mexico and Germany. It examines students’ self-recorded Skype exchanges and assesses them within the debate over the inclusion of interculturality in language learning and teaching. By examining the negotiation of meaning that occurs between exchange partners, the study highlights the key elements involved in intercultural mediation, where rapport building may have a significant impact on negotiation of intercultural knowledge and attitudes. Micro-level discourse analysis is applied to culture-related events in the Skype conversations with a view to contributing meaningful insights into intercultural communication in instructional contexts.
... A s a result of progressing globalization processes, mobility and working at the crossroads of various cultures have become a distinctive feature of current times. More and more often, employers require from university graduates not only knowledge of foreign languages and international experience, but additionally intercultural competence, defined as the ability to interact effectively in intercultural situations based on intercultural attitudes, knowledge, awareness and skills (Deardorff, 2009). Universities are meeting these demands by helping students find their way in an increasingly interdependent world as part of the internationalization of education (Francis, 1993), positively influencing their ethical commitment by facilitating the identification of their own beliefs and developing a sense of responsibility and civic engagement (Kreber, 2009). ...
... These concepts continue to have wide currency in competence-oriented literature and have largely reduced earlier intercultural training and education to pursuing the primary goal of increasing the individual's ability to understand and overcome the differences or bridge the divide (cf. Deardorff, 2009). As many scholars have contested, the attribution of misunderstandings to the mismatches between separate a priori sets of cultural behaviours, values and attitudes is detrimental and only reinforces the dichotomy of self/other; it will lead to further separating individuals and groups whose subjectivity and interactions are, in fact, the driving forces in constructing the meanings of our social lives and fabricating our knowledge (e.g. ...
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This paper explores the role of a series of intercultural dialogues deployed as an intercultural intervention in scaffolding the development of interculturality of Chinese international students and Belgian undergraduates. The data highlight the fundamentally dynamic dialogic nature and process of intercultural engagement whereby the individuals actively seek to relate and construct meanings collaboratively. Drawing on a constructivist approach to interculturality and employing ethnographic methods, we contend that the efforts to connect play a pivotal role in mediating the process of developing the knowledge of cultural practices and that of becoming willing and prepared to challenge the self and familiar tropes. (Free eprints available at https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/9PBQDFT8GI2SSJKBTJGG/full?target=10.1080/14708477.2022.2104863)
... Farklı kültürel deneyimlerden gelen insanlarla etkili iletişim kurabilme yanında farklı kültürleri anlayabilme ve o kültürler arasında aracılık pozisyonda olabilme, günümüz dünyasının hem insan profilini tanımlamakta hem de beklentilerini karşılamaktadır (Sarli ve Phillimore, 2022). Kültürel çeşitliliğe yönelik uzun süreli ve anlamlı deneyimler, kültürlerarası duyarlılığımızı ve yeterliliğimizi besleyen ve şekillendiren en önemli kaynaklardan biridir (Chen, 2010;Deardorff, 2009). Araştırmacılar bu sürecin gelişiminin doğrusal bir yapıda olmadığını, durağanlığın ve gerilemelerin yer aldığı bir yapıdan oluştuğunu ifade etmektedirler (Fantini, 2009 Bireylerin farklı kültürleri tanıyabilecekleri ve deneyimleyebilecekleri fırsatlar oluşturma ve bu bağlamda kültürlerarası duyarlılıklarını geliştirme, artan insan hareketliliği ile yeniden karakterize edilen dünyada çok kültürlü ortamlar içerisinde etkili yaşam becerileri geliştirmenin en temel anahtarı olarak görülmektedir (Olson ve Kroeger, 2001;Tarchi, Surian ve Daiute, 2019). ...
... Farklı kültürel deneyimlerden gelen insanlarla etkili iletişim kurabilme yanında farklı kültürleri anlayabilme ve o kültürler arasında aracılık pozisyonda olabilme, günümüz dünyasının hem insan profilini tanımlamakta hem de beklentilerini karşılamaktadır (Sarli ve Phillimore, 2022). Kültürel çeşitliliğe yönelik uzun süreli ve anlamlı deneyimler, kültürlerarası duyarlılığımızı ve yeterliliğimizi besleyen ve şekillendiren en önemli kaynaklardan biridir (Chen, 2010;Deardorff, 2009). Araştırmacılar bu sürecin gelişiminin doğrusal bir yapıda olmadığını, durağanlığın ve gerilemelerin yer aldığı bir yapıdan oluştuğunu ifade etmektedirler (Fantini, 2009). ...
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Knowledge and comprehension of cultural differences are vital for life quality and sociocultural well-being since it allows people from different cultures to contribute to the development of the community from a perspective of understanding and acceptance through intercultural dialogue. One of the skills to develop this understanding is intercultural sensitivity. This study aims to conduct validity and reliability studies for adapting the intercultural sensitivity scale to The Turkish language. Data were collected from 375 university students for factor analysis and reliability studies. In the studies, a six-factor structure consisting of 35 items was obtained. The internal consistency coefficient of the adapted measurement tool was calculated as .82 for the whole scale. It is seen that the reliability values of the subscales of the full scale varied between .50 and .69. Although high values for reliability did not emerge, it can be stated that the reliability values for the subscales were within acceptable limits. In other words, it can be said that the items in the scale are related (homogeneous) and measure the same structure. In addition, the goodness of fit values (CFI, TLI, RMSA, SRMR) obtained from the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the adapted scale could also be used in the Turkish language context in this structure.
... In addition to the question of attitudes toward immigration, there is considerable evidence that individuals differ not only in their willingness but also their ability to interact with members of other cultures. This ability to interact appropriately and efficiently with people from different cultures is called intercultural competence (Thomas and Simon, 2007;Deardorff, 2009). While there are numerous models of intercultural competence (for an overview, see, e.g., Genkova, 2019), two concepts are currently receiving more attention than others and are rather well grounded in theory, namely intercultural intelligence and multicultural personality. ...
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The ability, will, and belief that it is possible to deal effectively with members of other cultural/ethnic groups are still gaining importance all over the world. However, the majority of studies on intercultural relations focus on Western Europe and the USA, applying constructs and theories that replicate a western-centered worldview. As a consequence, it is unclear whether established measures for intergroup attitudes and intercultural competence may be applied in Eastern European countries and to what extent they display comparable ideas, thoughts, and feelings. The current study thus explores cross-cultural commonalities and differences in established measures of ethnic identity, prejudice, acculturation strategies, intercultural intelligence, and multicultural personality. Therefore, we compare the scale structure, difficulty, and sensitivity in samples from Germany and the Eastern European countries Hungary, Serbia, and the Czech Republic (etic-perspective), as well as the culture-specific conceptions of said concepts (emic-perspective). Results show that the investigated scales do not work comparably across German and Eastern European samples. Differences might be rooted in variations of underlying thinking patterns and connotations of single expressions. Those variations are likely to be related to the constant individual societal and historical developments of cultures, shaping the way individuals think and talk about cultural diversity. Future studies are encouraged to consider culture-specific and generalizable aspects of constructs when conducting cross-cultural research on intercultural relations.
... A s a result of progressing globalization processes, mobility and working at the crossroads of various cultures have become a distinctive feature of current times. More and more often, employers require from university graduates not only knowledge of foreign languages and international experience, but additionally intercultural competence, defined as the ability to interact effectively in intercultural situations based on intercultural attitudes, knowledge, awareness and skills (Deardorff, 2009). Universities are meeting these demands by helping students find their way in an increasingly interdependent world as part of the internationalization of education (Francis, 1993), positively influencing their ethical commitment by facilitating the identification of their own beliefs and developing a sense of responsibility and civic engagement (Kreber, 2009). ...
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Volatile capital flows pose serious risks to economic growth and financial stability. This paper investigates the link between economic per­formance and gross capital flows volatility in emerging market and devel­oping economies (EMDE), and specifically, the extent to which macropru­dential policy measures can diminish the detrimental effects of capital flows volatility on growth. For that purpose, we start by constructing volatility es­timates for gross capital flows and their subcomponents on a sample of 37 EMDEs, following the methodology by Wang (2019). Then we perform pan­el regression over the period 2000-2018 incorporating the main variables of interest: economic growth, gross capital inflows volatility and macropru­dential policy. The results show that the negative effect of gross capital in­flows volatility on growth is significantly mitigated by the implementation of macroprudential policy measures. The results are robust against reverse causality and omitted variables bias.
... Researchers have proposed various definitions and taxonomies of intercultural competence, such as intercultural communication competence, cultural competence, intercultural sensitivity and global competence (Bennett, 1991;Byram, 1997;Fantini, 2000;Spitzberg, 2000;Deardorff, 2006;Hunter et al., 2006;Barnett and Lee, 2007). The most widely known version of intercultural competence stems from the work of Byram. ...
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This study explores the intercultural activities in teaching Mandarin to international students in China. A sample of five Mandarin teachers with rich experience in teaching international students within Chinese universities. Data were collected through classroom observation, teachers’ interviews and reflective journals and analyzed through thematic analysis using the framework of Byram’s notion of intercultural competence in language teaching and learning. The results show that intercultural activities can effectively promote Mandarin teaching for international students. The findings also suggest Mandarin teachers can provide more opportunities for international students to share their values and opinions and adopt more activities to teach cultural knowledge. Accordingly, recommendations on preparing intercultural competence are concluded and put forward, which might support future teaching.
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Chapter
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Chapter
This chapter explores the factors of study abroad programs that contribute to cultivating intercultural competence and awareness of the host country through quantitative and qualitative examination of 492 study abroad students. A key finding is that simply participating in study abroad does not necessarily cultivate intercultural competence and awareness of the host country effectively. This depends on the design of study abroad programs based on student and program types. This result addresses the ways in which to set up and run study abroad programs in order to be effective in improving students’ intercultural competence and awareness of the host country.
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Chapter
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Chapter
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