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220130 On the Evolution and Future of Work

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Abstract

The future of work was the most discussed topic in Anglo-Saxon media in 2017. Rightly so, because that year people had become increasingly aware of the consequences of artificial intelligence on human work, and not only thought leaders began to ask questions whose answers are not yet, or not easily, forthcoming. What is the future of work? When will it occur? How do you prepare your children for it? What education does the future of work require? This article attempts to summarize observations of the last decade and provides answers derived from the fields of anthropology, economics, sociology, ecology and technology.
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
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#
#
The#future#of#work#was#the#most#discussed#topic#in#Anglo-Saxon#media#in#2017.#Rightly#so,#
because#that#year#people#had#become#increasingly#aware#of#the#consequences#of#artificial#
intelligence#on#human#work,#and#not#only#thought#leaders#began#to#ask#questions#whose#
answers#are#not#yet,#or#not#easily,#forthcoming.#What#is#the#future#of#work?#When#will#it#
occur?#How#do#you#prepare#your#children#for#it?#What#education#does#the#future#of#work#
require?#This#article#attempts#to#summarize#observations#of#the#last#decade#and#provides#
answers.##
#
“The%farther%back%you%can%look,%the%farther%forward%you%are%likely%to%see.”%[Winston%Churchill]%
#
If#we#want#to#approach#the#topic#of#the#future#of#work,#it#is#necessary#to#take#the#so-called#
longitudinal#perspective,#because#it#is#common#to#look#only#at#the#present#and#the#recent#
history.#In#the#longitudinal#perspective,#we#look#at#a#specific#topic#from#its#beginning#to#its#
imaginable#end#and#thereby#gain#-#loosely#based#on#Winston#Churchill#-#a#better#
understanding#of#a#possible#future.##
#
Work#is,#among#other#things,#a#subject#of#anthropology,#which#can#be#roughly#divided#into#
four#major#phases:#that#of#hunting#and#gathering,#that#of#agriculture#triggered#by#the#
Neolithic#Revolution,#and#that#of#mechanical#production#and#electronic#information#
processing,#each#triggered#by#the#Industrial#Revolution.#Anthropology#gives#us#an#
important#first#insight:#homo#sapiens#has#spent#by#far#the#largest#part#of#his#history#as#a#
hunter#or#gatherer,#namely,#depending#on#when#one#puts#the#Neolithic#Revolution,#until#
about#10,000#years#ago.#In#particular,#the#changes#of#the#past#250#years#are#an#anomaly#that#
may#again#be#followed#by#a#long#period#of#continuity.##
#
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
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#
#
Work%saves%a%man%from%three%great%evils:%boredom,%vice%and%need.%[Voltaire]%%
$
Economists,#on#the#other#hand,#have#given#us#the#commonly#known#image#of#the#three-
sector-hypothesis,#which#is#limited#to#the#last#250#years#or#so#and#divides#labor#into#a#
primary#sector#of#agriculture,#a#secondary#sector#of#industry,#and#a#tertiary#sector#of#
services.#The#three-sector-hypothesis#is#a#now#repeatedly#falsified#but#extremely#useful#
theory#from#the#1930s#that#differentiates#the#national#economy#into#resource#extraction,#
resource#processing,#and#services.##
#
The#three-sector-hypothesis#has#helped#to#describe#a#transformation#of#the#labor#market#
caused#by#technological#progress#as#such:#The#industrial#revolution#has#increasingly#
eliminated#the#need#for#human#labor#in#agriculture#and#absorbed#this#increasingly#
specialized#labor#in#manufacturing#industries.#Progressive#automation#in#turn#led#to#the#
release#of#labor#in#industry,#which#was#absorbed#predominantly#in#the#service#sector.#
Germany,#an#economy#with#an#exceptionally#strong#industrial#base,#reported#the#following#
shares#in#2014:#primary#sector#1.5%,#secondary#sector#24.6%#and#tertiary#sector#73.9%.##
#
In#summary,#with#regard#to#the#three-sector#hypothesis,#economists,#unlike#
anthropologists,#describe#a#changing#market#rather#than#a#human#activity.#Traditional#
economists#are#mainly#interested#in#productivity#gains#and#map#them#in#the#context#of#
nation-states.#Labor#markets#are#therefore,#on#the#one#hand,#much#larger#than#the#work#
environments#observed#by#anthropologists,#and#on#the#other#hand,#they#are#limited#to#
10000 BC 1750 AD 2000 AD
Hunter &
Gatherer
communities
Rise of
Agriculture
Industrialization Information
societies
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
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national#territories#and#therefore#contradict#the#globalization#of#the#labor#market,#which#
has#been#significant#since#the#1990s#at#the#latest.#
#
#
#
With#paid#employment,#economists#also#give#us#a#concept#that#is#very#different#from#the#
definition#of#work#before#the#industrial#revolution.#People#participate#in#an#anonymous#
labor#market#in#order#to#make#a#living.#Thus,#economics#bridges#to#sociology,#which#gives#
us#a#third#perspective:#that#of#interpersonal#organization.#The#German#sociologist#Friedrich#
Tönnies#introduced#the#differentiation#between#community#and#society,#and#thus#
demonstrated#a#central#transformation#for#work#as#well.###
#
It#is#commonly#assumed#that#human#organizations#were#small#communities#until#the#
Neolithic#Revolution,#and#that#only#agriculture#enabled#the#emergence#of#societies#in#the#
form#of#principalities,#empires,#and#religions.#Societies#differ#from#communities#in#that#they#
can#bind#a#larger#number#of#people#and#the#larger#these#groups,#the#more#anonymous#they#
are.#In#particular,#the#increase#in#productivity#due#to#agriculture#freed#up#labor#to#be#
devoted#to#other#activities#such#as#specialized#crafts#(the#precursor#of#today's#industry,#
science#and#research),#art#and#culture.##
#
Through#this#ongoing#enlargement#of#the#organizational#form,#however,#one#thing#above#all#
has#occurred:#The#work#concentrated#around#a#community#has#been#alienated#from#the#
community#and#communities#increasingly#collapsed.#If#it#was#unthinkable#for#man#for#
Secondary Sector
Primary Sector
Tertiary Sector
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
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eternities#not#to#contribute#with#his#work#to#the#survival#of#a#community,#with#the#
emergence#of#society#this#contribution#has#significantly#moved#into#the#background#–#and#
again#on#a#longitudinal#perspective:#almost#abruptly.#Covid-19#has#revived#something#of#
this#archaic#idea#of#contribution#with#the#concept#of#system-relevant$occupations,#even#if#
it#is#still#related#to#anonymous#societies#and#thus#not#easy#to#understand#psychologically.#
#
#
#
By#looking#at#the#contribution#made#to#the#survival#of#a#community,#a#fourth#central#
perspective#on#the#nature#of#work#emerges,#which#is#still#not#sufficiently#emphasized:#that#
of#ecology.$Work#must#make#sense#for#oneself,#for#the#community#at#large,#and#for#the#
ecosystem#as#a#whole.#A#look#at#the#professions#that#are#not#relevant#to#the#system#shows#
how#much#work#our#meaningless#societies#generate#and#thus#waste#not#only#raw#materials#
but#also#human#resources#unnecessarily.##
#
The#fact#that#it#is#possible#in#modern#societies#to#have#a#large#number#of#people#engaged#in#
gainful#employment#that#offers#no#added#value#for#society#can#be#explained#by#the#
detachment#of#the#economy#from#ecology.#Whereas#in#hunter-gatherer#communities#it#was#
necessary#to#operate#within#a#limited#ecosystem,#it#is#only#now,#as#a#result#of#the#climate#
crisis,#that#we#are#slowly#becoming#aware#that#a#global#labor#market#alienated#from#the#
carrying#capacity#of#the#earth#is#just#as#unsustainable#as#an#economy#that#does#not#
subordinate#itself#to#ecological#framework#conditions.##
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
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#
$
%
Human%employment%is%in%direct%competition%with%automation.%[Peter%Joseph]%
#
The#world#long#thought#that#politics#produces#progress,#but#it#is#increasingly#apparent#that#
technology#is#the#driving#force#of#change#in#human#labor,#and#that#politics#only#follows#
technologically#induced#changes.#Technology#helps#us#to#a#fifth#key#insight:#that#the#
sectors#of#the#labor#market#described#earlier#are#each#transformed#and#nearly#eliminated#
by#different#technologies.##
#
In#the#primary$sector,#the#early#industrial#revolution#through#steam#power,#electricity,#and#
mechanization#replaced#animal#and#human#labor,#so#that#in#a#modern#economy#only#2#
percent#of#the#labor#force#is#employed#in#agriculture.#Industry#reached#its#climax#in#the#
West#during#WWII,#when#it#employed#as#much#as#50#percent#of#the#labor#force#in#some#
economies.#Since#then,#it#has#been#gripped#by#a#mechatronic#transformation#that#has#
replaced#human#labor#with#robots#and,#most#recently,#in#"smart#factories"#with#the#Internet#
of#Things.##
#
The#service$sector,#which#was#always#seen#as#the#salvation#from#mass#unemployment#
caused#by#technological#progress,#has#been#experiencing#miraculous#growth#since#the#
invention#of#the#computer,#silencing#all#critics#who#did#not#persistently#look#into#the#
technological#future.#Since#the#early#2010s,#however,#there#it#can’t#be#denied#that#the#fifth#
300000 YA: Hunter & Gatherer communities
11000 BC: Neolithic Revolution - agriculture
1730 AD: Industrial Revolution 1.0 – water- and steam engines
1890 AD: Industrial Revolution 2.0 – Electricity and assembly line
1970 AD: Industrial Revolution 3.0 – IT & Robotics
2010 AD: Industrial Revolution 4.0 – Internet of things
2015 AD: Industrial Revolution 5.0 – Artificial Intelligence
2030 AD: Singularity
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
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wave#of#the#industrial#revolution#will#destroy#the#service#sector#to#the#same#extent#that#
agriculture#and#industry#were#previously#destroyed.#
#
#
#
Artificial$intelligence,#computers#capable#of#various#forms#of#machine#learning,#has#begun#
to#take#over#our#labor#markets.#Journalists,#radiologists,#chess#players,#Wall#Street#bankers,#
up#to#70#percent#of#all#known#professions#will#be#done#better#by#artificial#intelligence#than#
by#humans#in#the#coming#years,#and#that's#without#factoring#in#the#possible#intertwining#of#
AI#with#robotics.#The#director#of#the#Zeitgeist#Trilogy#Peter#Joseph#has#therefore#correctly#
recognized#that#human#employment#is#basically#always#in#competition#with#automation#as#
long#as#it#is#seen#only#as#paid#employment#and#participation#in#a#labor#market.###
#
The#future$of$work#is#full#of#dystopian#as#well#as#utopian#scenarios,#some#of#which#have#
already#been#painted#on#the#big#screen#by#Hollywood.#Wall-E,#for#example,#showed#us#in#
2008#a#future#of#an#overweight#humanity#vegetating#on#a#spaceship#and#leaving#the#earth#
as#a#garbage#dump.#In#2009,#Surrogates#made#a#world#palatable#to#us#in#which#we#do#our#
work#and,#moreover,#every#unwanted#interaction#through#avatars#and#our#bodies#
meanwhile#rest#apathetically#at#home.#
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2025 2050 2075 2100
primary
secondary
tert iary
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
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#
#
While#the#imagination#of#screenwriters#knows#no#bounds,#the#carrying$capacity$of$the$
earth#as#an#ecosystem#shows#us#clear#limitations#and#thus#provides#us#with#a#framework#
within#which#we#must#design#a#future#of#work.#The#designer#Friedrich#Börries#distinguishes#
between#survival,#security,#social#and#self-design#and#declares#design#to#be#a#political#
instrument.#He#believes#that#each#of#us#has#to#take#responsibility#and#pursue%change%by%
design%instead%of%by%disaster.#In#other#words,#in#the#face#of#the#climate#crisis,#career#choice#
and#thus#self-design#becomes#survival#design.##
##
Philosopher#Thomas#Vasek#takes#a#more#relaxed#view#of#the#question#of#the#right#job#and#
assumes,#with#the#spoiled#perspective#of#a#Central#European,#that#one#may#wish#for#the#
ideal#job.#For#Vasek,#in#comparison#to#Börries,#it#is#less#about#fulfilling#a#duty#through#one's#
own#work#by#contributing#to#the#survival#of#the#species#and#therefore#taking#up#a#system-
relevant#profession,#but#rather#he#sees#a#right#to#"good#work",#which#in#his#opinion#should#
fulfill#the#following#parameters:#
#
§ It#is#in#harmony#with#our#values#and#feelings,#so#it#enables#us#to#live#authentically.##
§ It#enables#us#to#have#experiences#that#enrich#us.##
§ It#gives#us#recognition,#not#just#financial#recognition.##
§ It#creates#reasons#for#cooperation#with#other#people,#i.e.#it#promotes#social#bonds.##
How to Project Utopia?
2021 @ ark.greensteps.me
Social Design
Security Design
Survival Design
Source: adapted from Friedrich von Borries – Weltentwerfen
Self Design
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
8
§ It#does#not#permanently#overburden#us,#but#it#also#does#not#permanently#
underburden#us.#It#challenges#us,#so#that#from#time#to#time#we#experience#a#flow,#i.e.#
we#become#completely#absorbed#in#our#activity.##
§ It#also#contains#freely#available#time,#rest#phases,#elements#of#leisure.#So#it#does#not#
consist#of#just#being#active#all#the#time.##
§ It#creates#habits,#giving#our#lives#a#reliable#framework.#
#
Vasek's#analysis#should#be#enshrined#in#every#constitution,#but#he#overlooks#a#small#detail:#
life#is#not#about#choice#for#the#vast#majority#of#humanity,#which,#for#example,#manufactures#
fast#fashion#in#Bangladesh#or#Pakistan#and#thus#participates#in#a#global#labor#market#that#
exploits#people#and#planet.#Thomas#Vasek#focus#is#the#right#to#good#work#from#a#rather#
European#world#view,#while#Friedrich#Börries#emphasizes#the#duty#to#contribute#to#
survival#–#a#perspective#which#requires#the#understanding#of#the#planet#as#a#single#and#
fragile#ecosystem.###
#
The#future#of#work,#if#it#can#and#must#be#designed#as#Boerries#thinks,#thus#is#in#a#field#of#
tension#between#ecological#and#social#conditions,#which#a#labor#market#that#assumes#paid#
employment#and#regards#both#the#planet#and#humans#as#a#resource#to#be#exploited#
aggravates#even#further.#The#concept#of#the#labor#market#is#a#product#of#capitalism,#which#
needs#a#fundamental#transformation#in#order#to#be#able#to#design#the#future#of#labor#in#a#
meaningful#way.#
#
#
#
Wealth'Concentration
Thomas'Piketty'shows'that'wealth'concentration'in'modern'
economies'is'approaching'levels'last'seen'before'the'first'world'war.
Solution'>'Basic'Income
Mass'Unemployment
Martin'Ford'describes'how'automation'creates'mass'
unemployement and'argues'for'a'basic'income'tied'to'education.
Solution'>'Education?'
2016-18'©'telospi.com 37
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
9
Visionary#author#Martin#Ford#has#described#this#tension#as#a#perfect#storm,#meaning#that#
technological#unemployment#and#environmental#impacts#develop#roughly#in#parallel,#
reinforcing#and#perhaps#even#exacerbating#each#other.#He#sees#the#greatest#challenge#of#our#
time#in#shaping#a#future#that#provides#broad-based#security#and#prosperity,#and#believes#
that#understanding#education#as#a#public#good#that#must#not#be#influenced#by#competitive#
profit#or#power#maximization#is#the#key#to#finding#that#path.##
#
In#this#context,#it#is#worth#mentioning#the#French#economist#Thomas#Piketty,#who#showed,#
based#on#historical#data,#that#the#current#concentration#of#wealth#is#back#to#where#it#was#
before#the#WWI.#He#explains#that#there#is#only#one#cause#for#this,#namely#that#the#return#on#
capital#is#greater#than#economic#growth#and#therefore,#in#simplified#terms,#leads#to#an#
increasing#inequality#of#wealth#distribution.#Thus,#Western#capitalism,#with#its#immanent#
rules,#steadily#extracts#wealth#from#those#individuals#who#can#only#contribute#their#labor.#It#
sooner#or#later#must#lead#to#inequalities,#which#are#enlarged#by#new#technologies.#
#
Let#us#therefore#next#look#at#the#future#of#work#in#this#field#of#tension#between#ecological#
and#social#framework#conditions#and#between#social#duty#and#individual#right,#and#ask#
ourselves#what#work#can#absorb#the#collapsing#service#sector#and#how#this#work#is#to#be#
remunerated#when#technology#not#only#destroys#paid#employment#but,#in#conjunction#with#
the#generally#applicable#capitalist#market#rules,#leads#to#an#increasingly#unjust#distribution#
of#wealth.##
Jobs for a (better)
Future
2021$@$ark.greensteps.me
§Fixing&the&planet:&waste&collection;&&&&&&&&&
soil&restauration;&water&treatment
§Growing&food&without&destroying&
the&ecosystem:&self-reliance&farming;&
urban&gardening;&
§Fixing&the&health&care&system:&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
pre-emptive&medicine;&healthy&nutrition
Doing&what&matters.&Now.
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
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#
The#notion#of#systemic$relevance#is#undoubtedly#associated#with#duties#rather#than#rights.#
Systemically#relevant#occupations#are#about#contributing#to#the#community#or#society#a#
service#without#which#it#would#not#be#possible#to#ensure#its#continued#existence.#However,#
what#activities#could#provide#meaning#and#fulfillment#for#people#if#the#production#of#
necessary#goods#and#the#provision#of#services#is#largely#taken#over#by#machines?#
#
When#thought#of#on#a#large#scale,#the#restoration#of#our#environment,#as#well#as#food#
production#close#to#the#consumer,#can#give#many#people#a#meaningful#occupation#without#
putting#them#in#competition#with#machines.#This#new$view$of$agriculture,#where#one#
works#to#promote#one's#own#health#and#preserves#or#enhances#the#integrity#of#one's#
habitat,#requires#a#heightened#ecological#empathy#or#an#overflowing#frustration#with#the#
generally#prevailing#office#monotony.##
#
#
#
Both#may#have#arisen#simultaneously#in#Japan#as#a#result#of#the#affinity#for#nature#that#
persists#in#Shintoism#as#well#as#one#of#the#world's#highest#rates#of#urbanization,#and#have#
found#an#inspiring#expression#in#the#half$farmer$/$half$x$movement.#Originally#proposed#
by#Naoki#Shiomi#in#the#mid-1990s,#the#concept#is#based#on#the#premise#that#by#determining#
their#"X#factor,"#people#can#leave#behind#the#20th#century#style#of#mass#production,#mass#
consumption,#mass#transportation,#and#mass#waste#disposal#while#striving#for#a#happier#life#
and#a#sustainable#planet.#Not#only#do#rural#dwellers#embrace#this#lifestyle,#but#so#do#many#
people#who#grow#food#on#balconies,#rooftops,#weekend#plots,#and#in#community#gardens.#
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
11
#
Shiomi#recommends#setting#the#bar#as#low#as#possible#for#people#to#start#farming:#People%
should%do%what%they%can,%whether%it's%balcony%gardening%or%rooftop%gardening,%in%places%they%
love.%If%you%set%loose%rules,%like%30%or%40%minutes%a%day%to%work%with%the%soil%and%plants,%it%
becomes%easier%for%more%people%to%start%farming.%I%think%a%lot%of%people%feel%that%getting%into%
farming%is%too%much%of%a%challenge.%%
#
The#half#farmer#/#half#x#concept#also#helps#us#to#take#the#thoughts#of#Friedrich#Börries#and#
Thomas#Vasek#to#the#next#level,#because#there#is#no#doubt#that#food#or#the#contribution#to#
food#production#is#a#contribution#to#survival#and#thus#meaningful#fulfillment#of#duty,#which#
has#the#pleasant#side#effect#in#times#of#climate#change#that#unnecessary#greenhouse#gases#
are#avoided#by#the#transport#of#food.#The#half#x#component#reflects#the#right#to#occupy#
oneself#with#those#things#that#perhaps#serve#self-fulfillment#rather#than#fulfill#a#
contribution#to#the#community.#In#as#such,#Börries’#and#Vasek’s#ideas#are#aligned#and#define#
a#future#of#work#which#has#different#dimensions#and#is#most#likely#different#from#a#8-5#job.#
#
#
#
Applied#to#the#three-sector#hypothesis,#the#half#farmer/half#x#concept#means#that#more#
people#are#again#participating#in#the#primary#sector#and#thus#in#the#extraction#of#raw#
materials.#They#no#longer#do#this#in#paid#employment,#but#rather#in#the#form#of#a#leisure#
activity#and#similar#to#flexitarians#in#freely#chosen#intensity,#but#through#this#time#they#not#
only#receive#food#and#an#added#health#value,#but#also#a#direct#confrontation#with#the#
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
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ecological#situation#of#our#planet#and#thereby#consciously#or#unconsciously#increase#their#
understanding#of#systemic#changes#such#as#climate#change.#
#
If#half#farmer#/#half#x#represents#a#future#of#work#that#is#viable#for#many#and#in#harmony#
with#the#carrying#capacity#of#our#planet,#then#the#only#question#that#remains#to#be#
answered#is#how#the#basic#income#required#for#this#must#be#structured.#Because#one#thing#
is#certain,#at#least#in#an#agriculture#flooded#by#EU#subsidies:#the#average#citizen#will#not#be#
able#to#earn#his#living#with#balcony#gardeners,#which#gives#him#the#opportunity#to#dedicate#
part#of#his#time#to#x.##
#
#
#
Martin#Ford#argues#that#a#basic$income#should#not#be#unconditional,#but#should#imply#
certain#obligations,#especially#those#related#to#education.#He#shows#that#an#unconditional#
basic#income#is#a#perverse#incentive#that#leads#to#dropping#out#of#education#and#thus#
deprives#young#people#in#particular#of#the#motivation$to$strive$for$constant$self-
improvement.#Basic#income#is#thus#not#only#the#fulfillment#of#the#social#contract#dreamed#
of#by#Rousseau,#but#also#potentially#a#danger#of#turning#well-fed#but#meaningless#
individuals#into#the#emblem#of#postmodernism.##
#
Learning#therefore#has#an#enormously#important#place#in#the#discussion#of#the#future#of#
work,#one#that#has#received#little#interest#to#date.#Indeed,#learning#will#take#up#a#large#part#
of#the#duty#that#every#citizen#has#to#fulfill#as#a#contribution#to#community#and#society.#This#
Learning for a
(better) Future
2021$@$ark.greensteps.me
§Ecological(intelligence:(
how$to$deal$with$our$home,$planet$Earth
§Intrapersonal(intelligence:
how$to$deal$with$oneself
§Interpersonal(intelligence:
how$to$deal$with$others
Learning(what(matters.(Now.
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
13
leads#however#to#a#paradigm#shift#of#a#dimension#not#to#be#underestimated,#which#Martin#
Ford#has#already#indicated:#Education#must#not#only#be#seen#as#a#public#good,#but#system-
relevant$education#is#-#probably#never#ending#-#work#of#the#individual#for#which#he#has#to#
be#paid.#
#
#
#
We#repeat#the#assumption#that#in#a#few#years#70%#or#more#of#the#jobs#known#today#will#be#
done#better#by#machines#or#algorithms#than#humans#can#do#and#that#only#a#few#areas#of#
today's#labor#market#such#as#education#and#health#will#be#spared#from#automation#because#
machines#cannot#replace#interpersonal#contacts.#We#repeat#the#assumption#that#it#is#
nevertheless#more#productive#to#replace#humans#with#machines#and#that#only#a#few#
workers#will#be#paid#because#they#still#contribute#to#the#productivity#of#an#economy#in#a#
measurable#way.#What#is#to#be#learned#under#these#changed#conditions?##
#
Philosopher#Konrad#Paul#Liessmann#discusses#how#the#classical#educational#canon#of#the#
19th#century,#i.e.#the#study#of#Greek,#Latin,#Schiller#and#Goethe,#could#be#replaced#by#a#
normative#European#educational#canon#of#the#21st#century.#His#thoughts#are#extremely#
worthwhile#reading#-#because#educated#-#but#they#perpetuate#the#division#of#society#into#
educated#and#uneducated#and#completely#omit#an#economic#and#thus#social,#as#well#as#
ecological#and#thus#sustainable#dimension.#Furthermore,#the#memory#of#a#European#
educational#canon#is#not#sufficient#in#a#global#world.#It#is#time#to#discuss#a$global$
educational$canon.$$
2018%©%greensteps.me 12
informal formal
preneolithic neolithic scientific industrial Post-industrial
Education
Learning
Personal1Growth
Formal:
Ecology
Empathy
Informal:
Everything5
else
2/11/22
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
14
#
#
#
Education#must#be#a#public#good#that#minimizes#social#differences#or#at#least#creates#a#
starting#point#for#eight#billion#people,#regardless#of#their#social#or#ethnic#background,#to#
make#a#living#without#conflict#with#the#limited#resources#of#a#finite#world.#The#future#of#
work#is#therefore#a#learning#that#can#be#well#described#with#the#Triple$Focus:#the#focus#on#
and#understanding#of#one's#own#emotional#inner#life,#the#focus#on#and#understanding#of#
interpersonal#relationships#and#the#focus#on#and#understanding#of#ecological#relationships.##
#
The#ecological#and#social#framework#of#the#Anthropocene#therefore#dictates#that#we#no#
longer#speak#of#a#labor#market,#but#rather#of#a#world#of#work#in#which#we#have#recognized#
that#the#compulsory#learning#content#of#the#industrial#age#is#obsolete#and#what#was#once#
considered#complementary#has#become#compulsory:#empathy#for#oneself,#others,#and#the#
planet#constitute#a#new#global#educational#canon,#while#the#STEM-heavy#content#of#our#
current#curricula#are#complementary#subjects#-#for#which#no#basic#income#should#be#paid.###
#
By#making#education#about#emotional#resilience,#empathy,#and#neighborhood#
responsibility#compulsory,#we#are#not#only#preparing#children#and#youth#for#the#challenges#
of#climate#change,#but#also#initiating#a#paradigm#shift#that#is#once#again#changing$the$
nature$of$work.#Management#philosopher#Peter#Drucker#has#described#just#such#a#change#
in#work#as#an#event#that#may#transform#civilization#like#no#other,#which#is#undoubtedly#
exactly#what#we#need#right#now.#
2020 © greensteps.cn
ME
Learner
US
Community
PLANET
Environment
The Triple Focus
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
15
%
Very%few%events%have%as%much%impact%on%civilization%as%a%change%in%the%basic%principles%of%
organizing%work.%[Peter%F.%Drucker]%
#
A#renewed#and#final#look#at#the#longitudinal#perspective#shows#us#a#non-obvious#
connection#between#demographic#development#and#the#principles#around#which#mankind#
has#organized#work.#A#highly#simplified#attempt#to#classify#the#changes#shows#that#since#
the#Neolithic#Revolution,#work#has#become#increasingly#organized#by#an#orientation#
towards#power#and#profit,#and#as#a#result,#more#and#more#people#have#lost#the#joy#in#their#
work.##
#
The#ecological#turning#point#that#we#have#undoubtedly#reached#could#herald#a#post-
industrial#understanding#of#work,#which#on#the#one#hand#is#again#more#self-organized,#but#
on#the#other#hand#takes#the#worker#into#responsibility#and#asks#him#to#organize#his#work#
according#to#social#and#ecological#impact.#As#Mahatma#Gandhi#once#said,#our#planet#offers#
enough#to#satisfy#the#needs#of#every#human#being,#but#not#their#greed.##
#
The#change#from#hunter-gatherer,#to#farmer,#to#worker,#to#information#worker,#could#
therefore#really#result#in#a#"half#famer#/#half#x#impact#worker":#a#person#who,#within#a#
healthy#economic#framework,#must#ask#himself#where#he#can#meaningfully#contribute#to#
strengthen#the#local#community#and#the#global#ecosystem.#This#change#will#be#a#long-term#
one,#as#indicated#at#the#beginning,#marking#a#new#stage#of#cultural#evolution#in#which#work#
may#once#again#be#understood#as#a#playful#vocation#-#not#only#by#a#happy#few#but#by#the#
majority#of#mankind.##
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
16
#
#
#
Leseempfehlungen:##
§ Andrew#McAfee,#What#will#future#jobs#look#like?##
§ David#Richard#Precht#-#Jäger,#Hirten,#Kritiker:#Eine#Utopie#für#eine#digitale#
Gesellschaft#
§ Friedrich#Börries,#Weltentwerfen#–#Eine#politische#Designtheorie##
§ Thomas#Vasek,#Work-Life-Balance#Bullshit:#Warum#die#Trennung#von#Arbeit#und#
Leben#in#die#Irre#führt#
§ Martin#Ford,#Rise#of#Robots#–#Technology#and#the#Threat#of#a#Jobless#Future#
§ Thomas#Piketty,#Capital#in#the#21st#Century##
§ Japan’s#Growing#Trend:#Part#Time#Farmers#
§ Interview#with#half#farmer#/#half#x#founder#Naoki#Shiomi#on#Insitute#of#Studies#in#
Happiness,#Economics#and#Society#website#
§ A#New#Key#Phrase#for#a#New#Age:#half#farmer#/#half#x.#
§ Andy#Couturier,#The#Abundance#of#Less#
§ Konrad#Paul#Liessmann,#Bildung#als#Provokation#
§ Daniel#Goleman,#Peter#Senge,#The#Triple#Focus#–#A#New#Approach#to#Education#
§ Peter#F.#Drucker,#The#Essential#Drucker#
#
About#the#author:#
Pre-Neolithic Neolithic Industrial2 Information Post-industrial
Hunter2&2Gatherer Farmer Wor ke r Knowledge2Worker Impact2Worker
Purpose/Play Power/Profit Power/Profit2 Power/Profit Purpose/Play
Self2managed managed managed2 managed Self2managed
Changing'Principles of Work Organization
Die$Evolution$und$Zukunft$der$Arbeit
2022#©#mingong.org#
17
Knut#writes#regularly#on#his#blog#mingong#(Chinese#for#migrant#worker)#about#the#future#of#
work#and#education.#He#worked#in#China#from#2000#to#2020,#among#other#things#for#an#
industrial#automation#company#as#managing#director,#and#has#been#involved#in#
organizational#development#and#as#an#environmental#educator#since#2016.#The#software#he#
co-developed,#ARK,#seeks#to#accelerate#the#systemic#transformation#of#learning#and#work.#
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