Chapter

Dankbarkeit fördern

Authors:
  • Protestant University of Applied Sciences Marburg, Germany
If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
The COVID‐19 outbreak strongly restricted daily activities, creating a risk factor for negative affect and depression. This study assessed the immediate effects of a behavioural activation (BA) intervention on positive (PA) and negative (NA) state affect. We expected depression and anxiety to function as moderators reducing the intervention effects. In a quasi‐experimental online study, 3624 German‐speaking participants evaluated a list of rewarding activities between 9 April and 26 April 2020. A subsample of 2561 (71%) additionally engaged in an imagination task. Depression, anxiety, socioeconomic variables and COVID‐19 related burdens were assessed as moderators. There was an increase in PA (total sample d = .13; subsample: d = .27) and a decrease in NA (total sample d = −0.68; subsample: d = −0.71; all p < .001). The effects rose with higher levels of depression and anxiety (all p < .001). Furthermore, living with family enhanced the effects on NA, while additionally having to take care of children reduced them. An easy‐to‐use intervention prompting BA could improve state mood during lockdown. Participants with higher depression and anxiety benefit more. Implications for the prevention of mental health problems during a pandemic are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Aim To synthesize suicide prevention strategies for older adults. The review question was Which suicide prevention strategies are useful for older adults? Design Integrative review. Data sources Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, Ovid PsycINFO and PubMed were searched for articles published between January 2009 and December 2019. Review methods An integrative review of quantitative, qualitative and theoretical papers with a qualitative thematic analysis. Results Key aspects of the included studies contributed to the formulation of four themes: (1) Recognizing older adults’ physical and/or mental health problems and referring them for help and treatment, (2) Designing an educational programme, (3) Communication and dialogue about warning signs and (4) Social support and awareness of causing significant others emotional pain. The findings indicate an urgent need to identify effective suicide prevention strategies for older adults.
Article
Full-text available
Policy Points Several intergovernmental organizations (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Health Organization, United Nations) are urging countries to use well-being indicators (e.g., life satisfaction) in addition to traditional economic indicators when making important policy decisions. As the number of governments implementing this new approach grows, so does the need to continue evaluating the health and well-being outcomes we might observe from policies aimed at improving life satisfaction. The results of this study suggest that life satisfaction is a valuable target for policies aiming to enhance several indicators of psychosocial well-being, health behaviors, and physical health outcomes. Context: Several intergovernmental organizations (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Health Organization, United Nations) are urging countries to use well-being indicators (e.g., life satisfaction) in addition to traditional economic indicators when making important policy decisions. As the number of governments implementing this new approach grows, so does the need to continue evaluating the health and well-being outcomes we might observe from policies aimed at improving life satisfaction. Methods: We evaluated whether positive change in life satisfaction (between t0 ;2006/2008 and t1 ;2010/2012) was associated with better outcomes on 35 indicators of physical, behavioral, and psychosocial health and well-being (in t2 ;2014/2016). Data were from 12,998 participants in the University of Michigan's Health and Retirement Study-a prospective and nationally representative cohort of US adults over age 50. Findings: Participants with the highest (versus lowest) life satisfaction had better subsequent outcomes on some physical health indicators (lower risk of pain, physical functioning limitations, and mortality; lower number of chronic conditions; and higher self-rated health) and health behaviors (lower risk of sleep problems and more frequent physical activity), and nearly all psychosocial indicators (higher positive affect, optimism, purpose in life, mastery, health mastery, financial mastery, and likelihood of living with spouse/partner; and lower depression, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, negative affect, perceived constraints, and loneliness) over the 4-year follow-up period. However, life satisfaction was not subsequently associated with many specific health conditions (i.e., diabetes, hypertension, stroke, cancer, heart disease, lung disease, arthritis, overweight/obesity, or cognitive impairment), other health behaviors (i.e., binge drinking or smoking), or frequency of contact with children, family, or friends. Conclusions: These results suggest that life satisfaction is a valuable target for policies aiming to enhance several indicators of psychosocial well-being, health behaviors, and physical health outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To determine the effect of later-life formal education or learning on quality of life (QOL), wellbeing, mood, and cognition. Methods: A systematic literature review of interventional clinical trials and observational studies was conducted for adults aged ≥55 years who had undertaken formal education or learning programs. Outcome measures included physical activity, happiness, affective and behavioral symptoms, cognitive function, and QOL. Bias was assessed using funnel plots, Egger’s test, and leave1out analysis. Results: From 32 studies identified, we showed qualitative increases in cognitive function, life satisfaction, and self-confidence associated with learning. A meta-analysis revealed a significant pooled mean difference in MMSE scores (0.40, 95% confidence intervals = [0.12, 0.67]). Although there was a low risk of publication bias there was a high risk of sampling bias. Conclusion: Participation in formal education or learning contributed to increased wellbeing, QOL, healthy cognitive function, self-dependency, and a sense of belonging in older adults.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Previous research has demonstrated that lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, especially in-patient groups. The association of HRQoL with all-cause mortality in community samples requires further investigation. This study aimed to examine whether HRQoL predicts all-cause mortality in older healthy community-dwelling people from Australia and the United States (U.S.) enrolled in the Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial. We also explored whether this association varies by gender or country. Method A prospective cohort of 19,106 individuals aged 65–98 years, who were without a dementia diagnosis or a known major life-limiting disease, and completed the 12-item short-form-HRQoL at recruitment (2010–2014). They were followed until June 2017. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to determine the association between the physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) of HRQoL and all-cause mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviours and clinical measures. Hazards ratios were estimated for every 10-unit increase in PCS or MCS. Results There were 1052 deaths over a median 4.7-years (interquartile range 3.6–5.7) of follow-up, with 11.9 events per 1000 person-years. Higher PCS was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77, 0.89) in the entire sample, while higher MCS was associated with lower mortality among U.S. participants only (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63, 0.95). Gender differences in the association of either PCS or MCS with mortality were not observed. Conclusion Our large study provides evidence that HRQoL is inversely associated with all-cause mortality among initially healthy older people.
Article
Full-text available
Successful aging is a concept that has gained popularity and relevance internationally among gerontologists in recent decades. Examining lay older adults’ perspectives on successful aging can enhance our understanding of what successful aging means. We conducted a systematic review of peer reviewed studies from multiple countries published in 2010–2020 that contained qualitative responses of lay older adults to open-ended questions such as “What does successful aging mean to you?” We identified 23 studies conducted in 13 countries across North America, Western Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Oceania. We identified no studies meeting our criteria in Africa, South America, Eastern Europe, North Asia, or Pacific Islands. Across all regions represented in our review, older adults most commonly referred to themes of social engagement and positive attitude in their own lay definitions of successful aging. Older adults also commonly identified themes of independence and physical health. Least mentioned were themes of cognitive health and spirituality. Lay definitions of successful aging varied by country and culture. Our findings suggest that gerontology professionals in fields including healthcare, health psychology, and public health may best serve older adults by providing services that align with older adults’ priority of maintaining strong social engagement as they age. Lay perspectives on successful aging acknowledge the importance of positive attitude, independence, and spirituality, in addition to physical and cognitive functioning.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Military couples need and desire relationship interventions. Online interventions improve access; however, their effectiveness within the military population is untested. Using a subsample from a larger randomized controlled trial of OurRelationship and ePREP online relationship programs for low-income couples, this study examined baseline characteristics of military compared with civilian couples enrolled (Aim 1), treatment effects within military couples (Aim 2), and treatment differences between military and matched civilian participants (Aim 3). Method: Military couples (n = 90 couples) in which 1 or both partners were active duty (11%) or veterans (89%) were selected from the larger randomized controlled trial along with a matched civilian sample selected using propensity scores. Results: No differences were found between military and civilian couples regarding baseline individual or relationship functioning. Program completion was lower among military couples (57%) compared with civilians (71%), whereas program satisfaction was equally positive. Among military couples, relationship satisfaction, conflict, emotional support, and breakup potential were significantly improved after treatment (between-groups d = 0.31-0.46) and maintained at follow-up; intimate partner violence and individual functioning domains did not improve. When comparing military and civilian samples, there was a pattern of stronger treatment impacts on individual functioning for civilians, although only the impact on insomnia evidenced a significant difference. Conclusions: These online relationship interventions improved relationship functioning for military couples. More research is needed to test these interventions among clinically impaired military populations and to explore potential for improving program completion and effects on relationship violence and individual wellbeing. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Loneliness and social isolation have detrimental effects on health in old age; however, the prospective associations with quality of life (QoL) remain unclear. Furthermore, despite the existence of a European north-south gradient in the distribution of loneliness and social isolation, little is known whether the associations are context-specific. We investigated the relationships between loneliness, social isolation and QoL of older adults residing in the North (Sweden) and South (Spain) of Europe. Methods: Study sample consisted of 2995 Swedish and 4154 Spanish older adults who participated in waves six and seven of the Study on Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Loneliness and social isolation were measured at the baseline, and QoL was measured at the baseline and follow-up using CASP-12. Prospective associations were assessed via multivariate linear regression. Results: In Sweden, subjects with higher vs. lower loneliness had 1.01 (95% CI: -1.55, -0.40) units lower QoL, while every standard deviation increase in social isolation was associated with a 0.27 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.09)-unit decrease in QoL. In Spain, every standard deviation increase in social isolation was associated with a 0.66 (95% CI: -1.11, -0.22)-unit decrease in QoL. The association was stronger in subjects aged ≤65 years old and those with no chronic diseases. The association with loneliness was not statistically significant in Spain. Conclusion: Loneliness and social isolation are prospectively associated with decreased QoL among older adults, yet the associations are contextually bound. Future interventions should target both exposures, among others, in order to increase QoL in this group.
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Given the paucity of data on the use of internet and quality of life, this literature review aimed to to identify the motivations and barriers for internet use and the impact on quality of life on older adults using the internet. Background: Even though older adults are increasingly using information technology, the numbers remain quite small globally. Currently published research primarily focuses on the various ways and methods of information technology use by older adults and the factors influencing use rather than on the impact of information technology on quality of life of older adults. Methods: The studies included in this literature review were searched in three databases: WEB of Science, GoogleScholar and PubMed. English language articles were searched using the terms “older”, “elderly” “senior” “well-being” “life satisfaction” “quality of life” “internet”, and “computer”. Findings: The review demonstrated the association of internet use on quality of life in older adults. The majority of the studies substantiate the advantages of internet use by older adults including the ability to communicate with family and friends, maintain a wide social network, have access to information and participate in online leisure activities. There are some studies, though less in number, which did not find a relationship between wellbeing and use of internet by older adults. The policy implications of this review advocate a multi-dimensional strategy to support internet use by the older people incorporating internet training and education, financial issues, technical support and access needs to be developed.<br/
Article
Full-text available
Background: The aim of the present systematic meta-analytical review was to quantify the effects of different mind-body interventions (MBI) involving meditative movements on relevant psychological health outcomes (i.e., quality of life (QoL), depressive symptoms, fear of falling (FoF) and sleep quality) in older adults without mental disorders. Methods: A structured literature search was conducted in five databases (Ovid, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science). Inclusion criteria were: (i) the study was a (cluster) randomized controlled trial, (ii) the subjects were aged ≥59 years without mental illnesses, (iii) an intervention arm performing MBI compared to a non-exercise control group (e.g., wait-list or usual care), (iv) psychological health outcomes related to QoL, depressive symptoms, FoF or sleep quality were assessed and (v) a PEDro score of ≥5. The interventions of the included studies were sub-grouped into Tai Chi/Qigong (TCQ) and Yoga/Pilates (YP). Statistical analyses were conducted using a random-effects inverse-variance model. Results: Thirty-seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (comprising 3224 participants) were included. Small to moderate-but-significant overall effect sizes favoring experimental groups (Hedges' g: 0.25 to 0.71) compared to non-exercise control groups were observed in all outcomes (all p values ≤ 0.007), apart from one subdomain of quality of life (i.e., social functioning, p = 0.15). Interestingly, a significant larger effect on QoL and depressive symptoms with increasing training frequency was found for TCQ (p = 0.03; p = 0.004). Conclusions: MBI involving meditative movements may serve as a promising opportunity to improve psychological health domains such as QoL, depressive symptoms, FoF and sleep quality in older adults. Hence, these forms of exercise may represent potential preventive measures regarding the increase of late-life mental disorders, which need to be further confirmed by future research.
Article
Full-text available
One of the major Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which Nigeria is set to achieve in 2015 is the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger with the target of halving the proportion of people who earn less than a dollar a day through skills acquisition. The study was on non-parametric view on issues, impacts and consequences of human empowerment through skills acquisition in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to assess the impact and input of various skills acquisition encouraged and engaged by Nigerians especially the youths. The specific objectives are: to identify skills most learned by Nigerians, identify the major contributions of human empowerment through skills acquisition and access if opinion on skills acquisition is gender and education dependent. The study was cross-sectional in nature conducted in Yaba and Akoka areas using a 21-item questionnaire tagged "Human Empowerment through Skills acquisition Questionnaire' (HETSAQ), designed by the researchers and administered for the purpose. The researchers obtained a very high response rate from the field. Descriptive statistics were presented in tables and charts while Friedman rank test was used to test the hypothesis that skills acquisition has no significant impact on the recipients and to rank the perceived impacts and the Chi square test used to ascertain the influence of education on the responses obtained from respondents. Results showed that most respondents have learnt one skill or the other and would prefer to be empowered in areas like computer skills, hair dressing, tailoring and soap making, etc. It was discovered that skills acquisition have significant contribution to society through human empowerment and such opinions have no gender bias but differed significantly by educational attainment. From the discoveries, we therefore conclude that skills acquisition contributes greatly in elimination of joblessness in Nigeria, development of positive attitude towards work, developing entrepreneurial ability, builds self-reliant young people, leads to technological advancement, reduce poverty and crime rate in the society and these were the verdict of both men and women included in the study.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Exercise may be a promising target for depression interventions. However, evidence for a beneficial effect of exercise interventions on the prevention of depression differs substantially across different studies. Methods: A systematic search was performed up to July 2018 using PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane. Articles were included if a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed that examined the effect of exercise interventions on the onset of depression or depressive symptoms in the general population. Meta-analyses focusing on treatment of diagnosed depression were excluded. Two authors independently screened the articles and graded the quality of included meta-analyses using AMSTAR 2. Results: Eight meta-analyses were included that showed little overlap in 134 included studies. All meta-analyses reported on depressive symptoms rather than onset of depression. Five of these were rated as moderate quality and three of low quality. Six meta-analyses found significant effects, and two found non-significant effects of exercise interventions in reducing depressive symptoms in children, adolescents, adults and the elderly (effect sizes ranging from - 0.10 to - 0.81). Scarce evidence did not allow to draw conclusions about the role of sex and characteristics of exercise on depression. However, some findings suggest that low intensity exercise was as effective as high intensity exercise. Heterogeneity among primary studies was high, likely caused by differences in study quality and exercise characteristics. Conclusions: The evidence from this study suggests that exercise interventions have a beneficial effect on depressive symptoms in the general population across a wide age-range.
Article
Full-text available
We explored possible paths from physical and mental health-related quality of life, self-efficacy, optimism, and social support to happiness in older adults, considering hedonic balance and life satisfaction as mediators. A total of 154 Spanish male and female (50%) older adults (65–96 years old, M = 77.44, SD = 8.03; 64% noninstitutionalized elderly) voluntarily participated in this correlational, cross-sectional study. The participants completed self-reports on their perceived health status, self-efficacy, social support, optimism, and global subjective well-being (SWB) as well as its dimensions. Path analysis was used to examine direct and indirect relationships. The final model had an excellent fit with the data (χ2(10) = 11.837, p = .296, χ2/df = 1.184; SRMR = 0.050, CFI = 0.994, RMSEA = 0.035), revealing the unique causal effects of all the included predictors on happiness. With the exception of self-efficacy, the psychosocial resources predicted older adults’ current happiness, and this relationship was fully mediated by hedonic balance and life satisfaction, which were found to be putative intermediary factors for SWB. Self-efficacy in turn predicted the remaining psychosocial resources. Our findings extend the existing evidence on the influences of health-related quality of life, self-efficacy, optimism, and social support on SWB. Furthermore, they support the proposal of hedonic balance and life satisfaction as dimensions of SWB, thus supporting the tripartite hierarchical model of happiness. These results may inform future interventions seeking to improve happiness in late adulthood.
Article
Wir alle wünschen uns die große Liebe. Und wer sie gefunden hat, hofft, dass sie ein Leben lang hält. Doch die hohen Trennungs- und Scheidungsraten zeigen: Allzu oft schwindet die Liebe, und die Beziehung zerbricht. Doch Paare können etwas dagegen tun: Wie eine Pflanze bedarf die Liebe der Pflege. Es gilt, sich für die Beziehung zu engagieren, sich voll und ganz auf den anderen einzulassen. Dies wird in der Psychologie als »Commitment« bezeichnet. Es ist der Schlüssel zu einer dauerhaften Partnerschaft. Mithilfe vieler Übungen und konkreter praktischer Tipps zeigt der Paartherapeut und Partnerschaftsforscher Guy Bodenmann auf, wie Paare ihr Commitment stärken können, um auch Krisenzeiten – etwa bei Berufsstress oder Untreue – gut zu überstehen und gemeinsam alt zu werden. Ein Buch, das hilft, die Liebe zu bewahren und zu einer glücklichen Beziehung zu finden.
Article
Being securely attached and willing to forgive your partner tends to promote greater relationship success. Though attachment and partner forgiveness are associated cross-sectionally, research has yet to investigate whether and how these positive relationship factors tend to codevelop over time. The current study examined cross-lagged effects and correlated changes in partner forgivingness and attachment across a 2-year period with two measurement occasions ( n = 514 individuals). Additionally, dyadic analyses were conducted with a subsample of dyads in the study ( n = 149 dyads). Individual level analyses evidenced negative cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between attachment-anxiety and forgivingness. Attachment-avoidance and forgivingness showed significant correlated changes over time. Dyadic level analyses showed that attachment-avoidance predicted partner forgivingness 2 years later but not vice versa. Findings suggest that longitudinal associations between attachment and forgivingness may take different forms at the individual and dyadic level.
Article
In this study, we addressed age differences in how people respond to interpersonal transgressions. Specifically, we examined whether the tendencies to respond with revenge, avoidance, and benevolence differ as a function of age in a cross-sectional study with a large sample (N = 1,413; age range: 19-83 years). We used local structural equation modeling (LSEM) to examine nonlinear mean level, structural, and variance-related differences in responses to transgressions across continuous age. We found a small increase in average benevolence and a small decrease in revenge mean levels during early adulthood. In contrast to research on avoidance related to interpersonal stressors, the current results suggest the opposite age pattern with a moderate decrease in avoidance with increasing age. Additionally, the strength of the negative correlation between benevolence and the two other response options decreased with age. This pattern indicates that younger adults generally either respond with a negative or positive reaction, whereas responses were more differentiated in old age. The current findings demonstrate the importance of addressing age differences in responses to interpersonal transgressors from multiple perspectives. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Es gibt Hinweise darauf, dass sich ältere Klienten in der psychotherapeutischen Beziehung als besonders dankbar erweisen. Dies hat Implikationen für den therapeutischen Prozess und das Therapieergebnis. Aus psychologischer Perspektive wird Dankbarkeit als konkrete Emotion (state) und überdauernde Lebenshaltung (trait) analysiert. Dann werden Theorien und empirische Befunde zur Bedeutung von Dankbarkeit im Leben älterer Menschen vorgestellt. Als nächstes wird gefragt, welche Bedeutung Dankbarkeit angesichts von chronischen körperlichen und depressiven Erkrankungen im Alter überhaupt haben kann. Für die konkrete psychotherapeutische Arbeit werden Übungen zur Förderung von Dankbarkeit vorgestellt. In der therapeutischen Beziehung stellt die Äußerung von Dankbarkeit eine Herausforderung für die Nähe-Distanz-Regulation des Therapeuten dar. Unter Berücksichtigung dieser potenziellen »Nebenwirkungen« wird die besondere Bedeutung von Dankbarkeit für die sozioemotionale Situation und die Psychotherapie von älteren Menschen diskutiert.
Chapter
Mangel an Antrieb, Interesseverlust oder Freudlosigkeit, Rückzug und Passivität, Entscheidungsschwierigkeiten oder fortgesetztes Grübeln gehören zu den verbreiteten psychopathologischen Symptomen. Ein für Gesunde meist unproblematisches Auf-Dinge-Zugehen ist dann erschwert; es fehlen psychologische Kompetenzen wie die Fokussierung auf eine Aufgabe, sich auf Unsicherheit einzulassen oder sich realistische und konkrete Ziele zu setzen. Die psychotherapeutische Standardmethode, um diese Kompetenzen zu vermitteln oder „wiederzubeleben“, heißt „Verhaltensaktivierung“. Sie beinhaltet eine Orientierung an kleinen Schritten (bzw. Erfolgserlebnissen); Aktivitätenmonitoring und -planung stehen im Zentrum. Die Methode, ihr theoretischer Hintergrund und Ergebnisse zu ihrer Wirksamkeit werden in diesem Kapitel einführend dargestellt.
Book
In diesem Praxismanual erfahren Psychotherapeuten, wie sie mit Kurztherapie bei vielen Patienten mit Ängsten schnell und dauerhaft wirksam werden können. Dr. Kossak kombiniert die beiden effektiven Methoden Hypnose und kognitive Verhaltenstherapie: Sie wirkt meist bereits unmittelbar nach nur einer Sitzung. Klar gegliedert führt der Autor in die zugrundeliegenden Theorien der Methode ein, die dann im umfangreichen Praxisteil direkt nutzbar werden. Die Falldarstellungen mit Studienfragen machen diese Behandlung konkret nachvollziehbar. Die Effektivität ist durch große, anhaltende Katamnesezeiträume belegt. Geschrieben für ... Psychotherapeuten, Ärzte, Psychiater, Psychologen, Zahnärzte, Coaches und Studierende in diesen Fächern. Über den Autor Dr. Hans-Christian Kossak, Dipl.-Psych., Psychologischer Psychotherapeut und Kinder- und Jugendlichenpsychotherapeut mit Ausbildungszertifikaten in Verhaltenstherapie, Gesprächspsychotherapie, Hypnosetherapie. Gründer der Psychotherapie in der Kombination von kognitiver Verhaltenstherapie und Hypnose. Schwerpunkt: Ängste, Psychosomatik, Lern- und Leistungsstörungen. Er war Leiter der Katholischen Beratungsstelle für Erziehungs- und Familienfragen, Bochum; Dozent und Ausbilder von Psychotherapeuten in Hypnose und Verhaltenstherapie; Referent auf Fachkongressen. Autor zahlreicher wissenschaftlicher Fachartikel und Fachbücher.
Article
Background and objectives: Population aging represents a significant challenge for health and social care services. Older adults who engage in activities that offer a sense of purpose have significantly better physical and psychological health outcomes. However, age-related functional limitations and losses of social roles can present barriers to engaging in purposeful activity, especially for those older adults within the 'oldest old' age range (i.e. 80 years and over). This review aimed to determine the nature and effectiveness of purposeful activity interventions in older adults, aged ≥80 years, with respect to well-being and quality of life outcomes. Research design and methods: Three databases were searched from their inception to April 2020. The search yielded 8,916 records, which resulted in eight eligible studies. Results: The interventions were divided into two groups: (1) interventions that gave participants a specific functional role, such as volunteer or mentor (n=5); (2) interventions that supported participants to develop a new skill (n=3). The quality of the evidence was variable. The strongest evidence was for interventions that assigned a functional role, which appeared to be somewhat effective in improving well-being outcomes. Discussion and implications: There is preliminary evidence that purposeful activity interventions, particularly those that involved taking on a functional role, can improve well-being and quality of life outcomes in older adults aged 80 years and over. These findings have implications for professionals and carers to support older adults to access more purposeful social roles and create opportunities for helping and reciprocation.
Article
Objectives Co‐occurring mood and anxiety disorders are common in older adult populations and are associated with worse long‐term outcomes and poorer treatment response than either disorder alone. This systematic review and meta‐analysis aimed to examine the efficacy and effectiveness of psychological interventions for treating co‐occurring mood and anxiety disorders in older adults. Method The study was registered (PROSPERO CRD4201603834), databases systematically searched (MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, PubMed, Cochrane Reviews) and articles screened according to PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion Participants aged ≥60 years with clinically significant anxiety and depression, psychological intervention evaluated against control in randomised controlled trial, changes in both anxiety and depression reported at post‐treatment. Results: Four studies were included (total n = 255, mean age range 67‐71 years). Overall, psychological interventions (CBT, mindfulness) resulted in significant benefits over control conditions (active, waitlist) for treating depression in the presence of co‐occurring anxiety (Hedges’ g = ‐0.44), and treating anxiety in the presence of depression (Hedges’ g = ‐0.55). However, conclusions are limited; the meta‐analysis was non‐significant, few studies were included, several were low quality and there was high heterogeneity between studies. Benefits at follow‐up were not established. Conclusion Co‐occurring anxiety and mood disorders can probably be treated simultaneously with psychological interventions in older adults with moderate effect sizes, however, more research is needed. Given comorbidity is common and associated with worse clinical outcomes, more high‐quality clinical trials are needed that target the treatment of co‐occurring anxiety and mood disorders, and report changes in diagnostic remission for both anxiety and mood disorders independently. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Background Aging is one of the most important public health issues. The World Health Organization (WHO) expects the number of older adults aged 65 and above to triple from 2010 to 2050. A major challenge would be to consider how functional ability and quality of life could be enhanced in older age. Reminiscence-based interventions are widely reported as having positive effects on psychological outcomes among older adults with dementia, but its effects on cognitively intact older adults have not been clearly evaluated. Objectives The aim of the current systematic review is to evaluate the existing evidence on the effects of reminiscence-based intervention on psychological outcomes in cognitively intact older adults. Review Methods Commonly used English databases, including CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO, were searched from inception till 31 Mar 2020. Studies were included if they examined the effects of reminiscence-based intervention on psychological outcomes among cognitively intact older adults aged 60 and above. Meta-analysis was conducted to synthesise the effects on different psychological outcomes. Results Thirty-one studies involving 1,829 older adults were included. The pooled standardized mean difference for depressive symptoms and life satisfaction were -0.38 (95% CI: -0.69 – -0.07) and 0.33 (95% CI: 0.14 – 0.52) respectively. Positive effects were observed on self-esteem, psychological well-being and happiness, though meta-analysis could not be conducted. Conclusion Significant reduction of depressive symptoms and improvement of life satisfaction were revealed from the reminiscence-based intervention among cognitively intact older adults. In addition, reminiscence-based intervention has been effective in enhancing self-esteem, and promoting psychological well-being and happiness. Our results suggest that reminiscence-based intervention could be an effective solution to improve psychological well-being among cognitively intact older adults. Such non-pharmacological approach can be recommended for older adults at the community level.
Article
Background Social distancing, i.e. avoiding places with other people and staying at home, was recommended to prevent viral transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic. Potentially, reduced out-of-home mobility and lower activity levels among older people may lower their quality of life (QOL). We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of and changes in life-space mobility, active ageing and QOL during COVID-19 social distancing compared to two years before. Methods Altogether 809 community-living participants initially aged 75, 80 or 85 years of our active aging study (AGNES) conducted in 2017-2018 took part in the current AGNES-COVID-19 survey in May and June 2020. Outdoor mobility was assessed with the Life-Space Assessment (range 0-120). Active approach to life was assessed with the University of Jyväskylä Active Aging Scale (range 0–272), and QOL with the shortened Older People’s Quality of Life Questionnaire (range13-65; higher scores better for all). Data were analyzed with General Estimating Equations, General Linear Models, and Oneway-ANOVA. Results Life-space mobility (B -10.8, SE 0.75, p<0.001), the active ageing score (B -24.1, SE 0.88, p<0.001) and the QOL score (B -1.65, SE 0.21, p<0.001) were lower during COVID-19 social distancing vs. two years before. Concurrent life-space mobility and active ageing scores, age and sex explained 48% of QOL at the baseline and 42% during social distancing. Longitudinally, steeper declines in all three variables coincided. Conclusions The observed declines indicate compliance with social distancing recommendation, but underline the importance of participation in meaningful life situations as a factor underlying good QOL also during COVID-19 pandemic.
Article
Objectives Exposures to adverse events are associated with impaired later-life psychological health. While these associations depend on the type of event, the manner in which associations for different event types depend on when they occur within the life course has received less attention. We investigated associations between counts of adverse events over the life course, and wellbeing and mental health outcomes in older people, according to their timing (age of occurrence), orientation (self or other) and, both their timing and orientation. Design Linear and logistic random-effects models for repeated observations. Setting England, 2002–2015. Participants A total of 4,208 respondents aged >50 years with 22,146 observations across Waves 1–7 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Measurements Cumulative adversity was measured by counts of 16 types of events occurring within four age ranges over the life course using retrospective life history data. These were categorized into other- (experienced through harms to others) and self-oriented events. Outcomes included CASP-12 (control, autonomy, self-realization, and pleasure), the eight-item Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and self-appraised subjective life satisfaction. Results Additional adverse events were associated with lower CASP-12 and life satisfaction scores, and higher odds of probable depressive caseness. In childhood, other-oriented events had a larger negative association with later-life wellbeing than self-oriented events; the converse was found for events occurring in adulthood. Conclusions Events occurring at all life course stages were independently associated with both later-life wellbeing and depression in a cumulative fashion. Certain age ranges may represent sensitive periods for specific event types.
Article
The full text is available under the following link: https://www.aerzteblatt.de/int/archive/article/216878/Mental-health-and-quality-of-life-in-children-and-adolescents-during-the-COVID-19-pandemic-results-of-the-COPSY-study
Article
Background/Rationale There is no current consensus on operational definitions of resilience. Instead, researchers often debate the optimal approach to understanding resilience, while continuing to explore ways to enhance and/or promote its qualities in various populations. The goal of the current meta-analysis is to substantiate existing evidence examining the promotion of resilience through various interventions. Particular emphasis was placed upon the factors that contribute to variability across interventions, such as age, gender, duration of intervention, intervention approaches and risk exposure of targeted population. Method The literature search was conducted on May 28, 2019. Search terms included “resilience intervention” OR “promoting resilience” OR “promoting resiliency” OR “resilience-based intervention”. A total of 268 studies, with 1584 independent samples, were included in the meta-analysis. In addition to overall efficacy, outcome-based analyses were conducted for intervention outcomes based on action, biophysical, coping, emotion, resilience, symptoms, and well-being. Finally, moderators of age, gender, length of intervention, intervention approach, intervention target, and the level of risk exposure of the sampled population were examined as moderators. Results The multi-level meta-analysis indicated that resilience-promoting interventions yielded a small, but statistically significant overall effect, Hedges's g = 0.48 (SE = 0.04, 95% CI = [0.40, 0.56]. The variability in study effect sizes within and between studies was significant, p < .001, with many falling short of the threshold for practical significance. Discussion Findings lend some support for the overall efficacy of resilience interventions. However, empirical results should be cautiously interpreted in tandem with their theoretical relevance and potential advancements to the construct of resilience. Variabilities across findings reflect the current ambiguities surrounding the conceptualization and operationalization of resilience. Directions for future research on resilience as well as practical considerations are discussed.