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Overview: Technology Roadmap of the Future Trend of Metaverse based on IoT, Blockchain, AI Technique, and Medical Domain Metaverse Activity



Metaverse is defined as a collection of technology gadgets and metaverse connected to IoT, Blockchain, Artificial Intelligence, and all the other tech industries including the medical area. IoT and Metaverse are the digital twins, Metaverse is using maximum IoT devices in their virtual workstation. This data has a unique identifying tag and is used as traceable data in the blockchain-based Metaverse. In the Metaverse, such data is becoming a valuable resource for artificial intelligence. Metaverse uses artificial intelligence and blockchain technology to build a digital virtual world where you can safely and freely engage in social and economic activities that transcend the limits of the real world, and the application of these latest technologies will be expedited. In this paper, we are going to describe what technologies metaverse is using and metaverse potentiality in medical healthcare.
Overview: Technology Roadmap of the Future Trend
of Metaverse based on IoT, Blockchain, AI
Technique, and Medical Domain Metaverse Activity
Md Ariful Islam Mozumder*, Muhammad Mohsan Sheeraz*, Ali Athar*, Satyabrata Aich*, Hee-Cheol Kim*
* Department of Computer Engineering/Institute of Digital Anti-Aging Healthcare/u-HARC, Inje University, South Korea,,,,,
Corresponding Author:
Abstract Metaverse is defined as a collection of technology
gadgets and metaverse connected to IoT, Blockchain, Artificial
Intelligence, and all the other tech industries including the medical
area. IoT and Metaverse are the digital twins, Metaverse is using
maximum IoT devices in their virtual workstation. This data has
a unique identifying tag and is used as traceable data in the
blockchain-based Metaverse. In the Metaverse, such data is
becoming a valuable resource for artificial intelligence. Metaverse
uses artificial intelligence and blockchain technology to build a
digital virtual world where you can safely and freely engage in
social and economic activities that transcend the limits of the real
world, and the application of these latest technologies will be
expedited. In this paper, we are going to describe what
technologies metaverse is using and metaverse potentiality in
medical healthcare.
Keywords Metaverse, IoT, Blockchain, Artificial Intelligence,
In this era, technology is rapidly changing the way we
interact with the physical world around us. The Metaverse is a
virtual shared space that everyone can access. It’s a catch-all
term that refers to the entire digital and virtual world [1]. It’s
the convergence of physical, augmented, and virtual reality in
a shared online space. Metaverse's core branches are Healthcare,
Entertainment, Military, Real estate, Manufacturing, and
Education. Within a metaverse, each user has their perspective
on the virtual world, with the underlying environment
presenting a consistent state to all users [2,3]. Metaverse Virtual
Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) are invading
healthcare, medicine, and innovative technologies based on AR
and VR are emerging to improve medical education and
training as well as processes and procedures [4-6]. VR is a
technology that substitutes one’s vision of the physical world
with a digitally produced scene using software and headgear
devices [7]. AR is a technology that combines the digital and
physical worlds. It uses computer vision techniques such as
object recognition, plane detection, facial recognition, and
movement tracking to recognize real-world surfaces and
objects. The term "mixed reality" refers to a combination of
augmented and virtual reality. Using VR, AR, and MR
technology doctors make their dream smart digital operation
theatre healthcare, where everyone can watch live patient
operation which looks like real operations [8-11]. Unlike games,
the virtual environment of a metaverse is not fixed and can be
modelled and altered by some or all the users who inhabit it.
Each user’s avatar can be enabled to portray the personality of
the owner. This allows long-term changes to the environment
to be retained in perpetuity. It also allows users to form
relationships by proxy, with each avatar being used to convey
a user’s in-world persona [12-16].
The Metaverse contains elements of all four scenarios. In the
same way, as a mirror world map inside a virtual world, or a
heads-up display AR system, or an object or user lifelog inside
a mirror or virtual world, their technologies substantially
overlap. There are also more general overlaps between the
scenarios. Figure 1 shows the technological roadmap of
A. Communication Computing Infrastructure
The manufacturing field has been evolving rapidly with the
help of IoT Technology and metaverse core-stream also
working as an IoT device. Figure 2 shows the IoT and Internet
for Metaverse. According to our study, 43% of manufacturing
companies reveal that VR will become mainstream in their
organization within the next two to three years, AR also
working on industrial applications rather than consumer
software. Metaverse is the next version of the internet and most
companies already using 5G and 6G for developing their
1) Internet: The foundation for connectivity is the Internet.
Although the internet is currently making progress very rapidly,
researchers are constantly making many innovations in internet
technology, such as 5G and 6G technology.
Figure 1. A complete Technological Roadmap of Metaverse
2) Infrastructure: There are hardware components that
help us to have authentic experiences. In addition to nano and
quantum (Nanotechnology can improve the performance of
sensors or actuators) components, the technologies to form the
metaverse are also in this layer. Content- On this layer, we will
have Medicine, healthcare, games, and applications that help
users immerse themselves in one or more different worlds, for
the most vivid experiences. Metaverse- when the lower layers
develop to a certain extent, we will have a true Metaverse.
Figure 2. IoT and Internet for Metaverse
Metaverse services can be used without modifications, either
to access services in the existing cloud environment, where all
services are provided by centralized servers over the internet,
or to access services hosted in the decentralized edge
computing deployments, shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Edge Computing in the Metaverse
B. Fundamental Technology
The metaverse is defined as a virtual space where users can
interact with 3D digital objects and 3D virtual avatars of each
other in a complex manner that mimics the real world, hold
thing developed using artificial intelligence techniques. Figure
4 shows the five AI phases in the Metaverse.
1) Accurate Avatar: Users are at the Centre of the
metaverse, and the accuracy of your avatar will affect the
quality of your and other participants' experiences. An AI
engine can evaluate 2D user photos or 3D scans to create a
simulated reproduction that is extremely lifelike. To make the
avatar more dynamic, it may plot a range of facial expressions,
emotions, hairstyles, aging features, and so on.
2) Digital Humans: Digital humans are 3D versions
of chatbots that exist in the metaverse. Digital humans are built
entirely using AI tech and are essential to the landscape of the
metaverse. From NPCs in gameplay to automated assistants in
VR workplaces, there are myriad applications, and companies
like Unreal Engine and Soul Machines have already invested in
this direction. Multilingual Accessibility- AI can help break
down natural languages like English, convert them into a
machine-readable format, perform analysis, arrive at a response,
convert the results back into English and send it to the user.
Figure 4. Five Artificial Intelligence use cases in the Metaverse
The best part is that, depending on the AI's training, the results
might be translated into any language, allowing users from all
over the world to access the metaverse. Expansion of VR and
AR- With new input, human feedback, and machine learning
reinforcement, AI's output will improve with time. AI will be
able to complete the task and produce results nearly as good as
humans. AI is being trained by companies like NVIDIA to
develop complete virtual worlds. This breakthrough will be
instrumental in driving scalability for the metaverse, as new
worlds can be added without the intervention of humans using
AI ensemble VR and AR. Intuitive Interfacing- AI can also
assist in human-computer interactions (HCI). When you put on
a sophisticated, AI-enabled VR headset, its sensors will be able
to read and predict your electrical and muscular patterns to
know exactly how you’d want to move inside the metaverse.
3) Spatio Temporal Algorithm: Spatio Temporal AI
algorithm is a collection of digital tools, models, and methods
that can be deployed to increase people's understanding of how,
where, and why people locate and move in metaverse virtual
cities. It also enables people to develop new virtual procedures
for designing and managing the future metaverse virtual city so
that it can become more sustainable, equitable, and efficient.
4) Metaverse Security and Privacy: Since the data and
avatars of users of the Metaverse platform are located on
different servers around the world, Metaverse handles different
personal data processing in each country using AI techniques.
C. Virtual Reality Object Connection
1) Identity Modelling: Digital identity and
personalization in the metaverse are your unique avatar, with
the rise of Web 3.0, crypto wallets will also play a role in
defining our identity. In a wallet, we might find traces of
someone’s gaming preferences and love for digital art. These
unique avatars are a way to give your digital identity visual
representation in 3D worlds: they are your identity in the
2) Decentralized Technology: Every single piece in the
metaverse incorporates the core concept, shown in Figure 5.
Decentralized Computation: Decentralized
Computation- In a metaverse virtual reality, everything is
data and everything happening is computing. Decentred
computation gathers all the powers together to provide all
the calculations people need to build their perfect world.
The computation will be efficient and accurate.
Decentralized Storage: Inside the metaverse, we have
land, space, energy, power, buildings, medical healthcare
materials, and many more. Everything is safe here for the
reason of metaverse data storage is fully decentralized, it
is owned by everyone, it is managed by everyone, and
everyone together will ensure its existence like the
metaverse will build upon it. Also, we will have full
features on the data: everyone will be confident that the
data won’t be modified by the others because of storage
Decentralized Database: It will provide a solid base for
metaverse citizens to organize their data so they can use
them to build anything that they can imagine enriching
the universe. And at the same time, they will have full
confidence that the data is always there for us.
Blockchain: To ensure the decentralized nature of
metaverse, blockchain is the core of all the infrastructure.
Blockchain will ensure the decentralized data,
decentralized database and decentralized computation is
fully trustful and ensure only the citizens of the metaverse
have ownership of everything in the virtual space.
3) Social Computing: Metaverse social computing
included avatar description, avatar identification, avatar
interaction, and avatar organizational work.
Figure 5. Metaverse decentralized technology
D. Virtual Reality Space Convergence
1) Metaverse Extended Reality: Since the data and
avatars of users of the Metaverse platform are located on
different servers around the world, Metaverse handles different
personal data processing in each country using AI techniques.
Figure 6 shows the extended reality in Metaverse.
Virtual Reality: It is a technology that substitutes
one’s vision of the physical world with a digitally
produced scene using software and headgear devices.
While wearing full-coverage headsets, you are entirely
cut off from your surroundings and the actual world.
A computer-generated virtual environment is reflected
by the LCD screens inside the lenses of these headset
devices, and your viewpoint is replaced.
Augmented Reality: It is a technology that blends the
digital and real worlds. It uses computer vision to
recognize real-world surfaces and objects using
technologies such as object recognition, plane
detection, facial recognition, and movement tracking,
among others. The computer then overlays computer-
generated data like graphics, sounds, images, and
messages on these previously recognized planes.
Mixed Reality: It is a hybrid of augmented reality and
virtual reality. It’s also known as Hybrid Reality since
it incorporates both real-world and digital aspects.
While MR is primarily a technology for combining the
physical and virtual worlds, the most appealing
technology is the lifelike interaction between users
and digital items. These three technologies are also
used in the healthcare domain.
Figure 6. Metaverse extended reality
2) Brain-Computer Interface: Since the data and avatars
of users of the Metaverse platform are located on different
servers around the world, Metaverse handles different personal
data processing in each country using AI techniques.
Acquisition: These signals are acquired from the
brain and then amplified and tuned, and noise is
removed to convert the input signal into a format that
can be digitized and sent to a system that can be further
Feature Extraction: This step involves extracting
certain characteristics and footprints that indicate the
presence or absence of a particular intent. These
characteristics can be time-triggered EEG or ECoG
response amplitudes and latencies, power within
specific EEG or ECoG frequency bands, or firing rates
of individual cortical neurons, etc.
Feature Interpretation: In this step, the
characteristics obtained in the previous steps are
analyzed, and a conclusion is made as to what may be
the intent of the user. Since the human brain is
extremely fast and complex, these translation
algorithms must be dynamic and adaptive to new
signals and features in real-time.
Output: The output can be experienced in various
forms like visual outputs, including moving of cursor
on the screen or changing of channel, audio outputs
may change the volume of a device, etc.
3) Real-Time Rendering: Real-time rendering is a field
of computer graphics focused on analyzing and producing
images in real-time. Metaverse video game platform using the
real-time rendering for metaverse avatar, because of the reality
of avatar. 3D rendering is the process of producing an image
based on three-dimensional data stored on our computer. It’s
also considered to be a creative process, much like photography
or cinematography, because it makes use of light and ultimately
produces images. With 3D rendering, computer graphics
convert 3D wireframe models into 2D images with 3D
photorealistic, or as close to reality, effects. Rendering can take
from seconds to even days for a single image or frame.
The use of augmented reality in the healthcare sector has a
significant impact on the training and improvement of future
medical professionals' skills and knowledge bases. Surgical
assistive tools are technology like the Microsoft HoloLens that
surgeons utilize to help them with and speed surgical
procedures. AR headsets are utilized to see vital real-time
patient data such as heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure,
and breathing rate, in addition to pre-operative images from CT,
MRI, and 3D scans. Augmented reality is currently being used
by nurses and physicians to improve vein detection. This solves
the challenge of finding a vein for many people, even if their
skin is heavily pigmented or their blood veins are small. Visual-
driven technology such as X-rays and CT scans is common in
the healthcare industry. Simply said, they help medical
professionals detect, diagnose, and treat patients by allowing
them to peek inside their bodies. Many medical institutions
started using metaverse technology. Figure 7 shows the
activities of Metaverse in the medical domain.
Figure 7. Metaverse in Medical Domain
A. Metaverse Activities in Healthcare
Remote surgery, telepresence, augmented reality
3D human anatomy models for education,
visualization diagnosis, and planning
Architectural design for healthcare facilities
Preventive medicine and patient education
Haptic aided rehabilitation
Visualization of massive medical databases
Treatment planning
Medical therapy
Pain control
Psychotherapy through Virtual Reality
Virtual patients
Surgery simulation
B. Proposed Process of Patients General Treatment using
Metaverse Technology
The applications treatment metaverse is applied to speed up
the training process without any awe and risk. It is used to apply
in the medical field for a wide range of diseases. Metaverse
future technology opens a useful role to improve the
performance of the medical field. Metaverse is a useful and
effective technology to raise the satisfaction of trainees and the
patient. This technology provides an applicable solution using
its process in the medical field, Metaverse is an essential
technology for the development process that uses customized
and advanced software and hardware. We can define the
specific objective of the required treatment and collect the
patient’s background information. Different hardware and
software are used to create 3D virtual data that creates a 3D
virtual environment. The metaverse virtual reality and
augmented reality of the required medical data is created and
identified with the best possible procedure. This procedure is
applicable to plan the treatment and finally helps to perform the
actual Treatment. Figure 8 shows the process of patient general
treatment using Metaverse technology.
Figure 8. Metaverse technology in the medical domain
We are very stoked that we can contribute to the beautiful
new world. On a final note, technology giants such as Facebook,
Microsoft, Apple, Google, and many gaming companies have
ambitious plans for materializing the metaverse. With the
engagement of emerging technologies and the progressive
development and refinement of the ecosystem, metaverse
virtual worlds will look radically different in the upcoming
years. However, there exist still many challenges to be
overcome before the metaverse becomes integrated into the
physical world and our everyday life. In this paper, we discuss
the technological roadmap of metaverse technology and the
medical domain activity of the metaverse. In the future, we will
propose, metaverse for smart healthcare facilities.
This work was supported by the Commercialization
Promotion Agency for R&D Outcomes (COMPA) grant funded
by the Korean Government (Ministry of Science and ICT)”
(R&D project No.1711139492).
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Md Ariful Islam Mozumder is pursuing his
Master's in Institute of Digital Anti-Aging
Healthcare from Inje University. He has previously
worked on multiple real-life projects related to
computer vision, data sciences, Smart IoT systems,
and text mining. His research interest aligns with
Computer Vision, Artificial Intelligence, Bio
Signal Processing, Algorithms, and Blockchain.
Muhammad Mohsan Sheeraz is pursuing his
Master's in Institute of Digital Anti-Aging
Healthcare from Inje University. His research
interest’s area includes Blockchain and Machine
Ali Athar is a Ph.D. student at the Institute of
Digital Anti-aging and healthcare at Inje
University. His research interest’s area includes
Image Processing, Deep Learning, and Machine
Satyabrata Aich is working as a research
professor in the field of computer engineering. He
has published many research papers in journals in
the realms of Machine learning, Text mining, and
Supply Chain Management. His research interests
are NLP, supply chain management,
Bioinformatics, Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain.
Hee-Cheol Kim BSc at the Department of
Mathematics, MSc at the Department of Computer
Science in SoGang University in Korea, and Ph.D.
at Numerical Analysis and Computing Science,
Stockholm University in Sweden. He is a professor
and Head of the Department of the Institute. Digital
Anti-aging Healthcare, Inje University, S: Korea.
His research interests include Machine learning,
Text mining, Bio Informatics.
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Technical Report
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Since the popularisation of the Internet in the 1990s, the cyberspace has kept evolving. We have created various computer-mediated virtual environments including social networks, video conferencing, virtual 3D worlds (e.g., VR Chat), augmented reality applications (e.g., Pokemon Go), and Non-Fungible Token Games (e.g., Upland). Such virtual environments, albeit non-perpetual and unconnected, have bought us various degrees of digital transformation. The term `metaverse' has been coined to further facilitate the digital transformation in every aspect of our physical lives. At the core of the metaverse stands the vision of an immersive Internet as a gigantic, unified, persistent, and shared realm. While the metaverse may seem futuristic, catalysed by emerging technologies such as Extended Reality, 5G, and Artificial Intelligence, the digital `big bang' of our cyberspace is not far away. This survey paper presents the first effort to offer a comprehensive framework that examines the latest metaverse development under the dimensions of state-of-the-art technologies and metaverse ecosystems, and illustrates the possibility of the digital `big bang'. First, technologies are the enablers that drive the transition from the current Internet to the metaverse. We thus examine eight enabling technologies rigorously - Extended Reality, User Interactivity (Human-Computer Interaction), Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain, Computer Vision, IoT and Robotics, Edge and Cloud computing, and Future Mobile Networks. In terms of applications, the metaverse ecosystem allows human users to live and play within a self-sustaining, persistent, and shared realm. Therefore, we discuss six user-centric factors -- Avatar, Content Creation, Virtual Economy, Social Acceptability, Security and Privacy, and Trust and Accountability. Finally, we propose a concrete research agenda for the development of the metaverse.
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This paper introduces and describes a learning system for analyzing devices in a virtual world and points out its significance for current research collaboration. Now we are in Society 5.0, so daily problems should be solved by IoT (Internet of Things) with a mutual collaboration without borders. The authors need to collaborate with each other among remote organizations and different nations. For such situations, we need to establish the learning system for analyzing devices which would lead to an actual sharing system in the future. In this paper, the proposed concept for the learning system in metaverse is explained. The significance of the system is described, too.
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Background/objectives: Virtual Reality (VR) is a developing technology, which seems to have extensive applications in different areas such as entertainment, sports, gaming and simulation. In the current scenario, due to Computer-generated imagery and content aim at simulating a real presence through senses capability, it has functional applications in the medical field. So, there are requirements to study its applicability in the medical field. Methods: Relevant papers on VR in the context of the medical field are identified and studied. This paper is a literature review based analysis, where we are trying to find how this technology is going to solve a medicalrelated problem in saving the life of the patient and what are the significant applications. Results: VR provides a simulated environment to interact with the 3D world. Medical professionals are developing and implementing this technology for training, diagnosis and virtual treatment during a critical situation. The study sees that there is good potential for VR in the medical field. We also studied the processes involved in implementing this technology in the medical field. Finally, this paper identifies fourteen major applications of VR in the medical field with description. This technology is helping to create quality healthcare services during complicated cases. Conclusions: VR is used effectively for better surgical technique. It creates detailed virtual models of a patient's anatomy. It helps physicians to effectively move around and view virtual 3D images from different angles. This technology is currently applied in cardiology and Neurology for monitoring and improves patient outcomes. It plays a significant role to help physician related to trauma and other fractures. VR is an emerging technology which can also be used in hospitals and clinics for rehabilitation & training approaches. The applications of this technology are in virtual guides and to fulfil different other virtual goals in the medical field. It seems like an efficient technology to teach body fitness and help create a positive impact on doctors and the patient. This technology leads to creative and exciting discoveries in the medical field.
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Purpose of review Advances in display technology and computing have led to new devices capable of overlaying digital information onto the physical world or incorporating aspects of the physical world into virtual scenes. These combinations of digital and physical environments are referred to as extended realities. Extended reality (XR) devices offer many advantages for medical applications including realistic 3D visualization and touch-free interfaces that can be used in sterile environments. This review introduces extended reality and describes how it can be applied to medical practice. Recent findings The 3D displays of extended reality devices are valuable in situations where spatial information such as patient anatomy and medical instrument position is important. Applications that take advantage of these 3D capabilities include teaching and pre-operative planning. The utility of extended reality during interventional procedures has been demonstrated with through 3D visualizations of patient anatomy, scar visualization, and real-time catheter tracking with touch-free software control. Summary Extended reality devices have been applied to education, pre-procedural planning, and cardiac interventions. These devices excel in settings where traditional devices are difficult to use, such as in the cardiac catheterization lab. New applications of extended reality in cardiology will continue to emerge as the technology improves.
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Background: Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that integrates digital information into the user’s real-world environment. It offers a new approach for treatments and education in medicine. AR aids in surgery planning and patient treatment and helps explain complex medical situations to patients and their relatives. Objective: This systematic and bibliographic review offers an overview of the development of apps in AR with a medical use case from March 2012 to June 2017. This work can aid as a guide to the literature and categorizes the publications in the field of AR research. Methods: From March 2012 to June 2017, a total of 1309 publications from PubMed and Scopus databases were manually analyzed and categorized based on a predefined taxonomy. Of the total, 340 duplicates were removed and 631 publications were excluded due to incorrect classification or unavailable technical data. The remaining 338 publications were original research studies on AR. An assessment of the maturity of the projects was conducted on these publications by using the technology readiness level. To provide a comprehensive process of inclusion and exclusion, the authors adopted the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Results: The results showed an increasing trend in the number of publications on AR in medicine. There were no relevant clinical trials on the effect of AR in medicine. Domains that used display technologies seemed to be researched more than other medical fields. The technology readiness level showed that AR technology is following a rough bell curve from levels 4 to 7. Current AR technology is more often applied to treatment scenarios than training scenarios. Conclusions: This work discusses the applicability and future development of augmented- and mixed-reality technologies such as wearable computers and AR devices. It offers an overview of current technology and a base for researchers interested in developing AR apps in medicine. The field of AR is well researched, and there is a positive trend in its application, but its use is still in the early stages in the field of medicine and it is not widely adopted in clinical practice. Clinical studies proving the effectiveness of applied AR technologies are still lacking.
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Moving from a set of independent virtual worlds to an integrated network of 3D virtual worlds or Metaverse rests on progress in four areas: immersive realism, ubiquity of access and identity, interoperability, and scalability. For each area, the current status and needed developments in order to achieve a functional Metaverse are described. Factors that support the formation of a viable Metaverse, such as institutional and popular interest and ongoing improvements in hardware performance, and factors that constrain the achievement of this goal, including limits in computational methods and unrealized collaboration among virtual world stakeholders and developers, are also considered.
Recent advances in technology are rapidly changing the way we interact with the physical world around us. As a result, our digital footprint and digital breadcrumbs are tracked and can reveal not just our identity but also our location, age, shopping preferences, friends, favorite movies, and much more. In the worst case, such tracking may lead to hostile entities coming to know your highly sensitive information such as credit card numbers, social security identity numbers, mother?s maiden name, medical history, bank account information, and so on. Social engineering [1] is one of several related ways that this data becomes jeopardized. Furthermore, Internet-connected cameras allow consumers, companies, and government agencies to record animate and inanimate objects in a specific geographic area. Such recordings may be stored in cloud-based storage farms, viewed by humans, or analyzed by machines for various purposes. The information can be gathered and interpreted in multiple ways, such as by surveillance cameras, and can include activity and location inference as well as aggregation and pattern detection.