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Odisha bonaccordensis (Orchidaceae), A new species from Western Ghats of Kerala, India

Authors:
  • University of Delhi
  • Botanical Survey of India, Headquarters Kolkata
BOTANICAL SURVEY OF INDIA
Nelumbo Vol 63 (2): (05-10) 2021 ISSN (Print) : 0976-5069
10.20324/nelumbo/v63/2021/167439 ISSN (Online) : 2455-376X
Odisha bonaccordensis (Orchidaceae), A new species from
Western Ghats of Kerala, India
Kothareddy Prasad1*, Jeewan Singh Jalal and D. K. Agrawala
1Botanical Survey of India, Deccan Regional Centre, Koti, Hyderabad–500 095, Telangana, India
Botanical Survey of India, Headquarters, CGO Complex, Sector - 1, Salt Lake City, Kolkata - 700064,
West Bengal, India
Corresponding author email: prasad.orchids@gmail.com
Submitted : 13.12.2021 Accepted : 28.12.2021 Date of Publication 31.12.2021
INTRODUCTION
Five sub-families are recognized under the family
Orchidaceae (APG IV, 2016). e sub-family
Orchidoideae is represented by about 3630 species,
with larger concentration in tropical South Africa,
Europe, Madagascar, North America, temperate South
America and Australia. e sub-family was hitherto
known consisting of six tribes namely, Chloraeeae,
Codonorchideae, Cranichideae, Diseae, Diurideae
and Orchideae (Dressler, 1981; Pridgeon & al., 2001;
2003). Later based on molecular data Chase & al.,
2015 recognised only 4 tribes namely, Codonorchideae,
Cranichideae, Diurideae and Orchideae.
e monotypic genus Odisha S. Misra (Subtribe
Odishinae: tribe Orchideae: Orchidaceae) was described
by Misra (2007) and endemic to India. Its diagnostic
characters are, completely closed and erect perianth;
rostellum with 3 free lobes at apex; lateral lobes neither
produce pouches on their apices nor connected to the
anther lobes; anther lobes 2-parted by a longitudinal
septum and lacks any anther canal; pollinarium 2-lobed,
each lobe consisting of two collateral pollinia; caudicle
short, curved; viscidium absent (Misra 2019).
e rst author (KP) collected few plants apparently
similar to Habenaria and Odisha from southern Western
Ghats of Kerala in November 2014. at time those
specimens couldn’t be examined since they got infected
by fungus. e author again revisited the locality during
2015 and 2016 and collected few fresh samples. Aer
examination of its reproductive morphology revealed
that the column structure has dierent features like,
stigma tongue like with rounded apex/very faintly
lobed, the rostellum without any lobation and partially
superposing on stigma and pollinaria 2, each with a
single pollinium, basally united with anther and free
Keywords: Orchidaceae, New species, India, Kerala
ABSTRACT
A new species of Odisha (Orchidaceae), O. bonaccordensis is described from the Western Ghats of Kerala, India in the
sub-family Orchidoideae. The article deliberates on the exclusivity of the proposed new species with pertinent material
and diagnostics. Also, an illustration and photo plates are presented to depict the morphology of new species.
  (),         
  
 ,     . . 

                             
                         
        
6 www.nelumbo-bsi.org Nelumbo
Odisha bonaccordensis (Orchidaceae), A new species from Western Ghats of Kerala, India
above. However, the owers of the present collection
are devoid of antherophores, auricles (staminodes) and
viscidia. ese features could be validated as the delicate
columnar characters were studied in live material during
the eld survey before they were pressed for herbarium
and lost the shape. ese minute and delicate characters
contradicts those for the genus Odisha and deserve a new
generic status within subfamily Orchidoideae, but due to
its gross similarity with oral morphology of Odisha we
prefer to place it under the genus Odisha. e columnar
characters in Odisha could not be veried from the
pressed type specimens. e Genus Odisha is known to
have two taxa so far and distributed as far as Karnataka
in south, but this new discovery from Kerala further
extends its distribution range.
An illustration, photo plates and a complete description
of the new species reported has been presented.
TAXONOMIC TREATMENT
Odisha bonaccordensis K. Prasad, Jalal & Agrawala sp.
nov. (Figs. 1, 2 & 3)
e new species can be dierentiated from Odisha
cleistantha in following characters: lip simple and without
spur (vs. 3-lobed and with spur); anther chambers,
antherophores and auricles absent (vs. anther chambers,
antherophores and auricles present); pollinaria basally
united with anther and free above (vs. pollinia present in
anther chambers); stigma tongue like, rounded or faintly
3-lobed (vs. stigma not tongue like, two lobed); rostellum
unlobed, superposed partly on stigma (vs. rostellum
3-lobed, erect and not superposed on stigma).
Type: India: Kerala, iruvananthapuram district,
the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve, on way to
Agasthyaku dam from Bonaccord, elev. 641 m, 08.11.2016,
K. Prasad 008445 (holo: CAL!; iso: CAL!).
Terrestrial herbs, perennials, 30–60 cm high. Root stem
tuberoids 2, oblong or sub-globose or ellipsoid, 2–4
× 1.5–2.5 cm; roots few, cylindrical, 2–4 cm long, 1–2
mm thick, hairy. Stem erect, slender, cylindrical, 10–15
cm long; internodes entirely covered with sheathing leaf
bases. Leaves 3-4, cauline, sessile, ovate, ovate-lanceolate
or oblong-lanceolate, 4–6 × 2–2.5 cm, base contracted into
amplexicaul sheath, margins translucent and denticulate,
apex acute. Inorescence 30–45 cm long; peduncle
cylindric, with 1 or 2, clasping sterile bracts; sterile bracts
ovate-lanceolate, 1–2 cm long, apex acuminate, margins
denticulate; rachis densely owered. Floral bracts green,
shorter than ovary, oblong-lanceolate, 12–15 × 2.5–3
mm, apex acuminate, margins denticulate, 3-veined,
veins branched. Flowers spirally arranged, yellowish-
green, pale white at base, scented, partly opening.
Pedicel with ovary green, fusiform, strongly ribbed,
shortly beaked, 18–25 mm long. Sepals, petals and lip
sub-equal, erect, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate,
margins denticulate; involute, 3-veined, veins branched,
sparingly gland-dotted. Dorsal sepal 11–12 × 3.8–4 mm,
apex acute, glabrous; lateral sepals 11–12 × 3.8–4.2 mm,
apiculate, glabrous; petals falcate, 10–12 × 3.5–3.8 mm,
apex obtuse or unequally bilobed, sparingly hairy. Lip
11–12 × 3.5–4 mm, curved upwards and then erect, apex
acute, sparingly hairy. Anther hooded, 2.2–2.5 mm long;
locules two, connected, without chambers; antherophores
absent; auricles absent. Pollinia 2, at base of anther, each
consisting of single pollinium, basally united with anther,
free above, translucent; pollinium sectile, oblong, 0.8–1
mm long; caudicle linear, 1–1.2 mm long; viscidia absent.
Sigma single, tongue like, glossy, bent, obovate-oblong,
margins slightly curved in, usually rounded or very
faintly lobed, 1.6–2 × 1–1.8 mm. Rostellum unlobed,
partially superposing on stigma, oblong, 1–1.5 mm long,
rounded, not connected to anther. Capsules obliquely
fusiform, with persistent perianth, 2–2.5 cm long.
Flowering & Fruiting: October–December.
Habitat: It grows in open grasslands and along the
margins of grass dominated moist deciduous forest at an
elevation between 600–800 m. e common associates
are Habenaria longicorniculata J. Graham and grasses etc.
Distribution: Known only from the Southern Western
Ghats of Kerala.
Etymology: Named aer the type locality, Bonaccord,
Kerala.
Additional specimen examined: India: Kerala,
Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve (Karamana),
20.10.1993, A. Ganga Prasad & S. William Decruse 18442
(TBGT!).
Conservation status and threats: e species has a
restricted distribution with limited number of individuals
in Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve. It is so far known
from a single sub-population. Based on present eld
observation and as per IUCN guidelines, the extent of
occurrence and the area of occupancy was calculated as
4 km with the minimum grid size of 2 km. However,
the new species is under threat due tourism activities and
seasonal/anthropogenic forest res. Based on ‘Extent of
Occurrence’ (Criterion B1: EOO < 100 km2) and ‘Area
of Occupancy (Criterion B2: AOO < 10 km2) together
with the number of locations = 1 (sub criterion ‘a’) and
projected decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat
(subcriterion‘b(iii)’), initially the new species is assessed
here as ‘Critically Endangered’ [CR B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)]’
(IUCN 2019). Further explorations and habitat
management is recommended for its conservation.
7
www.nelumbo-bsi.orgNelumbo
Kothareddy Prasad, Jeewan Singh Jalal and D.K. Agrawala
Fig. 1: Odisha bonaccordensis K. Prasad, Jalal & Agrawala: A. Habit; B. Floral bract; C. Dorsal sepal; D. Lateral sepals; E. Petals; F. Lip;
G. Ovary with pedicel, column and lip; H–J. Column side, back & front views.
8 www.nelumbo-bsi.org Nelumbo
Odisha bonaccordensis (Orchidaceae), A new species from Western Ghats of Kerala, India
Fig. 2: Odisha bonaccordensis K. Prasad, Jalal & Agrawala: A. Habit; B. Flower; C. Floral bract; D. Dorsal sepal; E. Lateral sepals; F. Petals;
G. Lip; H. Ovary with pedicel, column and lip; I-K. Column side and back views (An. Anther; Po. Pollinium; Rs. Rostellum; St. Stigma; Ac.
Anther connectivity ; Al. Anther locule without chamber).
9
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Kothareddy Prasad, Jeewan Singh Jalal and D.K. Agrawala
Fig. 3: Odisha bonaccordensis K. Prasad, Jalal & Agrawala: A. Habit; B. Raceme; C. Flowers.
AB
C
10 www.nelumbo-bsi.org Nelumbo
Odisha bonaccordensis (Orchidaceae), A new species from Western Ghats of Kerala, India
Notes: Initially the species was collected by A. Ganga
Prasad & S. William Decruse from Agasthyamala
Biosphere Reserve in the year 1993 and they believed
that their material might be a Habenaria species
(TBGT!). e rst author (KP) in his revisionary
studies of South Indian Habenaria, has studied the
above material which shown unique column characters.
Based on the column morphology is dicult for
interpretation in dried specimens. e rst author has
recollected the specimens from the same locality and
studied the specimens in fresh condition. e presence
of unique morphological characters like, absence of
anther chambers, antherophores, auricles and viscidia;
pollinaria basally united with anther and free above;
stigma tongue like, rounded or faintly 3-lobed; rostellum
unlobed, superposed partly on stigma, it is described
here as a new species.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors thank the Director, Botanical Survey of India
and Dr. P. Singh (ex-director) & Dr. P. Venu (Scientist
Emeritus-CSIR) for facilities and encouragement. e
First author thanks Department of Science & Technology
(DST, under SERB program), New Delhi for nancial
assistance. We are thankful to the Director and Herbarium
In-charge of Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden
and Research Institute (JNTBGRI) for providing
permission to study the herbarium specimens. anks
are also due to the ocials of Kerala Forest Department
for providing permission and logistic support.
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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A revised and updated classification for the families of flowering plants is provided. Many recent studies have yielded increasingly detailed evidence for the positions of formerly unplaced families, resulting in a number of newly adopted orders, including Amborellales, Berberidopsidales, Bruniales, Buxales, Chloranthales, Escalloniales, Huerteales, Nymphaeales, Paracryphiales, Petrosaviales, Picramniales, Trochodendrales, Vitales and Zygophyllales. A number of previously unplaced genera and families are included here in orders, greatly reducing the number of unplaced taxa; these include Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales), Haptanthaceae (Buxales), Peridiscaceae (Saxifragales), Huaceae (Oxalidales), Centroplacaceae and Rafflesiaceae (both Malpighiales), Aphloiaceae, Geissolomataceae and Strasburgeriaceae (all Crossosomatales), Picramniaceae (Picramniales), Dipentodontaceae and Gerrardinaceae (both Huerteales), Cytinaceae (Malvales), Balanophoraceae (Santalales), Mitrastemonaceae (Ericales) and Boraginaceae (now at least known to be a member of lamiid clade). Newly segregated families for genera previously understood to be in other APG-recognized families include Petermanniaceae (Liliales), Calophyllaceae (Malpighiales), Capparaceae and Cleomaceae (both Brassicales), Schoepfiaceae (Santalales), Anacampserotaceae, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae and Talinaceae (all Caryophyllales) and Linderniaceae and Thomandersiaceae (both Lamiales). Use of bracketed families is abandoned because of its unpopularity, and in most cases the broader circumscriptions are retained; these include Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceace and Xanthorrheaceae (all Asparagales), Passifloraceae (Malpighiales), Primulaceae (Ericales) and several other smaller families. Separate papers in this same volume deal with a new linear order for APG, subfamilial names that can be used for more accurate communication in Amaryllidaceae s.l., Asparagaceace s.l. and Xanthorrheaceae s.l. (all Asparagales) and a formal supraordinal classification for the flowering plants.
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Since the last classification of Orchidaceae in 2003, there has been major progress in the determination of relationships, and we present here a revised classification including a list of all 736 currently recognized genera. A number of generic changes have occurred in Orchideae (Orchidoideae), but the majority of changes have occurred in Epidendroideae. In the latter, almost all of the problematic placements recognized in the previous classification 11 years ago have now been resolved. In Epidendroideae, we have recognized three new tribes (relative to the last classification): Thaieae (monogeneric) for Thaia, which was previously considered to be the only taxon incertae sedis; Xerorchideae (monogeneric) for Xerorchis; and Wullschlaegelieae for achlorophyllous Wullschlaegelia, which had tentatively been placed in Calypsoeae. Another genus, Devogelia, takes the place of Thaia as incertae sedis in Epidendroideae. Gastrodieae are clearly placed among the tribes in the neottioid grade, with Neottieae sister to the remainder of Epidendroideae. Arethuseae are sister to the rest of the higher Epidendroideae, which is unsurprising given their mostly soft pollinia. Tribal relationships within Epidendroideae have been much clarified by analyses of multiple plastid DNA regions and the low-copy nuclear gene Xdh. Four major clades within the remainder of Epidendroideae are recognized: Vandeae/Podochileae/Collabieae, Cymbidieae, Malaxideae and Epidendreae, the last now including Calypsoinae (previously recognized as a tribe on its own) and Agrostophyllinae s.s. Agrostophyllinae and Collabiinae were unplaced subtribes in the 2003 classification. The former are now split between two subtribes, Agrostophyllinae s.s. and Adrorhizinae, the first now included in Epidendreae and the second in Vandeae. Collabiinae, also probably related to Vandeae, are now elevated to a tribe along with Podochileae. Malaxis and relatives are placed in Malaxidinae and included with Dendrobiinae in Malaxideae. The increased resolution and content of larger clades, recognized here as tribes, do not support the ‘phylads’ in Epidendroideae proposed 22 years ago by Dressler. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 177, 151–174.
Guidelines for Using the IUCN. Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 14. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Committee
  • Iucn Standards
  • Petitions Committee
IUCN STANDARDS AND PETITIONS COMMITTEE 2019. Guidelines for Using the IUCN. Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 14. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Committee. Downloadable from http://www. iucnredlist.org/documents/RedList Guidelines.pdf.
Orchids of India -A glimpse. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
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MISRA, S. 2007. Orchids of India -A glimpse. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
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PRIDGEON, A.M., P.J. CRIBB, M.W. CHASE AND F.N. RASMUSSEN 2001. Genera Orchidacearum vol. 2, Orchidoideae Part 1. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.
Orchidoideae (Part 2) Vanilloideae
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PRIDGEON, A.M., P.J. CRIBB, M.W. CHASE AND F.N. RASMUSSEN 2003. Genera Orchidacearum Vol. 3, Orchidoideae (Part 2) Vanilloideae. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.