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Investigating conjunctive household electric power supply in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria



Nigeria is among the top three countries with the largest electricity deficits in the world, paradoxically, Nigeria has become legendary for fits and starts in domestic electric power supply to homes of her citizens. Community, state and national interventions had little impact. This study looks at citizen initiatives to attain domestic energy security in Ado-Ekiti Nigeria-a medium sized state capital (Ekiti state). The study adopted a mixed method that combines quantitative and qualitative approaches. The study specifically investigated the socioeconomic characteristics of the residents (age, family size, educational status and monthly income), sources of modern domestic electric power supply, including cleaner electric energy strategies. It is an empirical research that used simple random sampling to select 1029 cases from a frame of 30,195, who supplied information through the questionnaire instrument. The research methods include comparative analysis, in-depth fieldwork, observation, interviews, collation and information derived from research institutes. Research findings showed a variety of sources utilized by residents to meet their energy needs. Among the rich, the use of solar panels to argument public power supply was common. The middle class combined generators with public supply. The poor were content to use candles and kerosene lamps when public supply failed. Energy reform, directed at nationalisation, adequate funding of the grid and decentralization, innovation in energy technology, such as solar power were recommended to improve the energy sector of the state and lessen hardship for the citizens. Keywords: Ado-Ekiti household electric power supply Nigeria Energy security Residential areas.
Investigating conjunctive household electric power supply in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
Arcle history:
Received July 26, 2021
Received in revised form August 22, 2021
Accepted September 2, 2021
Available online September 19, 2021
Nigeria is among the top three countries with the largest electricity deficits in the
world, paradoxically, Nigeria has become legendary for fits and starts in domestic
electric power supply to homes of her citizens. Community, state and national
interventions had little impact. This study looks at citizen initiatives to attain do-
mestic energy security in Ado-Ekiti Nigeria- a medium sized state capital (Ekiti
state). The study adopted a mixed method that combines quantitative and qualita-
tive approaches. The study specifically investigated the socio-economic character-
istics of the residents (age, family size, educational status and monthly income),
sources of modern domestic electric power supply, including cleaner electric ener-
gy strategies. It is an empirical research that used simple random sampling to se-
lect 1029 cases from a frame of 30,195, who supplied information through the
questionnaire instrument. The research methods include comparative analysis, in-
depth fieldwork, observation, interviews, collation and information derived from
research institutes. Research findings showed a variety of sources utilized by resi-
dents to meet their energy needs. Among the rich, the use of solar panels to argu-
ment public power supply was common. The middle class combined generators
with public supply. The poor were content to use candles and kerosene lamps
when public supply failed. Energy reform, directed at nationalisation, adequate
funding of the grid and decentralization, innovation in energy technology, such as
solar power were recommended to improve the energy sector of the state and less-
en hardship for the citizens.
household electric power supply
Energy security
Residential areas.
Corresponding Authors E-mail:
ONLINE – 2736-139X
PRINT – 2736 - 1403
© Publishing Realtime.
All rights reserved.
1,Department of Urban & Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria.
2Department of Geography, Federal University Lokoja, Lokoja, Nigeria.
1.0. Introduction
The global urban population is increasingly growing at
about one million people per week (International Energy
Agencys, 2009a). The United Nations report in 2018, re-
vealed that, the urban population of 4.2 billion represented
55% of the global population of 7.6 billion (Okosun, Fasa-
kin, Basorun, Olamiju and Aluko, 2021). This indicates
that, majority of the world population reside in urban cen-
tres. This growth in human population has not only dramati-
cally increased mankinds ability to harness energy from
nature (World Energy Council, 2013), but equally gives rise
to greater demand and debate for global electricity secu-
rity (Etiosa, 2009; Africa Progress Panel, 2015; Okosun,
et al., 2021). Electricity energy has been extensively
used for decades in all areas of city life, viz administra-
tive, industrial, commercial, and residential areas.
Nigeria is listed among the top three countries with elec-
tricity deficits (World Bank, 2021). Nigeria, like other
developing countries (DCs) possesses varieties of resi-
dential household sources energy systems, like solar,
hydroelectricity, thermal, biomass and fossil energy
(Samson, 2015). The International Energy Agency
Fasakin J.O1; Basorun J.O 1; *Okosun, S.E2; Abel, O.A2
Okosun et al. Arejoen Vol 4(2) 2021, 1-10
(2016) noted that, the household sector accounts for almost
58% of the final electricity consumption in Nigeria. Energy
for lighting accounts for a staggering 6% of household ener-
gy consumption, and electrical appliances 3% (Energy Com-
mission of Nigeria, 2015). In contrast to international con-
cerns, Nigeria has made little progress in the provision of
accessible clean energy sources for cooking, heating and
lighting household utilities despite being endowed with rich
natural resources (OECD/IEA, 2009b). Consequently, Nige-
rians are encouraged to develop an electric energy supply
chain crucial in achieving the SDGs (UNDP, 2015). It was
estimated that, about 60-70% of the Nigerian population
have no access to electricity (Orazulike, 2013). Conversely,
without improvement and investment in energy technology,
efficiency and action plans for sustainable use of energy re-
source, electricity energy access will increasingly diminish.
Amous (1997) observed that, increase in the cost of fuel has
raised the level of energy insufficiency among millions of
Nigerian citizens, and accordingly, left wood as the fuel op-
tion for most urban households.
In Nigeria, electricity is produced mainly from gas fired ther-
mal plants and hydro dams. Orazulike, (2013) had observed
that, due to incessant power electricity failure, about 70% of
the industries in Nigeria are dead, 10% are dying and
20% are trying to survive. Despite endemic blackouts,
customers (users of domestic energy) are billed for ser-
vices not rendered; this has partially resulted into wide-
spread vandalism of power theft in Nigeria, coupled with
the problem of payment of electricity bill (Okosun, et al,
2021). However, there are only 14 generating stations in
Nigeria (3 hydro and 11 thermal stations). Out of the ap-
proximated 8,039 MW of installed capacity in Nigeria,
not more than 4,500 MW is supplied (Sambo, 2009). The
IEA (2017) observed that, public electricity supply is
indispensable for certain basic household activities, such
as lighting and the running of household appliances and
cannot easily be replaced by other forms of energy. The
interconnection of households into a larger energy system
is known as electricity grid or the grid. The national/
electricity grid has the advantage of economies of scale
(supply scale) and the disadvantage of high costs
(demand scale) when it comes to household energy con-
sumption. The current Nigeria electricity grid and supply
distribution are characterized by unstable power supply
and price fluctuations (Okosun et al, 2021).
In table 1, Nigerian electricity power supply is low, in
Table 1: Comparative analysis of electricity power supply generation and consumption in relation to Nigeria
Continent Country Population 2019
capacity (MW)
Electricity Energy con-
sumption (kwh per capital)
North America USA 329 85,000 12.9
Europe (central) UK 67 71.000 5.1
Far East South Korea 51 56,000 10.4
South Africa
comparison to South Africa with a far lesser population that
generates about 58 thousand megawatts, ten times compare
to the Nigerias generation capacity, similar to the US, with
roughly twice its population. From a social perspective, it is
no longer news that, Nigeria has become legendary for fits
and starts in domestic electric power supply to homes of her
citizens. The community, state and national interventions
had little impact. However, in order to improve universal
electricity generation, the United Nations declared 2012 as
the International Year for Energy for All. In 2014, a set goal
was proposed; known as Energy security for all,a univer-
sal call for action - committing all countries both rich and
poor including Nigeria to achieving sufficient access to af-
fordable, reliable and available electricity (2030 Agenda). In
Nigeria energy for public or private residence is character-
ized by acute shortage of fuel supply and environmental
challenges. These challenges, according to Oyedepo (2012)
include: scarcity of relevant manpower and general consum-
er indiscipline; lack of essential spare parts for maintenance
of energy power plants; absence of local manufacturing ca-
pabilities (Okosun et al., 2021); and lack of systematic stud-
ies on household energy security issues. Olotuah and Taiwo
(2013) discovered that, many households in Ado-Ekiti par-
ticularly the urban poor live with deprivation of access to
meet their energy need. This study therefore, looks at citi-
zen initiatives to attain domestic energy security in Ado-
Ekiti Nigeria- a political, medium sized state capital (Ekiti
state). The objectives are to: examine the socio-economic
characteristics of the residents, identified the source(s) of
electric power supply, and challenges/cost of electric power
supply used by the residents of Ado-Ekiti and suggested
strategies to aid modern/cleaner electric power supply for
all by 2030.
2 Household electric energy security and challenges
at the global, continental and Nigeria context
Electric energy security has proven to be an important
global issue. Okosun et al., (2021) reported that, global
future economic growth and civilization of citizens cru-
cially depends on the availability of energy supply from
sources that are affordable, accessible, and environmen-
tally friendly. The Executive Director of IEA, Maria Van
der Hoeven in 2009, observes that "quest for energy secu-
rity in urban development was regarded as internal affair
of Worlds main oil and gas countries and was seen pri-
marily as a concern of industrialized countries”, but today
the challenge has become global. In contrast, Antonio
(2009) concluded that, energy security has no unified
solution as to how it should be handled; rather each coun-
try should find its own solution, since the challenge is
now a globalissue. The study conducted by IEA, (2014)
showed that, 1.2 billion people have no access to energy
supply security needed to sustain the well-being of over 7
billion people today and the projected world population of
9 billion by 2050 (2030 Agenda). Meeting the rising de-
mand will require spatial planning and conventional tech-
s the 2010 electric power transmission and dis-
tribution losses chart with a value of 260.999 billion
Adapted from Global Energy Consumption by Country (2019) and updated by the authors (2021)
kWh, where Nigeria occupies the forty-fifth position with a
value of 4.497 billion kWh. In Pakistan, according to Walsh
and Masood (2013), continual electricity shortages reached
crisis proportions in 2013. Electricity demand and sup-
ply mismatch is now a widespread challenging issue; na-
tions of the world strive for efficient and effective power
sector that will meet the ever increasing energy demands
(UN-Energy, 2014). Power shortage is predominant in De-
veloping Countries, unlike in Developed Countries like
Hong Kong, Switzerland, and UK. Azodo (2014) argued
that, nations of the world encounter electric power transmis-
sion and distribution losses. Some of the challenges adduced
for security in energy supply in Developing Countries were
energy planning without data and inarticulate policy formu-
lations (Akpalu et al., 2011; Sambo, 2009); energy unavaila-
bility caused by export, leading to inadequacy in energy
consumption for household use (Adeyemi, 2017). Others
includes; inadequate energy supply sources and unclean/
unimproved energy supply used in the household (Okosun
et al., 2021). Access to clean and modern ener gy services is
a colossal challenge in Africa, which has one of the lowest
per capita energy consumption rates in comparison with
other regions such as Latin America, North America, Mid-
dle East and Europe (Sustainable Energy Consumption in
Africa, 2004). The per capita consumption of modern ener-
gy in sub-Saharan Africa remained small and stagnant fall-
ing with an average of 126 kilograms of oil equivalent (i.e.
13% kgoe) of the world average of 979 kgoe (Sambo, 2005;
Ighodaro, 2010). Consequently, electric energy supply and
security attainment present a serious challenge to sub-
Saharan Africa (Okosun et al., 2021).
Akpalu, Isaac, and Peter (2011)
Sustainable Energy Africa in 2004
for energy security in
many African countries Timme, 2016 However, towns
and cities will need to explore an energy pattern in order to
realize the 2050 vision of a low carbon energy supply
(Shell, 2008). Sub-Saharan African countries for instance
are embarking on approaches and strategies to resolve ener-
gy supply problems (electricity), due to its present noticea-
ble low-significant input to meet their residential household
energy attainment. In the Developing Countries (DCs), com-
munities are undergoing a multistage transition process to
cleaner household energy. The IEC (2013) has confirmed
that, residential household energy is now replaced by the
use of modern power supply machinery and solar energy.
Over the past three decades, improving electric power sup-
ply in urban areas has been a key quest of governments
across global South and sub-Saharan Africa (Sustainable
Energy for Africa, 2004; Agenda 21; UNDP, 2015). The
World Bank (2021) revealed that, business in Nigeria loses
about $29bn annually as a result of the countrys poor elec-
tricity. It has also observed that, Nigeria had the largest
number of people without access to electricity in the world.
This trend implies that, Nigeria have a bad reputation with
regards to electric power supply efficiency and security, this
is largely as a result of growing challenges such as quality
of power supply, wattage (KWh)/duration of power supply
and tariff.
The study of Kayode, Akhavan, Farshchi and Ford (2015),
examined household energy consumption in Ibadan, and
found out that, energy consumption depends on the pref-
erences for particular fuel type, while Maren, Agontu and
Mangai (2013) carried out a study on the challenges of
energy security in Nigeria. They study established that,
the creation of a joint research effort between a foreign
institution, two or more institutions in Nigeria and renew-
able energy development professionals will bring about
the execution of research results into practice of on re-
newable energy. Oginni, Rominiyi and Eiche (2017) ana-
lyzed household energy consumption in Ekiti state, and
established that, fuel wood was the alternative energy
used by the various households to mitigate the impact of
the high cost of other domestic fuels. They omitted envi-
ronmental issues on unimproved/unclean energy fuels
especially for cooking and lighting (Okosun, et al., 2021).
Therefore, several gaps, however still exist, as none of the
studies sufficiently made rigorous investigation into con-
junctive domestic electric power supply among power
consumers in Ado-Ekiti. This research therefore looks at
citizen initiatives to attain domestic energy security.
2.0. The study area (Ado-Ekiti)
Ado-Ekiti, is the state capital of Ekiti states, Nigeria. It
existed long before the advent of British colonial rule in
Nigeria. It is one of the sixteen (16) Local Government
Areas that made up Ekiti state, Nigeria. It is a traditional
Nigeria city like other traditional Yoruba towns in the
country. The city situates in South Western part of Nige-
ria and capital of Ekiti State. It is located on latitude 70
40’ North of the equator and longitude 50 16’ East of the
Greenwich Meridian (Okosun et al., 2021). It lies at over
400 meters above the sea level in the south-eastern part of
Ireje stream and 500m above sea level in the northeast,
and has a land area of 265km2. It has a population of 438,
749 persons as at 2017 (Okosun, et al., 2021). Geograph-
ically, Ado-Ekiti occupies the area lying approximately
between Latitude 7o40’ North of the equator and longi-
tude 5o 16 East of the Greenwich Meridian. The creation
of Ekiti state in 1996 with Ado-Ekiti as the capital, made
the town to witness immense human growth which in-turn
had gives rise to greater demand for household energy
supply security. Currently the town is experiencing
household energy supply insufficiency, and affordability
3.0. Research methodology
This study was designed to provide an insight into the
search for electric energy supply security in residential
households of Ado-Ekiti. The study adopted a mixed
method that combines
To address the research objectives, the study
specifically investigated the socio-economic characteris-
tics of the residents (age, family size, educational status
and monthly income), sources of domestic electric power
supply using four (4) types of household electric power
supply, namely: lumos MTN electricity, solar inverter/
panel, generator, and public power supply with major
attention on lighting in the fourteen residential estates
(Table 2) used to examine the household electric energy
supply challenges of residents with a view to promoting
energy security in Ado-Ekiti.
4.0. Data collection method
The fourteen residential estates chosen constitute the sam-
ple frame for questionnaire administration for the study.
These includes Falegan, Ekute, Egbawa, Obasanjo, Fay-
ose, State housing, Abuja, Bawa, Alhaji Adeparusi, Fed-
eral housing, Shelter view, Irewolede, Federal housing
Table 2: Sampling in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
phase 2, and Ire-akari estates. The fourteen estates chosen
represented the three different classes of density zones in
Ado-Ekiti (the low, middle and high density zones respec-
tively). These estates were chosen using the simple random
sampling technique. Grid method was employed to divide
each estate into equal squares. Total number of residential
building in the selected residential estates was counted using
GIS and IKONOS Imagery. Simple and systematic random
sampling techniques were used to select buildings in the
study area. In this study, samples were draws from the
household population in the selected estates. Hence, 2.9%
of the household amounting to 1029 respondents from
estimated household population of 36,015 represents the
sample size for this study (see Table 2). Other infor-
mations for this research were sourced from the electrici-
ty providers in the town (BEDC), Housing agencies of
Governments, as well as interviews, Focused Group Dis-
cussions (FGDs) and Community Development Associa-
tions (CDAs) in the research locale.
The justification for the 2.9% (Okosun et al., 2021) was
based on the relative similarities in the characteristic of the
households (cultural composition, socio-economic classifi-
cations and physical layout characteristics), homogeneous
nature of the research case and in order to avoid repetition
of variables among other factors. The percentage captured
all interest groups in the study area. Table 2 shows sampling
of householdsheads in the study area. Copies of the ques-
tionnaires were administered to a total number of 1029
household heads/representative with 998 questionnaires
fully retrieved in usable form, and used for analysis which
represented 97% of the administered questionnaire as pre-
sented in Table 2 at 0.05 accuracy level. In each resident; a
direct visitation approach was used to initiate contacts with
participants on information relating to the study. The house-
hold heads in the study area was the target of this research.
For each estate chosen, the first house was picked at random
while the other were picked systematically at an interval of
5, until the required sample was obtained for each estate in
the study area. The sampling structure gave a good spatial
representation of the entire study area. Data collected were
analyzed using percentages and regression analysis. Fre-
quency distribution, figures and cross-tabulation were the
presentation tools used. The frequency distribution was used
to examined the challenges cost of electric energy supply of
the respondents.
5.0. Research findings and discussions
Analysis carried out on the main socio-economic character-
istics of the residents with regards to household energy sup-
ply/consumption in Ado-Ekiti (Table 3) using a combination
of variables including gender of residents, age, education,
monthly income, type of house, size of household and house
ownership. The result reveals that, gender of households
heads was predominantly males (54.6%), while the fe-
males constituted 45.4%. The survey sample of the re-
spondents, in the study area, was primarily made up of
adults (married), between 42-49 years of age (41.3%),
which depicts a high number of public servants, a key
criterion for modern cleaner energy (LPG and solar PV).
Within the households, the adult population of 42-49
years dominates at 41.3%, followed 34-41 years (22.2%),
senior citizens (50 and above) at 16.1% and 26-33 years
(15.0%). The result reveals further that, 51.7% of the
household have higher education (university/polytechnic/
college). On the other hand, 2.5% have no formal educa-
tion and 5.0% have secondary school certificate. In a de-
veloping economy, marked by high social exclusion, with
higher level of education, a learned person is better posi-
tioned in the society than illiterate, because they gets a
secured, safe and better occupation that attracts higher
income than the formal (Okosun et al., 2021). Therefore,
the higher the level of education, the higher the income
with resultant impacts on energy sources in households,
also the level of literacy (educational level) was closely
linked with the economic status of electricity end users, in
the study area. The attainment of higher education of the
residents influenced energy switching of the households,
and use of cleaner modern fuels in the city. The occupa-
tional characteristics of the residents, revealed that, ma-
jority were civil servants (46.9%). Judging from their
levels of income, majority (37.9%) of the respondents
earned between ₦50,001-₦80,000 monthly. However, 3
bedroom flat was the dominant (43.0%) housing type in
the residential estates of Ado-Ekiti, while 47.6% of the
residents had household size of seven (7) and above. Ma-
jority of the respondents (66.9%) in estates resided in
private houses, while 31.2% lived in rented buildings.
Name of Estate Total no. of house-
hold 2.9% of household
(Questionnaire Administered) Questionnaires Re-
trieved (97%)
Low Falegan 7,553 216 209
Ekute Quarters 7,336 210 203
Egbewa Layout 2,205 63 63
Medium Obasanjo 1,085 31 31
Fayose 700 20 20
Alhaji Adeparusi 399 11 11
Bawa 1,120 11 10
Abuja Quarters 399 32 32
State Housing 4,879 139 132
High Shelter View 2,800 80 78
Federal Housing 2 1,680 48 48
Federal Housing 3,374 97 95
Irewolede Housing 1,848 53 49
Ireakari 637 18 17
Total 36,015 1029 998
Source: Okosun et al., (2021)
Figure 1 showed that, households in Ado-Ekiti were en-
gaged in various activities that required the use of variety of
domestic electric power supply for cooling, heating and
lighting. The study identified four sources of modern do-
mestic electric sources in the residential neigbourhoods of
Ado-Ekiti; namely: public electricity (BEDC), generator,
solar PV, lumos MTN electricity. Analysis of the sources of
electricity in Ado-Ekiti showed that, public electricity had
the highest patronage of 65.2%, next was the use of genera-
tor (21.3%). Less prominent in the households was the use
of solar PV (7.9%). The least use was lumos MTN electrici-
ty (5.3%). This indicated that, most households in the city
used combination of various domestic electric power
sources for different purposes. For instance, a household
may use solar PV mainly for lighting and media, but may
use public electricity or generator for cooling and lighting,
while households that were unable to afford cleaner domes-
tic electric power supply opted for low quality fuels (using
local kerosene lamps and candle). It was further revealed
that, over half of the sample population were generator us-
ers. The survey also reveals that, in Ado-Ekiti; availability
was the most important factor to be considered as one in-
tends to change from one domestic electric power source to
another. This factor ranked highest (72.5%), followed by
convenience (61.9%). Other factors considered in the pro-
cess include: efficiency, cost, cleanliness and marketing.
Consideration of these variables is essential; therefore, ac-
cess to available domestic energy technologies will close the
gap on household energy burden. It is imperative to note
that, public electricity supply that is at the top of the energy
supply ladder is not always available, and when available,
the quality is not reliable. As observed, the non-reliability of
the grid-based system to meet current household electrici-
ty needs necessitates the use of other forms of domestic
electric power supply in Ado-Ekiti (Okosun et al., 2021).
Judging from the residents level of income, and produc-
tivity, the study revealed that, virtually all the residents,
using solar PV and lumos MTN electricity had a formal
education. Nonetheless, as level of education increases,
the proportion of people using kerosene stove and candle
for lighting decreases. From the social perceptive, the
type of domestic electric power sources, used by the peo-
ple was a reflection of the level of civilization attained.
socio-economic factors (income, educa-
tion, and age) cannot be separated from other influence on
domestic electric power supply security. From the forgo-
ing, age naturally correlates with resident income and
expenditure, which might influence electric power supply
source(s) in household. It is instructive that, earning a
higher income will translate into cleaner energy use and
choices in Ado-Ekiti town planning. The socio-economic
factors in relation to domestic electric power supply
types, used by the households were not closely linked to
energy choices. The domestic electric power supply secu-
rity study in Ado-Ekiti supports Wickramasinghe (2011)
and Okosun et al., (2021) assertion that, decisions on
electric energy sources for domestic use are made in rela-
tion to income for a majority of households that live be-
low or marginally above the poverty level. It is evident
that, higher educational levels created additional opportu-
nities for employment and higher income, which translat-
ed to the possibility of using modern energy source.
Table 3: Main socio-economic variables of respondents in the study area
Characteristics of respondents All (n=998)
Gender Male (54.6%), Female (45.4%)
Age [ mode (frequency)] 42-49 years (41.3%), 34-41 years (22.2%), 50 and above
Level of Education Tertiary Education (51.7%), Secondary Education (5.0%)
Occupation Civil servant (46.9%), Businessmen/women (28.7 %)
Monthly income [mode (frequency)] ₦50,001-₦80,000 (37.9%), ₦50,001-₦80,000 (19.8%)
Type of housing 3 bedroom flat (43.0%), 2 bedroom flat (21.0%)
Household size Seven (7) persons and above (47.6%)
House ownership Private (66.9%), Public (31.2%)
Source: Field survey, 2021
Figure 1: Distribution of respondents according to source(s) of electric power (N=998)
Source: Field survey, 2021
The International Energy Commission (IEC) in 2013, af-
firmed that, if electricity energy services cost is too high,
they will go beyond the reach of many consumers particu-
larly in developing nations. In this study, the monthly cost
(servicing and maintaining) of energy sources provided an
insight into the financial burden (public and self-generation)
of households disposable income. The trend as depicted in
Figure 2 shows that, cost/expenditure on energy in Ado-
Ekiti varies greatly between households (earning below
₦3000 and those earning above ₦9,000). In this study, a
large proportion of the respondents (53.9%) admitted that
they spend between ₦6001 and ₦9000 as monthly cost on
public electricity, regardless of source quantity or quality.
Field observation reveals that, many households in grid-
connected areas of Ado-Ekiti suffer constant disconnection
because they cannot pay their bills. The implication is that
some consumers will not be able to afford connection, or
subsequent payments for service which often resulted in
households providing alternative (combination of energy)
off grid-solution.
Of the total sampled households, about 50.5% reported that,
generator use is the most expensive (above ₦9000) house-
hold energy to maintain as opposed to other sources (Figure
2). The amount spent on fuel and maintenance of generator
increases the expenditure that goes to energy utilities cou-
pled with the risk involved like air pollution and noise (Aba,
2009). For cleaner household energy supply, majority of the
respondents spent between ₦3001-₦6000 on solar PV
(50.0%), while 49.2% spend same amount on lumos
MTN electricity on a monthly basis as supplements to
other form of energy sources. The non-reliability of the
public electricity supply makes only a few households
(urban poor), reported using kerosene as back-up for
lighting lantern; its use became critical to fulfilling house-
holds end-use demand and desire for energy services.
Sufficiency and improvement in the quality of power sup-
ply infrastructure will significantly improved the living
standards of the people and lessen the burden on their
disposable income and budgets of households (poor and
non-poor). Findings revealed that, private generators were
costlier than the grid electricity. Field observation re-
vealed that, it was difficult for the residents to earned a
good living or survive under present economy in Ekiti
state. Focus group discussion revealed that, cost of do-
mestic electric power supply was too expensive, when the
average income of households is considered. This brings
the need for the governments financial incentives or to
encourage the local manufacturers, in order to bridge the
gap between renewable electric energy affordability (cost)
and availability for the high, middle and low income earn-
ers in the country. In contrast to Figure 1 above, findings
showed that, among the rich, the use of solar panels to
argument public power supply was common. The middle
class combined generators with public supply. The poor
were content to use candles and kerosene lamps when
public supply failed.
Figure 2: Distribution of respondents according to cost of electric power supply (N=998)
Source: Field survey, 2021
From the result in Figure 3, majority of the respondents as-
serted that, domestic energy, including electric power sup-
ply to homes of her citizens had not received the needed
government attention/intervention as opposed to water facil-
ity, school and sanitation. As narrated, the shortfall in grid
electricity was the drive behind pervasive reliance on costly
off-grid sources. From the Focused Group Discussion and
Key Informants Interview, electrical facilities were old,
thus, contributed to the epileptic supply of electric power in
the study area. In order to improve residential household
energy security in Ado-Ekiti, respondents showed an over-
whelming support for government interventions in the prior-
itization of solar energy as a first choice option (51.0%),
followed by public electricity (35.5%) as second choice. At
the household domain, solar energy was the most attractive
and needed domestic energy among all ages and income
groups (the low, medium and high) due to its low carbon
impact, indefinite supply and economic benefits (Nicole and
Wendell, 2015). The reason, LPG (gas) was lowly rated
as a first choice energy source for government interven-
tion was because, majority of the respondents already had
it. The interview with the manager, Royal Gas Plant
(LPG) asserted that, subsidies (government) are urgently
desirable to encourage the use of cooking gas which is a
cleaner energy. Its use among others should include tax
reduction in order to encourage entrepreneurs (investors)
into the state economy. Another LPG Vendor shed more
lights, and was of the view that, multiple taxations by the
Government of Ekiti State is an impediment to LPG af-
fordability and availability both in demand and supply in
Ado-Ekiti. Numerous taxes by government agencies af-
fect clean energy business (David, 2014). Responses for
prioritization of modern kerosene stove for cooking and
water heating constituted 4.5%, the least desired interven-
tion among lower income households in Ado-Ekiti was
energy efficient house (2.0%). The dwellers acknowl-
edged that, solar energy had high initial installation and op-
erating costs. The interviews, which comprised of the re-
spondents, Focus Group Discussions and Community De-
velopment Associations, called for policies that will aid
clean fuel subsidies on a monthly basis such as solar energy
for lighting. This implies that, subsidies are essential in the
planning of energy intervention programs. This trend has the
propensity to affect current energy consumption patterns in
Ado-Ekiti, as prioritization strategy was politically and so-
cially embraced to ensure residential household energy se-
curity. Prioritization as a similitude of energy poverty reduc-
tion strategies might induce investment in stable energy
supply technologies in the city. Governmental intervention
in solar energy and electricity prioritization was the major
driver behind the transition of clean household energy in
South Africa (David, 2014), its generation capacity was
about 58 thousand megawatts for it 58 million popula-
tions which is high in comparison to the Nigerian electric-
ity energy, with a far higher population of 200 million
that generates less than 4 thousand (>4,000) megawatts,
twelve times compare to the South Africas generation
capacity. Therefore, research into cleaner and modern
energy development is encouraged; in order to create an
enabling environment for acquisition of the modern ener-
gy services in cities.
Figure 3: Respondents choice on domestic energy supply government should prioritise
Source: Field survey, 2021
Two clean energy distribution models were the stated strate-
gy in the study environs, namely outright individual owner-
ship of generating equipments and pay deposit then monthly
maintenance fees. Results in Figure 4 showed that, majority
of the residents in Ado-Ekiti preferred outright individual
ownership of cleaner household energy generating equip-
ment/system (83.1%), such as a solar home system rather
than communal ownership or part-payment. Residents do
not mind spending extra up front to secure modern equip-
ments or kits on the assertion that, they save on recurring
operational costs. The findings further revealed that, low
proportion of the respondents (3.3%), strongly opposed
the motion, while majority was in support (37.0%) of the
second model, which is pay deposit and monthly mainte-
nance fees. By implication, the need for clean household
energy facilities for citizens was strongly supported by all
residents in the study. Government strategy effort towards
clean energy model distribution was key to ameliorating
household energy security in bongo district of Ghana
(Aba, 2014).
Figure 4: Degree of support (responses) on the preferred cleaner household energy supply distribution strategy and model in order to
improve electric power supply
Source: Field survey, 2021
Governmental policy options on whether to subsidize pur-
chase of household energy equipmentor to provide month-
ly fuel subsidies only were strongly supported (63.4%) by
the households. Support for the third strategy option of
lower taxes for cleaner household energy/fuelswas lower
at about 19.9%. On the other hand, 10.2% of the residents
strongly opposed the motion of reduction of taxes (Figure
5). The findings were in conformity with the work of David,
(2014) and WRI, (2017), who opined that, free cleaner
energy sources equipment in households of South-Africa
and free prepaid meters in households of India raised
household income in their transition to modern energy/
fuel. The stated preference of the people in Ado-Ekiti
includes willingness to adopt solar energy for lighting,
entertainments and cooling when income improves or
price reduces. Most participants, comprising residents and
stakeholders (FGD, CDAs) were of the belief that, govern-
ment prioritize policies should effectively contribute to the
success of renewable energy use in the area. Three of the
interviewees revealed that, the cost of renewable energy
used to produce electric power supply was too expensive;
when the residentsincome is considered. This implies that,
the governments financial incentives and local manufactur-
ers will address the disparity in income. Accordingly,
increase in residents income, will likely lead to extra
purchase of electrical appliances and close the current gap
in household electricity consumption (kWh), duration and
expenditure on grid and off-grid energy sources as em-
phasised by the landlord/tenants association in Ekute and
Figure 5: Degree of support for different household energy supply strategy/policy options
Source: Field survey, 2021
Durability is most important attribute to building consumer
trust when shopping for a household energy supply technol-
ogy (55.9 percent), followed by safety (21.5 percent) and
price (10.6 percent). Therefore, the quality of a product
overrides other product specific attributes when choosing a
good household energy technology (David, 2014). The re-
spondents reckon that, cheaply priced inferior products
would break up quickly and therefore cost more in the long
run. The finding is apt as solar energy just like LPG devel-
opers tend to lay greater emphasis on price rather than quali-
ty. Certification for new quest of technologies should re-
quire designers and developers to conduct durability test
with a sample of intended users in field operating conditions
for at least four months. This trend above is important in
directing where governmental and entrepreneurs interven-
tions on household energy should prioritise.
6.0. Recommendation and conclusion
It is evident from the empirical work carried out in this
study that, households in Ado-Ekiti do not receive adequate
domestic electric power supply and are adversely affected
by the poor public electricity supply provided by the
BEDC. To curtail the menace, strategies directed toward
institutional framework of governments on energy reform
be directed at nationalisation, adequate funding of power
sector (grid) and decentralization is proposed to give
room for growth and efficient services (Figure 7), in order
to address the household energy challenges in Ado-Ekiti.
The reform should create long-term participation, and
metrics should be designed to measure outcomes. For
instance, the reform should be measured by how many
citizens have gained access to reliable and adequate elec-
tricity supply. Regarding the demand phase of the man-
agement process in production of sufficient and efficient
services in Ado-Ekiti, good policies and innovation in
technology are essential. In this direction, renewable en-
ergy solutions such as solar power is recommended. Ad-
equate funding of the power sector (grid) is also needed
for relevant agencies to improve the energy sector of the
Figure 7: Suggested energy reform approach to establishing electricity development linkages in the study area
Determine generation capacity
(megawatts/kWh) through strategy,
policy and establish consensus for
cooperation between electricity and
other sectors.
Increase the performance of the elec-
tricity service that embraces availa-
bility, safer and convenient use of
power supply to end-users
Nationalization Decentralization of grid
Establish transition to competitive energy
markets. (Open electricity markets to
fair competition
Adequate funding of power sector
In the following, partial lists of potential cleaner electric
energy prospect in Nigeria and Ado-Ekiti are presented:
Full usage of solar technologies in the residential, com-
mercial, and industrial sectors.
Monitor price support mechanisms for cleaner fuel to
ensure they reach their target groups and costs do not
exceed benefits.
Use of energy-efficient appliances for lighting and cool-
Implementation of renewable resource as a domestic
Transition to natural gas and development of infrastruc-
ture to distribute natural gas to industries located at sites
remote from the existing pipelines.
Take advantage of global partnerships, such as the Resi-
dential Energy Efficiency Project initiative of UK and
Canada and South Africa, to assist the country in a crea-
tive integration towards energy security development
and of renewable energy systems.
Cleaner household energy efficiency facilities should be
embraced in the different sectors of the Nigerian econo-
Warning, from the government through the Ministry of
Environment, and the Regulation Enforcement Agency
should stop those residing in the city from using the two
-stroke generator, often referred as I-better-pass-my-
neighbor (650VA generator) in which you mix engine
oil with petrol in same tank, because of the danger the
smoke poses to the air and environment. Firstly, the
government is advised to put in place measures to ban
importation and sale of the generators, making citizens
to desist from using the generating sets to embrace solar
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Household energy, coping strategies and health effects in the Bongo district of Ghana. A PhD thesis
  • O Aba
Aba, O, A. (2009): Household energy, coping strategies and health effects in the Bongo district of Ghana. A PhD thesis, Department of Planning, Kwame Nkrumah University, Ghana.
Establishment, growth and regional impact of Ado-Ekiti
  • W O Adebayo
  • A A Adefolalu
Adebayo, W. O. and Adefolalu, A. A. (1993). Establishment, growth and regional impact of Ado-Ekiti. In: