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DEVELOPING READING WORKSHEET BASED ON TASKBASED LANGUAGE TEACHING TO TEACH STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION FOR THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS AT SMA NEGERI 3 MEDAN

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to develop reading worksheet based on taskbased language teaching to teach students’ reading comprehension for tenth grade students at sma negeri 3 medan. This study was conducted by using Research and Development design through six stages; gathering data and information, need analysis, materials development, validating by experts, revising, and final product. The subject of the study was the tenth-grade students in SMA Negeri 3 Medan. The data were gathered by reviewing documents, conducting an interview with the English teacher, and distributing the students' needs analysis questionnaires to X MIA 2 consists of 35 students to get the students’ needs. The interview and questionnaire results proved that the students needed reading worksheet based on task-based language teaching. The developed reading worksheets were validated by two experts which scored 3.77 and 3.87 on average. The scores approved that the reading worksheet based on task-based language teaching were very valid and suitable to use for the tenth-grade students in SMA Negeri 3 Medan. The result of the product was distributed to the students through bit.ly/TBLTworksheetKey words: Development, Reading, Worksheet, Task-Based Language Teaching.
DEVELOPING READING WORKSHEET BASED ON TASK-
BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING TO TEACH STUDENTS’
READING COMPREHENSION FOR THE TENTH GRADE
STUDENTS AT SMA NEGERI 3 MEDAN
AN ARTICLE
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan
By
NURHANIFA LUBIS
Registration Number. 2163321036
ENGLISH AND LITERATURE DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS
STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN
2021
DEVELOPING READING WORKSHEET BASED ON TASK-
BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING TO TEACH STUDENTS’
READING COMPREHENSION FOR THE TENTH GRADE
STUDENTS AT SMA NEGERI 3 MEDAN
*Nurhanifa Lubis
**Dr. Anni Holila Pulungan, M.Hum
ABSTRACT
Nurhanifa Lubis, 2163321036. Developing Reading Worksheet based on
Task-Based Language Teaching to Teach Students’ Reading Comprehension
for Tenth Grade Students at SMA Negeri 3 Medan. A Thesis, English
Educational Program, Faculty Language and Arts, State University of
Medan, 2021.
The objective of this study was to develop reading worksheet based on task-
based language teaching to teach students’ reading comprehension for tenth
grade students at sma negeri 3 medan. This study was conducted by using
Research and Development design through six stages; gathering data and
information, need analysis, materials development, validating by experts, revising,
and final product. The subject of the study was the tenth-grade students in SMA
Negeri 3 Medan. The data were gathered by reviewing documents, conducting an
interview with the English teacher, and distributing the students' needs analysis
questionnaires to X MIA 2 consists of 35 students to get the students’ needs. The
interview and questionnaire results proved that the students needed reading
worksheet based on task-based language teaching. The developed reading
worksheets were validated by two experts which scored 3.77 and 3.87 on average.
The scores approved that the reading worksheet based on task-based language
teaching were very valid and suitable to use for the tenth-grade students in SMA
Negeri 3 Medan. The result of the product was distributed to the students through
bit.ly/TBLTworksheet
Key words: Development, Reading, Worksheet, Task-Based Language Teaching.
*Graduate Status
**Lecturer Status
I. INTRODUCTION
There are four skills in English that students need to acquire as
the basis to be able to use English. These skills are listening, speaking,
reading, and writing. Reading is one of the four language skills taught
to learners of English. It cannot be learned quickly and effortlessly.
Mickulecky & Jeffries (2004) state that reading is very important since
it can enhance students’ general language skills in English; assisting
students to think in English, enlarging students’ English vocabulary,
improving their writing, and it can be a good way to obtain about new
ideas, facts and experiences. Therefore, on the basis of this opinion,
reading skill has been viewed as something that can help students to
enrich their insight in English language. Harmer (2003) also mentions
thatthe ability to read texts in English is important as a bridge to
understand the textbook. Reading is also one of the skills that is
expected to be mastered by students in the 2013 curriculum.
There are many factors that can influence in English teaching
and learning process, and one of them is the worksheet. Triantoro
(2009) states that students’ worksheet is a student guidance to conduct
investigation or problem solving. It is also can be used to facilitate
teacher in providing a practice and to enhance students’ understanding.
Therefore, worksheet can be used as a platform for students to know
their ability in the learning process. Worksheet is also can be
extremely helpful for teachers to know their students’ progress in
learning process, it can be a parameter whether a student has
understood one particular topic or not.
In Indonesia, based on the 2013 curriculum worksheet should
possess the stages of the approach that it used. So that it will identify
students’ understanding from the learning process in the classroom
which also is based on certain approach. One of the approaches in
teaching is task-based language teaching. Moore (2018) states Task-
based language teaching (TBLT) is a broadly defined approach to
language teaching research and practice which uses task as a unit of
analysis for research and practice in communicative language teaching.
Yongliang & Shipp (2009) state that the students will have a much
more varied exposure to language with task-based language teaching.
They will be exposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations
and patterns as well as language forms.
When it comes to reading, this is particularly important that the
students can comprehend the text fully from thelexical phrases,
collocations and patterns as well as language forms. It is in line to what
Yongliang & Shipp (2009) stated previously. Rozati (2014) claims that
in all of these activities we are looking for one goal which is making
students independent of the language to achieve that goal. It means that
all of the tasks in task-based language teaching approach will initiate
the students to synthesize the goal of their language learning
independently. This can be shown from the stages of TLBT which
include report, analysis and practice in which the students will explore
the materials from the tasks.
Rozati (2014) states that the more task-based approach is
studied the more necessity for sequencing of activities is observed.
Therefore, the more worksheets use task-based language teaching
approach the more stages of exercises that are done by the students
will be observed.
However, based on the reconnaissance data from the
observation that has been done by researcher to worksheets used in
SMA Negeri 3 Medan, it was found that the worksheet used in SMA
Negeri 3 Medan for the tenth grade does not provide more varied
exposure to language compare to task-based language teaching.
The worksheet used in SMA Negeri 3 Medan does not possess
any particular stages of language teaching approach. There is no
particular approach used in the worksheet, the worksheet simply
displaying some summaries of the materials and then directly followed
by practices or tasks. This kind of worksheet is overly-simplified;
students are expected to answer the questions written in the worksheet.
This will not help the students to synthesize the goal of their language
learning because this kind of worksheet is only used as a mean to score
students not to make them understand the goals of their learning.
Because it does not encourage the students to explore the goal of their
language learning process independently because the students just
simply answer the questions with no particular outcome of the activity.
And also students are not free to use which grammar or vocabulary
that they want because they simply choose the answer because most of
the practices are multiple choices.
Halimah (2015) says that the use of worksheet is really crucial
in teaching and learning process to increase understanding and
comprehension of students, therefore a worksheet that can provide a
platform for students to increase understanding and comprehension of
students is highly needed. Che-Di Lee (2014) also shows that
worksheets increase students’ understanding and achievements and
worksheets can be developed at conceptual basis for materials that are
difficult to understand. Hence, the use of worksheet is really important
in the process of learning as it can increase the students’
understanding towards the lesson.
Shabania & Ghasemi (2014) say that learners who were taught
reading comprehension through task-based language teaching (TBLT)
outperformed those learners who were taught reading comprehension
through other approach. Such a result can be justified by considering
some outstanding characteristics about the nature of task based
language teaching and its effectiveness in EFL contexts. Task-based
approach is a powerful and advancing learning method. It promotes
learning language knowledge and training skills in the process of
performing tasks. Teachers are both instructors and guides. Similarly,
learners are both receivers and main agents. It is via TBLT that
learners will master how to make full use of their own communicative
abilities to shift from L1 to the target language. It presents a chance for
them to learn cooperatively and interactively. Therefore TBLT is a
really helpful approach in which it can advance the learning method.
However, current existing worksheet cannot really provide
students with such benefits. It is only a matter of answering the
questions provided in the worksheet. It cannot explore students’ ability
to make full use of their own communicative abilities in language. The
existing worksheet does not give them a chance for students to learn
cooperatively and interactively which will result that students cannnot
explore more on thei language skills.
Therefore a more explorative worksheet is needed in SMA
Negeri 3 Medan so that the students will be able to explore their
language process independently and they will be able to synthesizethe
goal of their language learning. Hence, researcher is intrigued to
develop reading worksheet for the students of grade ten in SMA
Negeri 3 Medan. This worksheet will be made based on the task-based
language teaching approach and also will be made based on the needs
of the students.
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
a. Worksheet
Belawati (2007: 3: 27) says that student worksheet is a
teaching material that has been packaged in such a way so that
students are expected to learn the teaching material independently.
Students’ worksheet is a series of task laid out in the form of
questions. By answering these questions, students are able to
master the materials they studied. Ladyawati (2009) states that
students’ worksheet is a series of task with questions that make
students in working on get it done. Preparation of students’
worksheet intended to provide ease of students in understanding
the materials taught in the learning process. From the definitions
above, it can be concluded that students worksheet is a way to
assist and facilitate in the learning activities that will form an
effective interaction between students and teachers and may
increase the activity of students in the improvement of learning
achievement.
Prastowo (2001: 204), worksheet is a teaching material
printed in the form of sheets of paper containing materials,
summaries and instructions of the implementation of learning tasks
that must be performed by learners which refers to the basic
competencies that must be achieved. In addition, the student
worksheet contain several aspect such as title, basic competence,
allocation time, brief information, instructions, tasks to perform
and the report to make. It includes instructions, guidance and
understanding questions so that the students could widen and
deepen their understanding of the material being studied.
Therefore, it can be considered that student worksheet is a source
of learning which form of sheets containing briefly material,
learning objectives, the instructions do the questions and a number
of questions that must be answered by students. It can be
concluded that student worksheet contain several aspects such as
title, basic competence, allocation time, brief information,
instruction, task to perform and the report to make.
Prastowo (2001: 208), there are five types of students’
worksheet which are generally used by learners, namely:
1. Student worksheet that helps learners to find a
concept
2. Student worksheet that helps learners to apply and
integrate the various concepts that have been found
3. Student worksheet that serves as a study guide
4. Student worksheet that serves as a reinforcement
5. Student worksheet that serves as a practical guide
b. Reading
Nuttal (2002: 2) states that reading means a result of
interaction between the writer’s mind and reader’s mind. It is the
way how the reader tries to get the message or the intended
meaning from the writer. In this process, the reader tries to
create the meanings intended by the writer, the reader can get
the message and the writer’s meaning sense.
Pang (2003: 6) reading is defined as understanding
written texts. He says that reading consists of two related
processes: word recognition and comprehension. Word
recognition is defined as the process of getting how written
symbols correspond to one’s spoken language while
comprehension is the process of making the meaning of words,
sentences and connected text. He adds his statement that the
reader who has background knowledge, vocabulary,
grammatical knowledge, experience with text and other
strategies can help them understand written texts.
c. Recount Text
Anderson (1997: 49) mentions that a recount is a piece
of text retells past events, usually in the order in which they
happened. It has a purpose in which it gives the audience a
description of what occurred and when it occurred. Knapp and
Watkins (2005: 223) also say that a recount is a sequential text
that does little more than sequencing a series of events. It is the
simplest type of narrative genre. A recount is different from a
narrative text in terms of the problems in the sequence of events.
Another view comes from Recount can be in the form of letters,
newspaper reports, conversations, speeches, television
interviews and eyewitness account.
Anderson (1997: 53) states that a recount text has three
main parts:
1. Orientation; It gives background information about
who, what, where, and when.
2. A series of paragraphs; It consists of paragraphs
which retell the events in the order in which they
happened.
3. Re-orientation (optional); It is a paragraph that
contains a personal comment.
In conclusion, a recount text tells the reader what
happened in the past. It begins with an orientation which tells
the reader who was involved, what happened, where this event
took place and when it happened. Then, the sequences of events
are described in some sort of order e.g. time. Last, it may be a
reorientation at the end which summarizes the event.
Since each type has its own specific purpose, there are
slight differences in each language features of the text.
Generally, recount will focus on specific participants, the use of
temporal sequence, the use of simple past tense, the use of
action verbs (material process), and the existence of linking
words to do with time (circumstances of time) and place.
Normally, details irrelevant to the purpose of the text should be
avoided.
d. Reading Recount Text
Based on the syllabus, there are two standard
competitions for recount text based on its language skills:
1. Menangkap makna secara kontekstual terkait fungsi sosial,
struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks recount lisan dan
tulis terkait peristiwa bersejarah
2. Menyusun teks recount lisan dan tulis, pendek dan
sederhana, terkait peristiwa bersejarah, dengan
memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur
kebahasaan, secara benar dan sesuai konteks
As can be seen from the first standard competency, it
demands the students to be able to catch the meaning. Looking
at it from the language skill perspective, it is in line with the
receptive skills which are Reading and Listening.
Based on first standard competency, it is also demanded
the students to be able to catch the contextual meaning. As
recount text is a text that retells a past event, Reading and
listening involve receiving information and so they are called
the receptive skills. Speaking and writing are known as
the productive skills because they involve producing words,
phrases, sentences and paragraphs. most of the contextual
meanings will circulate around the specific or general
information about the past event. Hence, it can be concluded
that reading recount text is a skill which functions to find out
meanings regarding specific and general information about the
past event from the recount text.
e. Task-Based Language Teaching
Richard and Rodgers (2001, p. 223) define TBLT as
follows, “TBLT refers to an approach based on the use of tasks
as the core unit of planning and instruction in language
teaching.” This means that in the implementation of TBLT
learners are mainly presented with a task or problem to solve.
Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT) has been a recent
expansion of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and
has become a popular method to use to teach second language
communicative acquisition (Dailey, 2009). According to Ellis
(2003, p. 65), “TBLT is mostly about the social interaction
established between learners as a source of input and means of
acquisition, and involves the negotiation of meaning,
communication strategies, and communication effectiveness”.
Willis (1996) suggests a model for the use of TBLT in
the classroom. This consists of:
1. Pre-task activity
An introduction to topic and task in this stage
the teacher introduces and defines the topic and the
learners engage in activities that either helps them to
recall words and phrases that will be useful during the
performance of the main task or to learn new words and
phrases that are essential to the task.
2. Task cycle
Task cycle consists of Task > Planning >
Report. Here the learners perform the task (typically a
reading or listening exercise or a problem-solving
exercise) in pairs or small groups. They then prepare a
report for the whole class on how they did the task and
what conclusions they reached.
3. Post-task
The final stage is the language focus stage,
during which specific language features from the task
are highlighted and worked on. Feedback on the
learners’ performance at the reporting stage may also
be appropriate at this point.
The main advantages of TBLT are that language
is used for a genuine purpose, meaning that real
communication should take place, and that at the stage
where the learners are preparing their report for the
whole class, they are forced to consider language form
in general rather than concentrating on a single form (as
in the PPP model).
III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research was conducted by using Educational Research
and Development (R&D) method. Borg and Gall (2003: 569),
Educational Research and Development (R&D) is an industry-based
development model in which findings of research are used to design
new products and procedures, which systematically field-tested,
evaluated, and refined to meet the specifies criteria of effectiveness,
quality or similar standard.
IV. DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
A. The data
In qualitative research, collecting the data mostly is done in
participant observation, depth interview, and documentation. In
correlation with this study, the researcher will use the questionnaire
and interview as the instruments of data collection. The questionnaires
will be developed based on the theory proposed by Hutchinson and
Waters (1987) and Nunan (2004). Interviews will be carried out to the
teacher teaching in class in order to derive the suitable materials. To
comply with the questionnaires, interviews also will be conducted to
the students at SMA Negeri 3 Medan.
B. Data Analysis
The analyzed data is the results of students’ need analysis and
existing materials from the hand book used for the tenth-grade
students during the process of teaching and learning at SMA Negeri 3
Medan in order to plan the proper worksheet needed by the students.
The data was attained through the theory of Creswell (2014). The data
was analyzed through these following steps:
1. Organize and prepare the data for analysis. In this research, this
step involves obtaining the syllabus, textbook, lesson plan, and
existing reading worksheet, conducting interviews, and
distributing the students' need analysis questionnaire.
2. Investigate the data. This step includes analyzing all the
collected data prepared in the first step, transcribing the
conducted interviews, and gathering the distributed
questionnaire.
3. Coding. Coding is the process of developing data from the
description and organizes the meanings into clusters of themes.
4. Interpretation. This step elaborates on how the description and
cluster of themes will be represented in the research.
5. Confirmation. In this phase, the researcher will confirm the
interpretations by matching them with the percentages on the
clusters.
6. The last step is the presentation which will have the researcher
write an inclusive description of the analysis as the result.
C. Discussion
This study aims to develop reading worksheet based on task-
based language teaching to teach students’ reading comprehension for
tenth grade students at SMA Negeri 3 Medan. The worksheet was
developed since based on the preliminary data collected from an
interview with an English teacher in SMA Negeri 3 Medan, there had
been no worksheet based on task-based language teaching nor
worksheet that can explore students’ ability in comprehending a
written recount text used in the teaching of recount text in the school.
Meanwhile Chappell and Craft (2009) state that student worksheet is
part of the teaching materials that can be used to develop thinking
skills, asking and answering questions, making connections and
assessing the improvement in learning outcomes of students.
A needs analysis was conducted in order to create a digital
game that would be applicable and fit the students’ settings. The needs
analysis was meant to find out both the target needs and learning
needs of the students. Target needs covered goal, necessities, lacks
and wants of the students. Meanwhile, the learning needs covered the
learning input, procedures, settings, and learner’s role.
After getting the information about the students’ needs,
researcher started to design and develop the worksheet to fit with the
students’ settings.
Next step was validation. Two experts were appointed as the
validators for this product. The first expert was Dr. Isli Indah Iriani
Pane, S.Pd., M.Hum who is a lecturer in English and literature
department in UNIMED, and the second expert was Ruwaida
Sulaiman, S.Pd., M.Hum who is an English teacher in SMA Negeri 3
Medan. The first expert’s average score is 94.4, meaning that the
product is valid, and the second expert’s average score was 96.8,
meaning that the product was very valid to be used.
There were also some suggestions given by the first expert
which were to put the source of citation of the recount text, preferably
the recount text is the one who discuss about historical events in North
Sumatera, to input pictures in the worksheet and to change the options
of the questions to be synonym instead of the literal indonesian
translation
After revising the product according to the suggestions that
had been given, the worksheet was finalized and complete. The
worksheet itself is now ready to be used. It can be accessed on
bit.ly/TBLTWorksheet.
V. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Conclusion
The researcher concludes that there had been no workshet
based on task-based language teaching used in the teaching of recount
text in SMA Negeri 3 Medan. The students found it difficult to
produce a recount text and they wanted to be more active in learning
recount text. They also wanted to use a worksheet that can help them
to explore their ability in comprehending a written recount text.
Hence, researcher got intrigued to develop a worksheet that can be
used to teach recount text for these students.. There were 4 aspects
that were judged by the validators which were linguistic, process,
product and content, and layout. The average score by the first
validator was 94.4 which mean that the worksheet is very valid, and
the average score by the second validator was 98.6 which mean that
the worksheet is very valid.
B. Suggestions
In line with the conclusion above, some suggestions are
recommended as follows:
1. It is suggested that the newly developed reading worksheet
based on task-based language teaching should be applied by the
English teacher to accommodate the process of teaching and
learning listening of recount text for the tenth-grade students in
SMA Negeri 3 Medan.
2. It is suggested that the English teacher should be more
responsive to the need of the students, teacher also should be
able to provide worksheets that can hone students’ higher-order
thinking skill and reading comprehension.
3. Due to limited time, this research only develops reading
worksheet for the recount text genre. Therefore, it is expected to
other researchers to develop reading worksheet for other genres
and other grades.
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