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Engagement of Accounting Students in Learning Environment with the Implementation of Authentic-Based Multimedia in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

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Abstract

The demand for university education to produce good graduate students for emerging nations to deal with global adjustments in the learning environment looks to be increasing as global technological advancements accelerate. Although, educational institutions could evolve technologically to increase students' potential to differentiate, particularly in mathematics and vocational education. As Accounting is concerned, it is one of the undergraduate courses that incorporate learning from other disciplines as well as vocational education. Nevertheless, student outcomes in accounting have remained inadequate, owing to high dropout rates and low engagement due to insufficient teaching techniques, resulting in weak sensory thinking skills needed for success. therefore, the purpose of this article is to bridge the gap by investigating an authentic-based multimedia learning environment to improve student engagement in the teaching of accounting education in Nigerian higher institutions. Constructivist learning methodologies are being investigated in conjunction with Mayer's cognitive theory of multimedia learning, cognitive engagement theories, and behavioral engagement theories in order to solve these challenges, which is critical for engaging students in many emerging nations. For this analysis, 90 respondents were chosen from a total population of 120 undergraduate accounting students. Data was collected through questionnaire surveys and semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions. The study's results are important for instructors and administrators who seek to increase student participation in multimedia learning environments in their classroom teaching. Future studies could emphasize on the difficulties of adopting authentic-based multimedia learning while keeping students engaged. To conclude, the federal government, higher education officials, curriculum designers, and accounting teachers are all working together to boost student engagement in Nigeria's multimedia learning environment, as shown in this article.
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Education Quarterly
Reviews
Olufunke, O. T., Harun, J. B., & Zakaria, M. A. Z. B. M. (2022).!Engagement of
Accounting Students in Learning Environment with the Implementation of
Authentic-Based Multimedia in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. Education
Quarterly Reviews, 5(1), 118-125.
ISSN 2621-5799
DOI: 10.31014/aior.1993.05.01.423
The online version of this article can be found at:
https://www.asianinstituteofresearch.org/
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118
The Asian Institute of Research
Education Quarterly Reviews
Vol.5, No.1, 2022: 118-125
ISSN 2621-5799
Copyright © The Author(s). All Rights Reserved
DOI: 10.31014/aior.1993.05.01.423
Engagement of Accounting Students in Learning Environment
with the Implementation of Authentic-Based Multimedia in
Nigerian Tertiary Institutions
Olusola-Fadumiye Titilope Olufunke1, Jamalludin B Harun2, Megat Aman Zahiri bin Megat Zakaria3
1,2,3 Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Abstract
The demand for university education to produce good graduate students for emerging nations to deal with global
adjustments in the learning environment looks to be increasing as global technological advancements accelerate.
Although, educational institutions could evolve technologically to increase students' potential to differentiate,
particularly in mathematics and vocational education. As Accounting is concerned, it is one of the undergraduate
courses that incorporate learning from other disciplines as well as vocational education. Nevertheless, student
outcomes in accounting have remained inadequate, owing to high dropout rates and low engagement due to
insufficient teaching techniques, resulting in weak sensory thinking skills needed for success. therefore, the
purpose of this article is to bridge the gap by investigating an authentic-based multimedia learning environment to
improve student engagement in the teaching of accounting education in Nigerian higher institutions. Constructivist
learning methodologies are being investigated in conjunction with Mayer's cognitive theory of multimedia
learning, cognitive engagement theories, and behavioral engagement theories in order to solve these challenges,
which is critical for engaging students in many emerging nations. For this analysis, 90 respondents were chosen
from a total population of 120 undergraduate accounting students. Data was collected through questionnaire
surveys and semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions. The study's results are important for instructors
and administrators who seek to increase student participation in multimedia learning environments in their
classroom teaching. Future studies could emphasize on the difficulties of adopting authentic-based multimedia
learning while keeping students engaged. To conclude, the federal government, higher education officials,
curriculum designers, and accounting teachers are all working together to boost student engagement in Nigeria's
multimedia learning environment, as shown in this article.
Keywords: Authentic-Based Multimedia, Engagement, Learning Environment, Skills, Accounting Education
1. Introduction
Technology as scientific knowledge is applied in practical ways to produce new things, as well as the distinct
capacity to construct or build things. Also, nobody can doubt that technology is significant and plays an essential
part in today’s learning environment. Sawang et al. (2017) asserted that technology's progress is a standard in the
learning process as many researchers are attempting to improve the learning process using technology as a means
of improving students' attitude, involvement, and imaginative thinking. Students' engagement, confidence, and
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pleasure are increased when technology is used in the teaching and learning process (Wang & Tseng, 2018).
Multimedia activities have been incorporated into the engagement method of teaching, which will aid in the
development of the students' intellectual thinking skills during the learning process. Therefore, in this regard, it is
relevant to use technology in the classroom to improve students' learning environments. Whereby, learning is
shown to be more successful when done using pictures and information rather than just words. Although
technology has a significant influence on learning and some teachers are hesitant to include it into their curriculum
(Chen, 2010). Multimedia learning is an effective technique of learning in today's world since it captures learners'
attention and aids in the development of their comprehension of certain subjects. Which is one of the finest
teaching strategies since it engages and arouses more than one sense at the same time, as it recognises the senses
of vision and hearing while presenting varied stimuli (Bhutto et al., 2018). Although, there is no perfect way to
improve student engagement in the learning environment, but technological teaching strategies have been shown
to increase student engagement in a large class with the effectiveness of innovations to learning outcomes,
transforming the traditional method of teaching into a very effective learning approach in the classroom (Martin
& Bolliger, 2018). Effective learning, on the other hand, exists when the student is focused on the cognitive process
of learning. Lock & Duggleby, (2017) asserted that the implementation and support of genuine learning in the
world teaching is complicated, necessitating a degree of uncertainty in opening up educational techniques to
solutions such as thinking about real challenges while engaging students with the potential to learn relevantly by
connecting effectively with different peers. Whereas, students' usage of technology media inside the university
setting to distribute knowledge through accessible means was linked to difficulties with learning engagement in
this study. However, when the multimedia is misapplied and insufficiently given to students, learning can be
hampered, contributing to a lack of comprehension of the students' interest and drive to study efficiently in the
educational setting (Bond & Bedenlier, 2019). As a result, using an authentic-based learning environment will
give significant support for students to be able to create the needed abilities in the actual world, free of distractions,
dissatisfaction, and difficulties in classroom learning environment.
2. Literature review
2.1. Engagement through multimedia authentic-based learning
Various research findings have revealed that multimedia can convey knowledge and receive information, while
also supporting students in creating visualizations of the genuine learning environment that are either untapped or
underutilized (Made & Made, 2018). As a result, engaging multimedia learning fosters cooperation between
students and learning media, as well as between students and their own information, enabling better learning goals.
In terms of learning, most people absorb information based on what they hear and see (Bhutto et al., 2018).
Multimedia learning outlines how people may learn more by combining words, pictures, books, and audio and
video presentations. Darling-Hammond et al., (2020) observed that students engaged in the learning environment,
on the other hand, will be required to be active in their own classroom activities in order to solve problems that
are difficult to solve, as well as to work quickly and effectively in promoting the learning process in which they
are exposed to diverse perspectives in order to solve their difficulties. Furthermore, the learning process is
interactive with technology as a responsive reaction, allowing students to build both cognitive and behavioral
abilities in order to connect with multimedia sensory information. Collectively, participants find multimedia
resources, tools, interactive media, and learning materials, and they feel that multimedia can help them learn more
effectively (Clark & Feldon, 2014).
2.2. Engagement through authentic learning
Students must be able to convey their views and ideas to others in order to remain interested in the connected
themes being taught, and the more students are directly tied to what is being learnt and the utilization of real-world
experiences suggests that if students identify classroom learning with the actual world, they would appreciate
learning that contributes to engagement more. Herrington & Kervin, (2007) supported that authentic learning is
important in the classroom because it allows students to encounter real-world situations and includes concepts of
authentic learning principles to apply theoretical information in a real-world setting with the use of multimedia.
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To posit the traditional technique, authentic-based learning was proposed (Kamariah et al., 2018) as the design
materials utilized for students' accomplishment for a better understanding of learning in the classroom setting. As
a result, using the multimedia interactive program me to engage the student cognitive abilities would respond to
the authentic learning technique (Herrington & Kervin, 2007) on the student learning process inside the multimedia
learning environment employing learning techniques shown in the figure below:
Figure 1: Elements of Authentic-based learning environment
Students will benefit even more from the incorporation of interactive multimedia since it stimulates authentic-
based activities elements in assessing and organising their understanding in the actual world (Kola & Kehinde,
2019). Also, transfer of learning was boosted when learning materials incorporated significant aspects found in
the application environment. Over time, tests of the idea yielded highly varied findings, owing primarily to the
difficulty of defining which characteristics of a transfer environment were relevant (Perkins & Salomon, 2012).
This implies that genuine learning settings investigates instructor feedback and realistic teaching approaches in
the classroom to improve learning and help students attain academic success. Authentic learning context,
according to Roach et al., (2018) is a means of reflecting on students' real-life situations in order to acquire new
views and skills in detail rather than hearing and memorizing learning contents. Therefore, by having a strong
similarity to real-world surroundings and using a range of audio-visual aids to bridge the gap between learning
and the scope of the actual world, multimedia creates the sense of genuine learning. Hence, Ramlatchan, (2019)
indicated that the theory of multimedia may be designed utilizing several contexts of learning where students learn
through words, images, video, and graphics. This is in accordance with the use of multimedia to boost the students'
cognitive abilities in addressing difficulties with the medium usage of graphics, text, video clips, and visual aids
to strengthen their cognitive thinking, because multimedia may be used to replace traditional textual instructions,
a wider range of stimuli, both verbal and visual, can be used to promote student engagement in an authentic
learning environment.
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3. Overview problem
Essential education is crucial for a person to have the skills and abilities to apply and execute information in a fast-
changing world of comprehensive economy need, innovation, and modernization. The capacity to properly collect
and use information is no longer a privilege, but rather a developmental imperative. However, when it comes to
academic usage of multimedia materials, most underdeveloped nations, notably in Africa and Nigeria, are already
on the wrong side of the digital technology. Except if Nigeria wants to be a key participant in the global market
for ideas and prepare its people for the changing environment, the country should use multimedia resources to aid
learning and teaching, as well as to encourage the growth of high-level technology in students' studies. The primary
is that there is no ideal technique to increase student engagement in the classroom, however technology teaching
tactics have been shown to increase student engagement in a big class with the efficacy of innovations to learning
outcomes, transforming the traditional style of teaching into a highly successful learning strategy in the school
environment. This is why lack of student involvement with the teaching style has been identified as a significant
issue and the current research examines real learning multimedia to help students participate in cognitive and
behavioral activities. This has also made students perform badly in accounting education in the past as a result of
their attitudes toward the course, which is overly mathematical in structure. This issue has been related to the
teaching methodology of the teachers.
4. Methodology
This quantitative study was carried out to better understand and examine the usage of multimedia in the teaching
and learning environment. Accounting students of second year were taken randomly as samples for conducting
Survey. Both sources of data were used, for the primary data a survey questionnaire was developed to get the
findings. SPSS edition 21.0 was used for analysis and findings. Various statistical tests were utilized based on the
study requirements. The reliability and validity of the obtained data were assessed using the Cronbach's Alpha
reliability scale. The mean scores of the variable were determined using descriptive statistics.
5. Experiment/ Design
This study was conducted in the in the Higher institutions in South-West, Nigeria with 90 students from second
year (200L). As a form of teaching, two different learning environments were provided, the first being traditional
face-to-face lecturing on a white board and the second being multimedia learning. The authentic learning principles
were used for the classes to engage the accounting students where multimedia animation was created in the entire
process as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: The snapshot of face-to-face lecturing class and multimedia learning class section
In the first module the lecture was given at white board on Multiple topics such as financial accounting concepts,
Nature and purpose of Accounting, Bank reconciliation and accounting information with explanation and in second
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module the same lectures were delivered on Multimedia projector with interactive interface and Multimedia
activity-based.
Figure 3: Screenshots of Authentic-based multimedia learning environment interface.
6. Results
The results are divided into two sections: Face-to-face teaching mode and authentic-based multimedia teaching
mode. The table 1 and table 2 show the reliability and mean scores statistics of the face-to-face teaching mode.
There were 15 items in questionnaire related to mode of teaching. In table it can be seen the Mean Score and
Reliability Statistics of face-to-face mode. Although, mean score calculated (4.273) along with the Reliability
(.656) can be observed in tables respectively.
Table 1: Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha
No of Items
.656
15
Table 2: Mean Score
Mean Score
No of Items
4.273
15
(b) Authentic-based multimedia teaching mode
The table 3 involves of the statistical data about the mean score and reliability of authentic-based Multimedia
teaching mode. In table, it can be seen that the Mean score is increased from (4.273) to (5.906) however, the
Reliability also improved from the (.656) to (.842) correspondingly in table 3 and table 4.
Table 3: Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha
No of Items
.842
15
Table 4: Mean Score
Mean Score
No of Items
5.906
15
Table 5 summarises the results in a greater detail and the table displayed statistical information for both kinds of
teaching, face-to-face teaching and multimedia teaching; based on the results, it can be stated that authentic-based
multimedia learning aids students to learn more effectively in the learning environment.
Form of accounting that entails documenting,
summarizing, and repo rting transactions resulting
from business operations over a period of time.
Financial Accounting
CLICK ME
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Table 5: Summary of Statistics
Total sample
size (90)
Face-to-face
teaching mode
Authentic-based
Multimedia teaching
mode.
Mean Score
4.273
5.906
Reliability
.656
.842
7. Findings
Implementation of authentic-based multimedia learning environment among tertiary institutions students in
Nigeria.
Table 6: Implementation of authentic-based multimedia learning environment among tertiary institutions
students
Research carried out by (Kola & Kehinde, 2019) on the enhancement of technology in education through authentic
learning in science and technical education in Nigeria shows that, this form of learning has a high retention rate
and is retrievable in life, according to the principles of constructive argument theory which implies that authentic
learning could be part of the solution to the national security challenges faced in Nigeria today. To ensure the
achievement of real learning in science and technical education as a strong foundation for technology integration,
a paradigm change in teaching methodologies to survey methods is required. Also in 2019, (Bature, 2020)
conducted another research on, how academic instructors feel about the use of Productive Pedagogies as a strategy
for changing the learning classroom environment practice in Nigerian schools. This revealed that in Nigerian
learning classrooms, the conventional teacher-centered learning culture should make way to student-centered
learning. Instead of the conventional role of teaching and providing instructions or knowledge to their students,
instructors should display a readiness to give more of their duties to the students and take a passive role of
supervision and assistance. It also showed that classroom debates and dialogues assist instructors in providing a
Citation
Journal
Type of
study
Findings
Aina Jacob Kola
& Ajiboye
Kehinde (2019)
Üniversitepark Bülten, Vol 8 Pg 718
Review
-Slow pace of technological
development.
-Absence of authentic learning in
science and technical education.
Bature Iliya
Joseph & Atweh
Bill (2020)
International Journal of Educational
Methodology Vol 6, Pg 319 - 335.
Qualitative
Survey
-Challenges adopting the new
pedagogy as a tool to achieving
effective classroom practice
-There is a lack of interest towards
mathematics by students.
Lisa Bell, Jill
Aldridge &
Barry Fraser
(2014)
Researchgate.net/publication/228886147
Mixed
method
Using student feedback provides an
authentic learning experience that
gives teachers the opportunity to
monitor, reflect and act to improve
what they do in the classroom.
Heidi Tan Yeen-
Ju & Neo Mai
(2016)
International Journal of Social Science
and Humanity, Vol. 6 Pg 536-540
Mixed
method
research
The learning environment was
designed to be authentic, centering
on a problem-based group project
and incorporated web technologies
Albinus Silalahi,
Wesly Hutabarat,
Simson Tarigan
& Yogi Chandra
(2018)
Asian Journal of Social Science Studies
Vol. 3, Pg
Empirical
survey
lack teacher expertise and lack of
technology facilities and
infrastructure to enabling them to
integrate the learning materials with
the IT learning technology
Asian Institute of Research Education Quarterly Reviews Vol.5, No.1, 2022
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basis for guiding their students in developing and constructing their own ideas, skills, concepts, and/or procedures
in order to enhance their performance in accord with (Bell et al., 2009). Therefore, the implication to this finding
revealed that the approach of transforming from conventional classroom to a more reliable classroom environment
assists accounting students engaging in a real collaborative learning classroom environment with authentic-based
multimedia learning. This is an indicative of the fact that; conventional teacher-centered approach has previously
dominated in Nigerian accounting classrooms which suggested that accounting instructors encountered early
difficulties in embracing the new strategy as a tool for obtaining effective classroom learning environment.
8. Conclusions
!
Based on the fact that multimedia technologies are widely used by students and teachers, little is known regarding
their influence on student involvement in the classroom. There are various reproaches for increasing student
engagement. Interactive activities can be used to accomplish this because it will enable the students to retain more
of the knowledge and abilities that are imparted to them as a result of it. The conclusions' statistical significance
implies that multimedia has the potential to engage students in a real-world learning environment. Implementation
of multimedia presentations like as videos, audio, and pictures have been found to be an appealing approach for
students to study and enhance their cognitive performance. Hence, students at the higher-level benefit from the
usage of multimedia because they gain a better knowledge of numerous ideas. As a result, future research should
focus on creating a dynamic and interesting learning environment, and instructors should be educated how to
efficiently use the tools available to them.
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by Tertiary Education Trust Fund (Tet fund) of Nigeria, and the department of Vocational
and Technical Education, Faculty of Education, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.
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