Thesis

Évaluation de la compétence interculturelle

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Abstract

L’évaluation de la compétence interculturelle constitue un enjeu majeur en termes de management, la complexité des éléments qui la composent suppose une analyse plus approfondie. Aussi notre recherche démontre les strates de la compétence interculturelle et la typologie des profils interculturels dans les grilles d’évaluation. Cela permet de valoriser l’expérience à l’international et créer une tradition de transmission des connaissances au sein d’une équipe culturellement diverse. Le cadre théorique mobilise trois ensembles de travaux : le premier ensemble s’est formé autour de la littérature sur les caractéristiques des compétences et plus particulièrement la compétence interculturelle, compétence transverse caractérisée par la durabilité, la transmissibilité, la contextualité, la subjectivité et le dynamisme ; le deuxième ensemble reprend la littérature sur l’expatriation abordant les différents porteurs de la compétence interculturelle permettant de classifier 3 profils interculturels : World Citizen, Millennial et Adult Third Culture Kid ; enfin, le troisième ensemble se base sur des approches de l’évaluation des compétences. En travaillant sur l’ensemble de la littérature mobilisée, deux propositions ont été formulées : la première proposition explore les spécificités de l’acquisition des composantes de la CI pour chacun des 3 profils interculturels ; la seconde démontre que les techniques de mise en situation et la comparaison entre pairs favorisent la contextualisation et la transmissibilité dans l’évaluation de lacompétence interculturelle. Dans une approche épistémologique constructiviste, nous avons choisi la méthodologie qualitative en nous appuyant sur les approches ethnographiques et réflexives, dans une démarche abductive. Le terrain choisi, celui des Institutions européennes, nous donne accès aux fonctionnaires européens hautement qualifiés par leur expérience internationale. Le recueil de données a été réalisé avec des entretiens semi-directifs en trois langues différentes (français, anglais, russe) entre 2017 et 2019. Les données ont été compilées dans une base de données et codées de manière ouverte et axiale à l’aide du logiciel Nvivo. Elles ont été traitées par un processus d’analyse de contenu. Cette recherche a permis d’identifier les similitudes et les différences dans l’acquisition des composantes de la CI chez les trois profils interculturels identifiés. Une évaluation formative par le biais de la transmissibilité entre les collaborateurs expérimentés et les novices, permet non seulement d'évaluer la CI, mais d’assurer son développement et le transfert des connaissances interculturelles spécifiques à une entreprise. Cela crée une synergie interculturelle, qualité recherchée dans le monde professionnel international. Nous concluons notre thèse par un apport managérial en termes de management d’équipes multiculturelles et en termes de pratiques RH permettant l’acquisition et l’évaluation de la CI.

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