There is evidence of increased risk of hypertension, albuminuria, and development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in long-term follow-up of survivors of Wilms tumor (WT). However, most studies were conducted in heterogeneous groups, including patients with solitary kidney. In addition, little is known about tubular dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate kidney sequelae, including CKD development, hypertension, and glomerular and tubular damage in WT survivors.
This cross-sectional, single-center study included 61 patients treated for WT. Surrogates for kidney sequelae were defined as presence of at least one of the following: decrease in GFR for CKD, hypertension detected by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, albuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio [ACR] > 30 mg/g), or increase in at least one tubular biomarker (beta-2-microglobulin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury marker-1, and liver fatty acid-binding protein) in 24-h urine.
Median age of patients was 11.7 years, with median follow-up of 8.8 years. Thirty-eight patients (62%) had at least one surrogate for kidney sequelae. Twenty-four patients (39%) had CKD, 14 patients (23%) had albuminuria, 12 patients (21%) had hypertension, and 11 patients (18%) had tubular damage. Urine ACR was significantly higher in patients with advanced tumor stage and patients with nephrotoxic therapy than their counterparts (p < 0.05), but neither eGFR nor tubular biomarkers showed any association with tumor- or treatment-related factors.
A considerable number of patients with WT have kidney sequelae, especially early-stage CKD with a high prevalence. Albuminuria emerges as a marker associated with tumor stages and nephrotoxic treatment. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.