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Abstract

Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has many advocators suggesting that it could evolve to the cornerstone of a new mobility paradigm since, in theory, it can tackle many of society's grand challenges referring to environmental degradation, increased traffic congestion and reduced accessibility. However, little evidence exists to confirm that this is achievable; in reality, a consensus is yet to be reached even in terms of what exactly classifies as MaaS and what the MaaS priorities should be. Few cities have piloted digital interface-based schemes integrating, in a holistic way, public, active, and shared use mobility services, and have measurable results about their impacts; thus, there may be a significant gap between MaaS' actuality and potential, and a need to elaborate on this dichotomy. This study is a critical narrative review of the literature that contextualises the key dimensions of MaaS and then identifies, categorises, and discusses its possible implications. These are presented in 11 diverse thematic areas mapping out the opportunities and challenges of MaaS that may possibly underpin its business establishment, functional management, user adoption and long-term sustainability.

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... Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is an emerging concept of new integrated transport services, and although it is often developed and studied from an urban point of view, in inner and marginal areas, with sparse population, long distances, and low-capacity utilization rates it could improve efficiency by integrating different types of transportation [9,12]. As carried out in the study of pilot cases the main opportunities on Maas implementation are related to collaboration and combining of different services, creating travel chains, and a good developed and extensive ICT infrastructure and digitalization is considered necessary [9-11, 13, 14]. ...
... In a perspective of financial sustainability, the services have been redesigned to improve mobility from and within the areas, cutting the time taken to access the services available in the hubs. The rethinking process was based on the rationalization of the main local public transport services and on in the forecast of the implementation of flexible and unconventional transport services within an integrated network [12,13,15]. ...
... Recently to adapt the offer to the users' needs a new way of travel in rural/inner territories has been developed, named "Mobility as a service" (MaaS), which means "Put[ting]…users, both travelers and goods, at the core of transport services, offering them tailored mobility solutions based on their individual needs. This means that, for the first time, easy access to the most appropriate transport mode or service will be included in a bundle of flexible travel service options for end users" [12]. ...
Chapter
Optimal management of a road transport network is requested to ensure adequate safety and comfort standards to users, while containing the generalized transport cost.It is necessary that the administrations which manage roads adopt an adequate tool to monitor the network supply (DSS), giving an efficient technical support for decisions at different levels of competence.This assumes relevance for the choice of maintenance intervention alternatives especially in areas of environmental complexity.In the present study a methodology of analysis is presented, relating the construction of an information set to the definition of a matrix R = rij, (i = 1..n; j = 1..m), being n the number of links of the network and m the indicators used (performance, econometric, accidents, environmental, etc.).Finally, using a specific statistic method, we arrive to an assessment of the relative significance of each of the m vectors (of dimension n) representative of the synthesis.KeywordsRoad networkManagementRoad safety
... (4) challenges and opportunities [25]; (5) barriers and risks [26]; (6) demand management tool [27] B. Policy and Governance ...
... (1) travel behaviour [30]; (2) willingness-to-pay [25]; (3) early adopter and service acceptance [1] F. Tariff/service product (1) monthly plans design [6]; (2) pricing [6,30] G. Future development ...
Conference Paper
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is proposed as one of representative concepts regarding further realization of transportation integration. However, main discussions focusing on MaaS still stay at the first phase of information-oriented integration. The second phase discussion has been initiated towards the spatial integration. Mobility hubs has been pointed out as the infrastructure integration in MaaS. The objective of this work is to summarize and elaborate the functionalities of mobility hubs in MaaS. The research questions are, how to locate mobility hubs and, what function-alities of integrated hubs are expected in MaaS. By applying the systematic literature review method, the main topics discussed in MaaS and the typical hub location problems are summarized. The functionalities regarding different types of mobility hubs in MaaS are elaborated in a structure model, taken 15-minute city concept into consideration. The results as the initial work are to support my further integrated hub locating research work within the MaaS framwork, as well as to catch researchers' attention to investigating the spatial integration in MaaS.
... At the same time, active transportfriendly initiatives have been introduced worldwide as an environmentally friendly and social distancing mode of transport, something that reduced PT usage even further (Kyriakidis et al., 2023;Nikitas et al., 2021). Unless these initiatives are successfully combined with PT into multimodal networks (Alyavina et al., 2022) or ensure a fair distribution of road space against all other travel modes (Creutzig et al., 2020;Nello-Deakin, 2019;Tzamourani et al., 2022), they might act as an additional barrier towards urban mobility ecosystems in which PT should operate in tandem with other transport modes. ...
Article
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In this paper we investigate the public transport trip frequency variations, as well as the reasons that led to the shift away from public transport means, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We studied relevant data from the Moovit platform, and we compared operational and trip frequency characteristics of public transport systems before and after the outbreak of the pandemic in 87 cities worldwide. On average, waiting times at public transport stops/stations increased while trip distances decreased, apparently due to the mobility restriction and social distancing measures implemented in 2020. Most of the Moovit users who said that they abandoned public transport in 2020 were found in Italy and Greece. We developed linear regression analysis models to investigate (among the 35 variables examined in the study) the relationship between public transport abandonment rates and socioeconomic factors, quality of service characteristics, and indicators of pandemic's spread. Empirical findings show that public transport dropout rates are positively correlated with the COVID-19 death toll figures, the cleanliness of public transport vehicles and facilities, as well as with the income inequality (GINI) index of the population, and thus reconfirm previous research findings. In addition, the waiting time at stops/stations and the number of transfers required for commute trips appeared to be the most critical public transport trip segments, which significantly determine the discontinuation of public transport use under pandemic circumstances. Our research findings indicate specific aspects of public transport services, which require tailored adjustments in order to recover ridership in the post-pandemic period.
... COVID-19, actually brought to the surface underlying design and planning issues (Shorthall et al., 2021) that were accumulated by a century-long, one-dimensional, car-centric urban development philosophy (Nikitas, 2019) and provided a short-window of opportunity to make changes that could help imposing a new city travel ethos (Dingil and Esztergár-Kiss, 2021) better aligned with transport decarbonisation practice (Alyavina et al., 2022). Massive motor traffic space allocation with little emphasis on public transit, narrow streets and sidewalks, underwhelming cycling and walking infrastructure and car-dictated regulations were such problems (Nikitas et al., 2021a); all of them potentially addressable, to some degree, by Covid-induced street redevelopment projects replacing car traffic lanes with pedestrian zones, cycling routes and bus lanes. ...
Article
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COVID-19, the most wide-spread and disruptive pandemic in over a century, enforced emergency urban design responses meaning to recalibrate transport provision globally. This is the first work that systematically evaluates the ‘public acceptance’ as a proxy for ‘policy success’ and ‘potential for longer-term viability’ of the high-profile sustainable transport intervention package introduced in 2020 in the capital city of Greece known as the Great Walk of Athens (GWA). This is achieved through a twin statistical analysis of an e-survey that looked into the attitudes and urban mobility experiences of Athenians accessing the area of the trial daily. The research enabled a comparison between the pre- and post-implementation traffic situations and provided details about specific measures packaged in the GWA project. Our results suggest that walking and cycling uptake were only marginally improved. Traffic delays for car users were considerable. Car usage declined somewhat, with the exception of ride-sharing. Public transport ridership numbers suffered a lot because of concerns about sharing closed space with many others during a pandemic. Men and people on low income were more likely to agree with the ‘change’. Naturally this was the case for people identified as primarily cyclists and pedestrians. The most impactful package elements in terms of car lane sacrifices (i.e., the redevelopment of Panepistimiou Street) had the lowest acceptability rates. A key reason that underpinned people's hesitation to approve the GWA initiative was the lack of public consultation in the decision-making that shaped the project. Our study provides evidence-based generalisable lessons for similar metropolitan environments looking to implement more or evaluate for possibly making permanent ‘rushed’ anti-Covid street redevelopment measures.
Chapter
Inner and marginal areas, territories usually identified in the context of rural and mountainous regions with low accessibility levels, are characterized by low population density and depopulation. The concept of “inner” or “marginal” areas embraces a set of different settlement conditions. Italy’s definition of Inner Areas focuses on rural areas characterized by the distance from the main service centres (education, health and mobility). It is clear that one of the key elements is accessibility, availability of adequate transport systems. The functional layout of the road network, heavily influenced by the orographic and geological characteristics of the territory, substantially affects the affordability and quality of the transport supply. To ensure quality of services in such areas, transport service supply has to be improved on the base of non-conventional, on demand and flexible mobility systems, to improve widespread accessibility and urban-rural connectivity. An experimental extensive plan of action interesting the inner areas of Italy is being implemented through the “National Strategy for Inner Areas”, where the accessibility plays an important role and in that sense the transport network is redesigned in an integrated way with the territorial development scenario and in the perspective to guarantee access to essential services.KeywordsInner AreasSustainable mobilityMobility on demand
Chapter
This paper proposes a survey framework that may be adopted in a Mobility as a Service (MaaS) context. MaaS is an integrated mobility system that considers the mobility needs of users as a central element of the transport service. Therefore, the mere definition of centralized and advanced technological systems is not enough to ensure the success of a MaaS. The paper analyses the main behavioural variables of transport users to be investigated and the methods to be adopted for the design of a survey to support the ex-ante analysis of a MaaS.KeywordsMaaSTransport system modelsDemand analysisUser behaviourSurvey
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The COVID-19 pandemic has affected our cities in monumental ways with no sector likely being more severely impacted than transport. Lockdowns, physical spacing, transport restrictions and stay-at-home guidelines have transformed personal mobility and highlighted the mistakes of an unbalanced pro-car culture that defined a century of urban planning. One immediate effect of the virus in relation to travel demand and supply was the emergence of active travel modes because of their unique ability to provide a socially distanced way of transport. Cycling is one of the modes that has enjoyed significant attention. Numerous cities have reallocated street and public space to cyclists and introduced pro-bike interventions like pop-up cycle lanes, e-bike subsidies, free bike-share use and traffic calming measures. This newly found outbreak-induced momentum creates an opportunity to establish a new ethos that allows the promotion of potentially permanent strategies that may help cycling to be (re-)established as a robust, mainstream and resilient travel mode for inner city trips and not as a second-class alternative operating under the automobile’s giant shadow. This paper provides a state-of-the-art description of the anti-COVID cycling-friendly initiatives that have been introduced globally, the successes and failures of these initiatives, the lessons learnt that can help us redefine the bicycle’s role in local societies today and a best cycling practice policy guide for planning a more bike-centric future.
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Mobility service bundling has received a lot of attention from researchers and practitioners due to its centrality to Mobility as a Service (MaaS) business models and potential to foster sustainable travel behavior. Stated choice studies have to date been used to explore the willingness to pay for MaaS bundles and their components. Despite an increasing number of academic studies and commercial trials, there is a surprising dearth of research on how to design MaaS bundles in the first place. Comparative learning is further limited as the designs of choice experiments and studied bundles differ widely. What are the underlying design dimensions and how can we separate differences in outcome from differences in design? We address this gap by (1) conducting an extensive literature review on MaaS bundle design and synthesizing ten fundamental design dimensions, (2) extending the Design of Designs literature to develop a framework to systematically relate and compare design, methods and outcome of stated choice studies in general, and (3) applying our framework to MaaS bundle design and developing a research agenda, structuring future endeavors in this field.
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Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) is a relatively new mobility paradigm that offers users a centralized, digital platform to register, plan, book, e-ticket, and pay for an entire chain of public and private, multimodal service offerings. As MaaS continues to gain traction globally in the customer-led economy, more attention is needed on the role of customers in MaaS enablement. This paper thus serves as a starting point for future research on customer-led mobility. After MaaS is briefly defined and explored using a short case study, this paper proceeds to lay out a research agenda for MaaS enablement, thereby setting the stage for future work on evolving customer behaviors and preferences in MaaS ecosystems.
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The purpose of this paper is to present the impact assessment results of Mobility as a Service pilots based on public-private collaboration. In the pilots, companies and local and regional stakeholders joined their expertise to experiment with different ways of organizing mobility services in rural areas. The pilots included demand-responsive transport and integrated transport of different user groups and combining trips that include customers paying themselves and those being publicly subsidized. In addition to the call centre service, a smartphone application was introduced. The impact assessment of these pilots spans individual/user, business/organizational and societal levels. The main findings include improved accessibility of transport services in rural areas and resource efficiency in terms of improved occupancy rates of vehicles, reduced driven kilometres and emissions, and cost savings for the public sector.
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Urban mobility is experiencing a profound change. Mobility patterns are becoming more complex, and typical home–work–home travel is no longer the rule, as journeys tend to connect multiple points in a rather inconstant pattern. This has changed the approach to transport planning. Existing transportation planning and operation approaches have been focussed on the ability to identify and forecast typical home–work/school–home travel and subsequently plan the transport system accordingly. The traditional approach has been: Forecast - > plan - > deliver. New mobility patterns and mobility solutions are characterised by greater flexibility, taking advantage of the “sharing concept” and simultaneously providing solutions that have lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These dynamics and an evolving environment raise several new challenges at different levels, fostering the development of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). This system transforms the physical transportation system into a commodity and takes advantage of the internet of things (IoT). However, the onset of MaaS solutions is anything but linear. Several business models have emerged, with different partners originating from different industries (e.g., technological, transport operators, infrastructure managers, etc.) developing their own solutions, often in competition with others. It is not unusual to find different MaaS solutions in the same city, which integrate different solutions. This paper intends to provide an analysis on the main challenges affecting mobility in general, and MaaS in particular, as well as the main business models used for delivering MaaS solutions. The paper uses a case study in Lisbon to illustrate some of the challenges.
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Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a novel brand of transport that promises to replace private cars with multimodal personalised mobility packages enabled by a digital platform capable of integrating travel planning, booking and ticketing, and real-time information services. It is an intervention that through its digitisation, connectivity, information and sharing merits intends to inspire and support the transition to a more sustainable mobility paradigm. Recent research suggests, however, that the potential uptake of MaaS might not be overwhelming; current car drivers could face considerable difficulties in bypassing their personal car for it and, more worryingly, future MaaS users may substitute not only personal car trips but also public transport journeys with car-sharing and ride-sharing services. This means that MaaS might not be able to create travel behaviour change, and even if it does, the changes may not be always towards the right direction. Through conducting 40 semi-structured interviews in three different UK cities, namely London, Birmingham and Huddersfield, and employing a robust Thematic Analysis approach, this study explores the factors underpinning the uptake and potential success of MaaS as a sustainable travel mechanism. The challenges and opportunities reflecting and affecting potential for responsible MaaS usage refer to five core themes Car Dependence; Trust; Human Element Externalities; Value; and Cost, each of them with distinctive and diverse dimensions. Policy-makers and mobility providers should realise that MaaS success relies on changing people’s attitudes to private cars (something very challenging) and thus they should incentivise responsible MaaS use, promote public transport as its backbone, use public engagement exercises and trials to expose people to the concept and somewhat demonise private car ownership and car use.
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Successful development of “Mobility-as-a-Service” (MaaS) schemes could be transformative to our transport systems and critical for achieving sustainable cities. There are high hopes for mobile phone applications that offer both journey planning and ticketing across all the available transport modes, but these are in their infancy, with little understanding of the correct approach to business models and governance. In this study, we develop a system dynamics diffusion model that represents the uptake of such an app, based on one developed and released in West Yorkshire, UK. We perform sensitivity and uncertainty tests on user uptake and app operating profitability, and analyse these in three key areas of marketing, competition, and costs. Comparison to early uptake data is included to demonstrate accuracy of model behaviour and would suggest market failure by month 12 without stronger marketing, even if additional tickets and functions are offered. In response to this, we offer further insights on the need for direct targeted marketing to ensure mass market adoption, the importance of understanding a realistic potential adopter pool, the awareness of competing apps, and the high uncertainty that exists in this market.
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Artificial intelligence (AI) is a powerful concept still in its infancy that has the potential, if utilised responsibly, to provide a vehicle for positive change that could promote sustainable transitions to a more resource-efficient livability paradigm. AI with its deep learning functions and capabilities can be employed as a tool which empowers machines to solve problems that could reform urban landscapes as we have known them for decades now and help with establishing a new era; the era of the "smart city". One of the key areas that AI can redefine is transport. Mobility provision and its impact on urban development can be significantly improved by the employment of intelligent transport systems in general and automated transport in particular. This new breed of AI-based mobility, despite its machine-orientation, has to be a user-centred technology that "understands" and "satisfies" the human user, the markets and the society as a whole. Trust should be built, and risks should be eliminated, for this transition to take off. This paper provides a novel conceptual contribution that thoroughly discusses the scarcely studied nexus of AI, transportation and the smart city and how this will affect urban futures. It specifically covers key smart mobility initiatives referring to Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs), autonomous Personal and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (PAVs and UAVs) and Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), but also interventions that may work as enabling technologies for transport, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and Physical Internet (PI) or reflect broader transformations like Industry 4.0. This work is ultimately a reference tool for researchers and city planners that provides clear and systematic definitions of the ambiguous smart mobility terms of tomorrow and describes their individual and collective roles underpinning the nexus in scope.
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Transport integration has evolved into Mobility as a service (MaaS), and as a recent topic, MaaS-literature is rapidly growing. This study analyses 57 MaaS-focused documents (the majority being peer-reviewed articles) from Scopus in January 2019. The aim is to comprehensively answer MaaS basic W-questions: 1) What is MaaS? 2), When and where did the term appear? 3), Who are the main actors in MaaS? 4), How can MaaS be implemented? and 5) Why should it be implemented? Future research lines are also offered. Our findings show that MaaS is an ongoing topical subject; there are still many contributions under development to reach a definition. In order to succeed in implementing it, key stakeholders, such as transport authorities and transport operators, must cooperate to achieve the predicted sustainable effects envisioned. New data on user travel behaviour and their preferences should be obtained through MaaS pilots, helping transport planners and policy makers when evaluating MaaS impacts and its feasibility to be the next transport paradigm.
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Abstract With the emergence of the Mobility as a Service (MaaS) concept, it is important to understand whether it has the potential to support behaviour change and the shift away from private vehicle ownership and use. This paper aims to identify potential ways that MaaS (specifically MaaS plans) could help encourage behavioural change; and understand the barriers to using alternative transport modes. In-depth interviews and qualitative analysis are applied to the case study of London. The results indicate that individuals segment the transport modes offered via MaaS into three categories: essential, considered and excluded. Soft measures should target each individuals’ consideration set as this is where the most impact can be made regarding behaviour change. Respondents also highlighted factors that make them apprehensive towards certain modes, such as safety, service characteristics and administration. Interventions that focus on the socio-demographic groups that are most affected could help make these modes more appealing.
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The rapid emergence of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) into the transport sector’s lexicon has brought with it an air of expectation that suggests a future mobility revolution. This paper focusses on the user perspective and offers a deepening of socio-technical thinking about MaaS and its prospects. It first provides an examination of what is understood to date about MaaS in what is a new but rapidly evolving body of literature. This highlights the concept of MaaS as a ‘mobility system beyond the private car’ and the new centrality of a ‘mobility intermediary’ layer in that system. The paper then focuses and elaborates upon its contention that MaaS is neither new nor revolutionary but is rather an evolutionary continuation in terms of transport integration. Emerging from an era of unimodal travel information systems becoming multimodal and then integrated multimodal information services, MaaS is now about adding seamless booking, payment and ticketing to the integration offer. The paper puts forward a ‘Levels of MaaS Integration (LMI) taxonomy’ analogous to the level 0–5 SAE taxonomy for automation of road vehicles. This taxonomy, designed around the user perspective (including cognitive user effort), concerns operational, information and transactional integration that it is suggested reflect a hierarchy of user need. From a synthesis of insights from the ‘pre-MaaS’ literature concerning choice making for travel and the role of information, a MaaS behavioural schema is provided to illustrate potential consideration and adoption of MaaS from the user perspective. In concluding, the paper considers what a user perspective reveals for the future prospects of MaaS and in particular for the mobility intermediaries.
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Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is about improving mobility for people. Since Gothenburg piloted the first multi-modal Mobility as a Service (MaaS) scheme from 2012, there have been many further attempts at introducing connected and bundled services globally, invariably provided as a mobile app and a single, simple ticketing interface. As in any emerging paradigm, the varying flavour, or ‘shapes’ of MaaS that are piloted reflect the search for a sustainable business model and connectivity between transport operators at varying levels that includes risk reallocation and data sharing. The varying levels of success of MaaS and Mobility on Demand (MOD) lead the authors to propose MaaS Lite, which reflects an incremental approach to MaaS based on a simpler organisational arrangement that does not depend upon the introduction of a Mobility Operator as a new player. MaaS Lite also recognises that most trips are not complex at all, often based on one or two connected mechanised modes that meets highly local needs, including FMLM service connectivity. Overall, MaaS is not a ‘one size fits all’ solution for all regions but the benefits of the highly targeted MaaS Lite could realise early public benefits as a first step in the development of a multi-phased ‘services road map’ that evolves towards the implementation of multi-modal, region-wide operationally integrated MaaS. Case studies in Hong Kong and Brisbane demonstrate the merits of MaaS Lite in these two contrasting environments having different regulatory regimes, population densities and levels of private car ownership.
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Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution to prevalent transport problems. However, progress from pilots to large-scale implementation has hitherto been slow. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to empirically and in-depth investigate how, and to what extent, different factors affect the development and implementation of MaaS. A framework was developed, with a basis in institutional theory and the postulation that formal as well informal factors on different analytical levels (macro, meso and micro) must be considered. The research was organised as a multiple case study in Finland and Sweden and a qualitative approach was chosen for data collection and analysis. A number of factors with a claimed impact on the development and implementation of MaaS was revealed. At the macro level, these factors included legislation concerning transport, innovation and public administration, and the presence (or not) of a shared vision for MaaS. At the meso level, (the lack of) appropriate business models, cultures of collaboration, and assumed roles and responsibilities within the MaaS ecosystem were identified as significant factors. At the micro level, people’s attitudes and habits were recognised as important factors to be considered. However, how the ‘S’ in MaaS fits (or not) the transport needs of the individual/household appears to play a more important role in adoption or rejection of MaaS than what has often been acknowledged in previous papers on MaaS. The findings presented in this paper provide several implications for public and private sector actors. Law-making authorities can facilitate MaaS developments by adjusting relevant regulations and policies such as transport-related subsidies, taxation policies and the definition of public transport. Regional and local authorities could additionally contribute to creating conducive conditions for MaaS by, for example, planning urban designs and transport infrastructures to support service-based travelling. Moreover, private actors have key roles to play in future MaaS developments, as both public and private transport services are needed if MaaS is to become a viable alternative to privately owned cars. Thus, the advance of MaaS business models that benefit all involved actors is vital for the prosperity of the emerging MaaS ecosystem.
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At present, many policymakers and practitioners are searching for actions that could facilitate Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments. A potential action, which has received a lot of attention, is to introduce Intermediary MaaS Integrators; that is intermediate actors that assemble the offerings from Transport Service Providers (TSPs) and distribute these to MaaS Operators. However, little is known about if and how TSPs and MaaS Operators would appreciate the introduction of Intermediary MaaS Integrators. To address this knowledge gap, this paper explores an attempt to establish a national Intermediary MaaS Integrator in Sweden. The contribution to transportation research is twofold. Firstly, the paper advances the conceptual understanding of Intermediary MaaS Integrators by identifying four defining dimensions: Activities, Management, Processes and Context. Secondly, it deepens the knowledge of Intermediary MaaS Integrators’ value propositions by detailing TSPs’ and prospective MaaS Operators’ hopes and fears vis-à-vis them. Lastly, practical implications for how to facilitate acceptance and adoption are proposed. Intermediary MaaS Integrators should only be introduced if basic incentives for using their services are in place, and if introduced, they should preferably: go beyond offering technical services; have clear, declared objectives; be impartial and capable actors; and carefully consider their launch strategies.
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As mobility as a service (MaaS) continues to evolve with increasing interest throughout many countries, a key driver of its success will be the take up by the community of users seeking an alternative way of accessing individual modal options. Whether a packaging of modal services into a mobility bundle will appeal to the travelling population will depend on what appeal such packages can offer compared to purchasing travel via mode-specific outlets. This paper is one of a growing number exploring the role that everyday travel needs and socio-economic setting might play in defining mobility plans that gather significant appeal from the community. Building on our research in Sydney, Australia, we undertake a stated choice analysis in Tyneside, UK to see the extent to which differences in preferences and possible similarities exist in the demand for different subscription models and willingness to pay for mobility services in the two settings. Barriers to a widespread adoption of MaaS are also analysed, as are the potential impacts of MaaS adoption on public transport use and the way people access public transport services. A decision supporting system was developed to translate the modelling results into a practical and user-friendly tool for MaaS developers/innovators to assess market potential based on customer willingness to pay.
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A new mobility ethos is needed for cities looking to overcome the problems that have been accumulated for decades by a transport paradigm that prioritises automobiles over people. Bike-sharing, a measure promoting voluntary travel behaviour change, could be part of a refined toolbox that will help in forging this new ethos. Despite a rapid emergence during the last handful of years, as evidenced by 1956 operational local schemes and approximately 15,254,400 self-service public use bicycles across the world, bike-sharing has been attracting negative attention lately. Tens of schemes have closed down, deemed as financial or operational failures, stigmatising bike-sharing’s brand and putting the future of the concept itself in jeopardy. However, discounting bike-sharing as flawed may not be fair or accurate. This paper identifies a formula of success for bike-sharing operations based on a state-of-the-art case study analysis, which is supported by primary data evidence from two survey-based studies in Sweden and Greece. This paper suggests that residents in cities hosting or looking to host bike-sharing schemes are usually very supportive of them but not always likely to use them. More importantly, this paper delivers some key policy and business lessons that form a survival guide for effectively introducing and running public bicycle schemes. These lessons include, among others, the need for: tailoring the system design and expansion strategy according to the host city needs, city-operator and commercial partner synergies, more bike-friendly infrastructure and legislation, pro-active cultural engagement, anti-abuse measures, enhanced fleet management and realistic profit expectations.
Research
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Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), a transport concept integrating various mobility services into one single digital platform, elicits high expectations as a means of providing customised door-to-door transport solutions. To date, the frequent claims about the positive contributions MaaS will make towards achieving sustainability goals rely on a scattering of limited yet insightful research findings. Many research questions remain unanswered, however. Are people willing to accept MaaS as a new transport service (on a daily basis)? The KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis looked for answers by means of an extensive research program. In the initial exploratory phase of the research, KiM conducted an extensive literature review. The findings are presented in the report, ‘Mobility-as-a-Service and changes in travel preferences and travel behaviour: a literature review’.
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In this paper we focus on the development of a new service model for accessing transport, namely Mobility as a Service (MaaS) and present one of the first critical analyses of the rhetoric surrounding the concept. One central assumption of one prevalent MaaS conceptualization is that transport services are bundled into service packages for monthly payment, as in the telecommunication or media service sectors. Various other forms of MaaS are being developed but all tend to offer door-to-door multi-modal mobility services, brokered via digital platforms connecting users and service operators. By drawing on literature concerned with socio-technical transitions, we address two multi-layered questions. First, to what extent can the MaaS promises (to citizens and cities) be delivered, and what are the unanticipated societal implications that could arise from a wholesale adoption of MaaS in relation to key issues such as wellbeing, emissions and social inclusion? Second, what are de facto challenges for urban governance if the packaged services model of MaaS is widely adopted, and what are the recommended responses? To address these questions, we begin by considering the evolution of intelligent transport systems that underpin the current vision of MaaS and highlight how the new business model could provide a mechanism to make MaaS truly disruptive. We then identify a set of plausible unanticipated societal effects that have implications for urban planning and transport governance. This is followed by a critical assessment of the persuasive rhetoric around MaaS that makes grand promises about efficiency, choice and freedom. Our conclusion is that the range of possible unanticipated consequences carries risks that require public intervention (i.e. steering) for reasons of both efficiency and equity.
Chapter
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This chapter provides a reflective critique of Mobility as a Service (MaaS), an emerging development seeking a role within the Smart Mobility paradigm. We assess a range of its future implications for urban policymakers in terms of governance and sustainability (i.e., social and environmental impacts). We begin by describing the origins of the MaaS concept, along with the features of precursor technologies and current early examples. We then reflect on the marketing of MaaS and use it to consider how we might anticipate some potentially less desirable aspects of the promoted business models. Finally, we discuss the implications for governance.
Conference Paper
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Changes in the society, for instance tightening environmental and financial targets, require new ways of organizing transport and mobility. Cities have challenges with emissions and congestion while rural areas have problems organizing transport services efficiently due to long distances, sparse population and narrow flows of people and goods. Thus, a collaboration of different stakeholders and combining different transport services are a prerequisite for viable and attractive MaaS services. MaaS business models presented in this study are based on the findings of two MaaS projects: European MAASiFiE project studying the MaaS concept widely at European level, and a Finnish MaaS project concentrating on identifying and developing preconditions for accessible and lasting rural mobility. The business models can facilitate the development of MaaS services in different contexts, and especially in rural areas by offering extensive business models for service development. The focus is especially on MaaS durable business models for rural areas including the organizing of statutory social and health service transportation, which inefficiency has been a big debate in Finland. A total of five business models were identified including two commercial ones, one publicly operated and two different kinds of public-private models. The paper also discusses service agreements and revenue models of MaaS.
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--- Open Access http://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/931 --- Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a recent innovative transport concept, anticipated to induce significant changes in the current transport practices. However, there is ambiguity surrounding the concept; it is uncertain what are the core characteristics of MaaS and in which way they can be addressed. Further, there is a lack of an assessment framework to classify their unique characteristics in a systematic manner, even though several MaaS schemes have been implemented around the world. In this study, we define this set of attributes through a literature review, which is then used to describe selected MaaS schemes and existing applications. We also examine the potential implications of the identified core characteristics of the service on the following three areas of transport practices: travel demand modelling, a supply-side analysis, and designing business model. Finally, we propose the necessary enhancements needed to deliver such an innovative service like MaaS, by establishing the state of art in those fields.
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In the last years, intermodal mobility platforms offering combinations of various modal types, like trains, buses, carsharing and ride sharing, have emerged. These platforms often also offer a smartphone-based door-to-door navigation and a sophisticated travel assistance. Unfortunately, these smartphone-based services cannot be used by the travelers as soon as they are driving a car themselves, e.g., a carsharing vehicle or their private car, due to road safety regulations. The driver is essentially disconnected from the service. In addition, modern cars have a lot of configuration options a driver might want to set up. This discourages using shared vehicles in an intermodal itinerary. In this work we identify use cases of how an integration of carsharing vehicles into intermodal travel information systems can enhance travel experience, introduce a system architecture to allow the necessary information exchange and present a preliminary prototype to demonstrate its technical feasibility.
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Mobility as a service (MaaS) is a relatively new concept, which holds the promise for a paradigm shift in the provision of urban mobility. The concept of MaaS is to use a single app to access and pay for various transport modes within a city or beyond; and the app will give options to allow a traveller to select the most suitable transport mode. The concept of MaaS is enabled by the current mass uptake of smartphones and social media as well ubiquitous internet connection. By studying current applications of MaaS in Europe and US conditions of operation of MaaS have been summarised. Based on the necessary conditions, a checklist has been developed for potential developers of MaaS to assess if they can implement MaaS in a city. This paper also discusses challenges of implementation of MaaS and their potential impacts on urban mobility and societal changes.
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Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a new mobility model that aims to bridge the gap between public and private transport operators on a city, intercity and national level, and envisages the integration of the currently fragmented tools and services a traveller needs to conduct a trip (planning, booking, access to real time information, payment and ticketing). As MaaS gains wider acceptance, there are several misperceptions about what this model is. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary definition for the MaaS concept, and propose the MaaS ecosystem where the role of each actor is described in details. The MaaS ecosystem is designed after personal interviews and focus groups with the involved actors. This holistic approach sets the ground for the MaaS concept and highlights the areas where research is needed in order to contribute to the materialisation of the concept.
Technical Report
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Executive summary The transnational research programme “Call 2014: Mobility and ITS” was launched by the Conference of European Directors of Roads (CEDR). Funded within that program, Mobility as a Service for Linking Europe (MAASiFiE) is a two-year project that investigates the prerequisites for organizing user-oriented and ecological mobility services in order to provide consumers with flexible, efficient and user-friendly services covering multiple modes of transport on a one-stop-shop principle. Megatrends like changing demographics in terms of population growth, ageing of population, new population requirements of millennials, and ICT technology transformation, play a major role enabling the evolvement of new mobility services. Mobility service concepts are changing in the direction of combining and implementing new business models, enabling the development of innovative services and products in mobility markets. With this respect, Deliverable 3 as part of Work Package (WP) 3 of the MAASiFiE project concentrates on the identification of new business and operator models providing an insight into the new transport paradigm of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). Based on a state-of- the-art survey covering interviews with experts, an online questionnaire, case examples of MaaS services and a literature review, a more thorough understanding of how transport- related stakeholders perceive and interact with the topic of MaaS is gained. Thus, an elaboration of responsibilities/roles, business models, related value chains and operator models in the context of MaaS is enabled and results are provided in this document. As a common point of reference, the consortium has agreed upon the following definition of MaaS: Multimodal and sustainable mobility services addressing customers' transport needs by integrating planning and payment on a one-stop-shop principle. Mobility services are expected to increase the use of public transport and ride sharing and to provide the means for rationalising passenger transport and wherever possible freight transport as well as identified by the state-of-the-art survey within Deliverable 3. In addition, available freight transport and logistic operations are analysed wherever similar characteristics to MaaS-related passenger applications are identified. Overall, the state-of- the-art survey results focusing on international MaaS concepts have shown that there currently exist various smaller MaaS-pilots covering different geographical service areas, including for instance city, rural and/or regional areas. Very few larger MaaS services have been established with a wider geographical coverage, including national and international service coverage. Based on different MaaS service areas, different aims and requirements for implementing MaaS concepts arise. While for instance, urban areas focus largely on the reduction of private car usage, congestion and transport-related emissions, rural areas aim at promoting higher efficiency and utilization rates by emphasizing demand driven transport services. National and international MaaS services focus rather on providing combined all-in- one packages including for instance long-haul transport, accommodation, event and booking services. Identified value chains of MaaS services illustrate changes of roles and responsibilities in the organisation of transport of people and goods. In this respect, changes in value networks and related organisational requirements are derived and applied to show different combinations of MaaS services. Basically four MaaS operator models were identified: Reseller, Integrator, Public transport operator and PPP models. Based on service combination characteristics, it could be concluded that the commercial Reseller model may best fit travel agencies and therefore national and international traveling. The Public transport (PT) operator model could be mainly used in cities, where comprehensive PT already exists. The PPP model may be preferred for rural areas, as public actors have an interest in increasing efficiency of subsidized transportation. The commercial Integrator model would probably fit well in both urban and suburban areas and national/international MaaS; thus it could be considered the most versatile and flexible model. However, as MaaS is continuously developing, and can be implemented in various ways, the presented models and categorizations should be read and interpreted as a current understanding of an emerging phenomenon. http://www.vtt.fi/sites/maasifie/results
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The growing pressure on urban passenger transport systems has increased the demand for new and innovative solutions to increase its efficiency. One approach to tackle this challenge has been the slow but steady shift towards shared mobility services (car-, bike-sharing etc.). Building on these new modes and the developments in information and communication technologies, the concept of “Mobility as a Service” (MaaS) has recently come to light and offers convenient door-to-door transport without the need to own a private vehicle. The term Mobility as a Service (MaaS) stands for buying mobility services based on consumer needs instead of buying the means of mobility. In recent years, various MaaS schemes have been arisen around the world. The objective of this paper is to review these newly existing mobility services and develop an index to evaluate the level of mobility integration for each based on the assumption that higher level of integration is more appealing to travellers. The review presented in this paper allows a comparison among the schemes and provides the background and the key points of MaaS systems that the research community could use for designing surveys. It also provides significant insights to transport operators and authorities on the elements they should take into account to apply an attractive MaaS scheme that could effectively shift demand away from private vehicles.
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This paper reviews transport's historical, contemporary and future role in shaping urban development since industrialisation. Previous definitions of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) starting in the late 20th century are challenged. Three distinct eras of TOD are identified: from the mid-19th century to early 20th century; Planned TOD in the mid-20th century; and TOD for urban regeneration and/or urban expansion since the late 20th century, now featuring rail and bus rapid transit, cycling and walking, shared use mobility, and automated transport. Future links with disruptive transport technologies are highlighted as themes that must be examined for assisting TOD's further development. The authors make the case, using empirical evidence from selected TOD applications from around the world, that high frequency transit service is essential for successful contemporary and future planned TODs. TOD is then redefined for the 21st century and best practice policy recommendations are made.
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This paper presents a comprehensive literature review focused on the supply side of mobility services, providing relevant insights at the conceptual, operational, and modelling levels. Definitions are first drawn from the Mobility as a Service paradigm due to its predominance in the literature. This is followed by an assessment of the operational features of a range of mobility services, including carsharing, bikesharing, ridehailing, and demand responsive transit. To conclude the review, the state-of-the-art in modelling approaches for mobility services is reported, at different levels of complexity and integration. Three of the most important findings and arguments from this paper suggest that a high degree of generality exists for operational features of mobility services; that it is essential to make a distinction between Mobility as a Service and a mobility service in isolation; along with the argument that human agency should be carefully considered in modelling efforts, both for user agent and driver agent decision-making processes. Finally, key considerations are proposed for the future development of a conceptual framework for modelling the supply side of mobility services, which would have a generic service provider model as its core component.
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This overview article proposes a revised approach to improve the urban realm, against the backdrop of new models for delivering transport services as digitalisation, collaborative consumption and autonomous technologies take hold. We propose the concept of modal efficiency illustrated through a conceptual framework situating both existing and emerging modes of transport around spatial and temporal dimensions. This framework helps us evaluate how the push towards smaller and more flexible transport services in questionable settings can have significant and adverse effects on road capacity, increasing congestion and in the longer term impacting urban form. We propose linking urban land use characteristics to travel price and modal efficiency to improve the broader transport system and guide the sustainable development of our cities. Mobility as a service (MaaS) based on shared mobility and modal integration constitutes a major opportunity to deliver on these ideals, if organised appropriately. Widely diverging service delivery models for MaaS are introduced, including commercially-motivated models (which may exacerbate efficiency issues), and systems which incorporate an institutional overlay. We propose consideration of a government-contracted model for MaaS, where road pricing is incorporated as an input into package price, defined by time of day, geography and modal efficiency. In amidst the hype of new mobility technologies and services, a critical assessment of the realm of possibilities can better inform government policy and ensure that digital disruption occurs to our advantage.
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Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is an attempt to overcome market segmentation by offering transport services tailored to the individual traveler's needs. An alternative to prior investment into single mobility tools, it may allow less biased mode choice decisions. Such a setting favors shared modes, where fixed costs can be apportioned among a large number of users. In turn, car-sharing, bike-sharing or ride-hailing may themselves become efficient alternatives to public transport. Although early field studies confirm the expected changes away from private car use and towards public or shared modes, impacts are yet to be studied for larger transport systems. This research conducts a first joint simulation of car-sharing, bike-sharing and ride-hailing for a city-scale transport system using MATSim. Results show that in Zurich, through less biased mode choice decisions alone, transport-related energy consumption can be reduced by 25%. In addition, introduction of car-sharing and bike-sharing schemes may increase transport system energy efficiency by up to 7%, whereas the impact of ride-hailing appears less positive. Efficiency gains may be higher if shared modes were used as a substitute for public transport in lower-density areas. In summary, a MaaS scheme with shared mobility may allow to slightly increase system efficiency (travel times & cost), while substantially reducing energy consumption.
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Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has received widespread attention over the past couple of years amongst scholars, businesses, policymakers and mainstream media. Most coverage is oriented towards its possible gains for traveling individuals and the travel industry, while still lacking conceptual clarity and sufficient detail about its potential acceptance by the general public. This leads to varying perspectives on what MaaS precisely is and will be in the near future. In this study, we reflect upon the relationship between MaaS use and private car ownership, based on insights gained from a MaaS pilot study organized mid-2017 in Ghent (Belgium). This exploratory pilot study targeted 100 car-owning participants (i.e., Ghent University employees) and explored how these motivated people can replace or significantly reduce car use in return for a monthly mobility budget which they could spend on MaaS services. The study reveals that most respondents were apt to explore MaaS services (especially public transport and car sharing services), but a clear reduction of private car use remained difficult in a real-life setting. Despite being highly motivated to reduce car use and being given incentives, participants faced considerable difficulties in bypassing their personal car, especially for (non-repetitive) leisure trips. By drawing parallels with a similar debate in the transport literature from a couple of decades ago, we suggest that MaaS should be regarded as a complement rather than a substitution of private car use in the near future. The relationship between MaaS use and car ownership might in reality be more complex than generally acknowledged. In addressing these parallels, the paper opens up new critical questions for MaaS research in the future.
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Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a promising concept which aims at offering seamless mobility to end users and providing economic, societal, transport-related and environmental benefits to the cities of the future. To achieve a successful future market take-up of MaaS it is important to develop prototype business models to offer high-value bundled mobility services to customers, as well as enable the MaaS operator and the involved actors to capture value. This paper aims at investigating the business perspective of MaaS by collecting qualitative data from workshops and in-depth interviews in three European metropolitan areas: Budapest, Greater Manchester and the city of Luxembourg. The analysis of the collected data contributed to the in-depth analysis of the MaaS business ecosystem and the identification of the champions of MaaS in the three areas. Prototype business models for MaaS are developed based on the Osterwalder’s canvas, to describe how MaaS operators may create, deliver, and capture value. Our findings indicate that the MaaS ecosystem comprises of public and private actors who need to cooperate and compete in order to capture value. Although noticeable deviations among the study areas are observed, mobility service providers, public transport authorities and regional authorities were commonly indicated as the key actors in a MaaS partnership. In addition, viewed as a system, enablers and barriers to MaaS are identified based on the systems’ of innovation approach. The analysis indicates that the regulatory framework of the cities, the lack of standardization and openness of the application programming interfaces and the need for transport-related investments constitute risks for the successful implementation of MaaS in the study areas. Trust between MaaS actors and cooperation in e-ticketing are key enablers in some of the study areas.
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The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the concept of MaaS and what characterises a ‘MaaS service’, as well as to propose a topology of MaaS as a tool for facilitating the discussion of MaaS, enabling the ‘comparison of’ different services, understanding MaaS' potential effects, and aiding the integration of societal goals into MaaS services. Based on an exploration of existing definitions and descriptions of MaaS, and an expert workshop identifying key aspects and ascertaining service differentiations accordingly, the resulting proposed topology consists of MaaS Levels 0 to 4 as characterised by different types of integration: 0 no integration; 1 integration of information; 2 integration of booking and payment; 3 integration of the service offer, including contracts and responsibilities; 4 integration of societal goals. The levels are then described in terms of their added value and further discussed regarding implications for society, business, users/customers, and technical requirements. Then, a deeper discussion also delves into the potential in expanding upon Level 4 and ways by which services and societal goals can become more fully integrated. The proposed topology adds clarity to the discussion of such a trending topic and enables the positioning of services along the MaaS spectrum. It also deepens the understanding of why MaaS can take time to establish, and can help support the development of action plans in terms of what needs to be done depending on what type of MaaS one wants to develop. Further analysis is desirable regarding the possibilities and problems linked with the different levels of MaaS. Such an analysis is key to understanding which effects can be achieved via the implementation of different levels of MaaS services in terms of e.g. social, economic and ecological sustainability, and business potential.
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Given the innovative nature of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS), various uncertainties are surrounding the possibilities for implementing MaaS. This includes uncertainties about alternative MaaS-system functionalities, about how the implementation of alternative MaaS systems might affect the overall transport system performance and about the preferences of stakeholders regarding alternative MaaS system implementation strategies. This paper contributes to this niche by collecting expert opinions about these uncertainties, using the Delphi method. The expert panel expected a fully-integrated MaaS to start operating in urban areas before 2020 and to expand to rural areas and nationally within the period of 2020–2030. In contrast to the common expectation that MaaS will attract regular car driver from their vehicles, our panel expected youth, current public transport users, and flexible travellers to be early adopters of MaaS. Transport operators are seen as the most important actors and the most preferred MaaS service integrator. Local authorities are expected to have an important role in enabling MaaS. The main objectives for implementing MaaS are to reduce car dependency and to provide a flexible and more customised transport system accessibility to the general public. The implementation of MaaS as a pilot project is considered the most preferred policy in the next phase. These findings largely support earlier reported findings on MaaS implementation. This study report new findings regarding the levels of consensus and how the experts changed their individual opinions in light of the group results on the studied topics. Regarding certain topics, such as the early market, there are higher levels of agreements among the panel with lower proportions of them changing their selections in light of the group results. Whereas in other topics, such as planning for future implementation, the level of agreement are lower with higher proportions of experts changing their selections. These two attributes can be combined to infer how certain the panel is on the topics studied. The study also provides new insights into the possible vulnerabilities and opportunities that can arise in relation to MaaS implementation, the associated levels of importance and uncertainty, and the possible responding actions. The experts also identified potential social issues and challenges in scaling-up the pilot. The findings of this study are of interest to practitioners and researchers in the field of MaaS planning and can be used to initiate a discussion among actors and stakeholders to formulate implementation plans for different MaaS concepts.
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Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a relatively recent mobility concept, which has the potential to contribute to a more sustainable transport system. The starting point for its success is to acquire a deeper understanding of the key actors’ motives, expectations, perceptions and concerns. To this end, this paper applies a mixed-methods approach, using qualitative and quantitative research to collect and analyze data from key MaaS-related stakeholders and end-users. In particular, workshops with stakeholders and focus groups with end-users were conducted in two European metropolitan areas, Budapest in Hungary and Greater Manchester in the United Kingdom. In addition, an on-line questionnaire survey was launched to collect quantitative data from end-users. Stakeholders’ and end-users’ perspectives on different MaaS-related aspects are collected and analyzed. Our analysis indicates that stakeholders are highly motivated to join a MaaS partnership for receiving better quality demand data and increasing their market shares and revenues. In addition, lack of data and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) was identified as a significant operational/technical barrier, while the strong reliance of people on their private vehicles was indicated as the strongest social barrier. A qualitative cluster analysis was conducted revealing significant variations in the stakeholders’ viewpoints depending on the business domain they represented. The findings of this paper provide useful insights for the decision-making processes of policy makers, local authorities, transport operators and other MaaS actors, helping them to make informed decisions when implementing MaaS schemes in their cities.
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Our current private car based transport system is inefficient and unsustainable. The Mobility as a Service (MaaS) model aims to provide seamless trips over one interface by combining different transport modes and services. This study analyses MaaS-focused journal articles and conference papers found in Scopus and ScienceDirect databases in June 2018, and aims to help the scientific community and MaaS stakeholders to recognise the current state of the art of MaaS research findings, and where to focus in future. The recognised 31 MaaS-focused publications were categorised in three groups according to their main issues discussed; the roles of different transport modes and services in MaaS, the findings of MaaS pilots and trials, and the expected effects of MaaS. In these three categories, we present the key findings and discuss the future research avenues. The MaaS research has had a strong focus on private car users and how to change travel patterns of this user group. In order to attract new users, mobility services and sustainable transport modes should be able to provide a higher service level. A successful MaaS implementation is expected to be able to decrease the use of private cars and increase the use of sustainable transport modes.
Article
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments have thus far progressed along different trajectories in Sweden and Finland, two pioneering countries in MaaS. Still, little is known about why this is. Addressing this knowledge gap, we investigate the role of institutions as key structures given their capacity to bring about differentiated outcomes. Based on 31 interviews with key stakeholders, we first describe drivers and barriers of MaaS developments in the two countries. Thereafter, through an analysis of similarities and differences across the cases, we identify a set of general implications for MaaS policymakers and practitioners. Developments in Finland demonstrate the importance of top-level support, of inter-organizational collaboration and of trust among key stakeholders. The Swedish case reiterates the need for inter-sectorial collaboration, particularly with regard to creating the right conditions for commercialization, and to involving stakeholders on both strategic and operational levels of the transport sector in developing the vision for MaaS. Lastly, we assess the utility of the applied theoretical framework, and comment on the necessity of recognizing that both practice-based and structural changes are needed in order to facilitate institutional change.
Article
This paper presents characteristics of rural areas for MaaS development, based on a project co-funded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Finland. The paper presents rural mobility SWOT analysis and challenges, as well as goals and vision. Solutions for MaaS services in terms of collaboration, services & markets, planning & decision-making, and technology & information are proposed. The next steps to be taken in rural MaaS development are examined. Rural areas have challenges to organize mobility services due to long distances and narrow flows of people and material, as well as tightening financial targets. Rural areas have also a major potential to organize transport services more efficiently. The collaboration of different stakeholders — businesses, the public sector and people — is key to the success. New pilots with impact assessment should be carried out and best practices disseminated. The unique characteristics of rural areas should be taken into account in e.g. legislation and financing. Technology is an enabler of efficient MaaS services; thus digitalization of data and use of open/defined interfaces is recommended. A toolkit for MaaS pilot/service development is needed to promote the development and implementation of new MaaS services.
Article
Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) is an innovative transport concept that combines a range of transport modes and services to provide a user-orientated service via a single interface. Since its emergence, MaaS has drawn increasing interest within and beyond the transport sector for its potential as an innovative and potentially effective solution to urban transport problems. However, the implementation of MaaS is surrounded by uncertainties concerning various aspects, such as on technological feasibility, future demand and willingness of crucial stakeholders to cooperate. These uncertainties can prevent large-scale implementation of the concept from taking place. In this paper, an adaptive approach is proposed, which allows policymakers to create policies that are more robust for uncertain future situations and which can be adapted as the future unfolds and uncertainties are resolved. In particular, a Dynamic Adaptive Policymaking (DAP) is currently being developed for implementing MaaS for the Dutch city of Nijmegen. The study is based on a desktop research and has been produced by discussion among a small group of experts. Its outcomes are presented in an initial plan, which a real-world project could be based upon, and an alternative planning approach could be designed to handle uncertainty.
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Developing initiatives that allow societies to embrace more sustainable travel behaviour patterns is a prerequisite for creating more livable urban futures. Bike-sharing, a measure designed to inspire modal shift from short car-trips, despite its recent exponential growth, is still understudied. This paper discusses a quantitative survey of 640 responses examining road users' attitudes towards bike-sharing and its possible introduction to Drama, a small Greek city resembling many others in terms of size, transport culture and socio-economic characteristics, which has never been exposed to a similar intervention. Most of the respondents recognised that bike-sharing is a mode with pro-environmental, cost-effective and health-improving qualities and the potential to promote a greener identity for the city. Evidence is provided that people would support a bike-sharing investment even in cases where the frequency of their current bicycle use and the regularity with which they intend to use an eventual scheme is low. Age, gender, the primary factor for modal choice, its perceived effectiveness in reducing traffic congestion and their usage expectations were all factors influencing the respondents’ acceptability of such an introduction. The lack of cycling infrastructure and road safety concerns were identified as possible usage barriers but the pro-social potential of bike-sharing combined with policy efforts to create a more pro-cycling culture could outweigh them. The present analysis suggests that bike-sharing can go beyond, what is typically regarded as its primary function, that of a last-mile solution for metropolitan areas, and be a publicly acceptable investment for smaller cities.
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Bundled offerings that facilitate using multiple means for solving everyday travel needs are proposed to hold potential to facilitate a modal shift from private cars to servitized transport modes, including public transport (PT). This type of offering, often coined Mobility as a Service (MaaS), may require new forms of partnerships, in which private actors play a larger role in the creation of public value. Accordingly, based on input from 19 interviews with MaaS actors active in West Sweden, this paper explores how MaaS could develop and how PT might be affected. Three predictive scenarios are identified – market-driven, public-controlled and public-private – and the implications for future PT, in terms of the scope, usage, access, business model, competence structure and brand value, are discussed in relation to these. The authors conclude that finding a regulatory ‘sweet spot’ that drives innovation and secures public benefits will be key for future developments.
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The digital age has opened up new opportunities to improve the customer experience in using public transport. Specifically, we see the role of smart technology in the hands of customers as the new rubric to deliver services that are individualised to the needs and preferences of current and future public transport users. This frontline of service delivery has become known as mobility as a service (MaaS) whereby an individual can book a service delivered through a range of possible modes of transport. At one extreme we have point-to-point car based services such as Uber, Lyft, BlaBlaCar and RydHero (for children), with futuristic suggestions of these gravitating to driverless vehicles (cars and buses). Variations around this future are bus-based options that include smart bookable ‘point-via-point-to-point’ services that offer up options on travel times and fares (with the extreme converting to the point-to-point car service, possibly also operated by a bus business); as well as the continuation of conventional bus services (with larger buses) where the market for smart MaaS is difficult or inappropriate to provide (e.g., contracted (often free) school bus services). This paper, as a think piece, presents a number of positions that could potentially represent future contexts in which bus services might be offered, recognising that a hybrid multi-modal state of affairs may be the most appealing new contract setting, enabling the design of contracts to be driven by the mode-neutral customer experience, and the growing opportunity to focus on MaaS. We suggest that the adrenal rush for mobility services, however, may not deliver the full solution that supporters are suggesting.
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This paper presents some of the findings from the trial and evaluation of an example of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). The service, UbiGo, was developed within the Go:Smart project in Gothenburg, Sweden. In total 195 individuals in 83 households became paying customers over a period of six months. Overall, outcome of the trial was positive, i.e. the service was used and the customers were satisfied, more so than with their previous travel solution. Based on questionnaires and interviews, key service attributes were identified, including the ‘transportation smorgasbord’ concept, simplicity, improved access and flexibility, convenience, and economy. It is argued that successful implementation of MaaS requires careful consideration of these design attributes. However, MaaS relies on cooperation and collaboration, on the notion of a co-operative and interconnected transport system (including services, infrastructure, information, and payment), where boundaries between not only transport modes are blurred but also between public and private operators. The evaluation of UbiGo indicated that the main obstacles to further dissemination of MaaS may be found within and between service providing companies and organisations in terms of, e.g. regulations and institutional barriers.