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Development of simple procedures to activate surface-coated Constantan wires and to induce AHE: the hunt for potential mistakes

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One more 3-days Workshop, series ANV (Assisi Nel Vento), of Multidisciplinary Science (mainly: Energy, Medicine, Geology) was held in Assisi-Italy; part of the Workshop had even arguments related to Philosophy/History/Art/Religion. The reported event was the 8th edition (December 2021). One of the characteristics of such Workshop is that the time spent on open discussions, after talks (usually 30-40 minutes long), was comparable to time spent to show the data/argumentations. Moreover, the possible comments/suggestions from people expert in different fields could be useful as stimulating point of view to “open the fog” in very difficult/controversial problematics. We take the opportunity of such peculiarity to show our systematic studies aimed to find a SIMPLE procedure to activate the core of our “reactors”: framework of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction-Anomalous Heat Effects (LENR-AHE), mainly experimental studies. We have been active in such Research field since March 1989. Since 2011 we have focused on the use of a low-cost material, Constantan (alloy of Cu55Ni44Mn1), as “practical” material able to dissociate and absorb large amount of Hydrogen and/or Deuterium, starting from 150 °C, in gaseous environments. Previously, in the LENR field, the most used material was Palladium (Pd) and its alloy. Considering the progresses about AHE and the forecast of practical application of the effects, the precious metal Pd, now extremely costly (about 80 €/g), have to be substituted with more affordable ones (usually Nickel). In the case of the Constantan, the results were promising but quite difficult about the reproducibility of the effects. We realized that, to make a material useful for our purpose, in the case of long and thin wires that we usually used, two steps are needed at least: a) conditioning of it (i.e. change its morphology, from smooth to extremely sponge/coral shape, in order to increase the specific surface area; adding materials able to emit large amounts of electrons at temperatures higher of 600 °C); b) activating them to be able to produce AHE, after proper Hydrogen absorption. The point a) was almost easy to be performed; point b) was unpredictable. We experienced that providing very large pulsed current along the wire, up to 40 kA/cm2, pulse width 10 s, repetition rate 2.5 kHz, time duration 6-8 hours, was enough to activate the wire and producing AHE, of the order of 10-20%, for long times. Anyway, the procedure was difficult and only specialised Researchers were able to do it. Moreover, we observed, sometimes, that even DC current, at enough current density (6-7 kA/cm2), was enough to activate the wire, when the time of activation was prolonged to 1-2 weeks. As main drawback, the value of AHE were lower (factor 2-4) in respect to pulsed activation. Main advantage of DC operations is the high accuracy of measurements because of no EM noise induced. In conclusions, we make systematic studies about DC activation and enriched the studies to check if the high temperature of the wire, by itself, is able to increase the values of AHE. The frustrating aspect of irreproducibility in LENR-AHE experiments, was solved, at least for Academic purposes. We take the advantage of Workshop, also via web, to ask, to all the people attending our presentation, to examine deeply our procedures and try to find possible errors. Waiting time to send comments was fixed to 1 month. The document reported is an edited version of what presented last December 2021, enriched with the suggestions of the Researchers attending by web. We anticipate that no key-errors were found in our procedures.
Content may be subject to copyright.
1
Sovrabbondare nella Speranza
Development of simple procedures to activate surface-coated Constantan wires and
to induce AHE: the hunt for potential mistakes.
#Francesco Celani1,2,4
C. Lorenzetti1,2, G. Vassallo1,2,3,4, E. Purchi1,2, S. Fiorilla1,2, S. Cupellini1,2,
M. Nakamura1,2, P. Cerreoni1,2, R. Burri1, P. Boccanera1,2, A. Spallone1,2,4, E. F. Marano1,2.
(1) ISCMNS_L1, Intern. Soc. of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science_Via Cavour 26, 03013 Ferentino (FR)-Italy; (2) EU Project
H2020: CleanHME,-European Union’s grant #951974; (3) DIDI, University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo (PA)-Italy; (4) Istituto
Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 56, 00044 Frascati (RM)-Italy.
# franzcelani@libero.it INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi 56, 00044 Frascati (RM)-Italy
ANV8 HOPE Assisi 2021, December 17-19, 2021.
2
Abstract
One more 3-days Workshop, series ANV (Assisi Nel Vento), of Multidisciplinary Science (mainly: Energy, Medicine, Geology) was held in Assisi-Italy;
part of the Workshop had even arguments related to Philosophy/History/Art/Religion. The reported event was the 8th edition (December 2021).
One of the characteristics of such Workshop is that the time spent on open discussions, after talks (usually 30-40 minutes long), was comparable to
time spent to show the data/argumentations. Moreover, the possible comments/suggestions from people expert in different fields could be useful
as stimulating point of view to “open the fog” in very difficult/controversial problematics. We take the opportunity of such peculiarity to show our
systematic studies aimed to find a SIMPLE procedure to activate the core of our “reactors”: framework of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction-Anomalous
Heat Effects (LENR-AHE), mainly experimental studies. We have been active in such Research field since March 1989.
Since 2011 we have focused on the use of a low-cost material, Constantan (alloy of Cu55Ni44Mn1), as “practical” material able to dissociate and
absorb large amount of Hydrogen and/or Deuterium, starting from 150 °C, in gaseous environments. Previously, in the LENR field, the most used
material was Palladium (Pd) and its alloy. Considering the progresses about AHE and the forecast of practical application of the effects, the precious
metal Pd, now extremely costly (about 80 €/g), have to be substituted with more affordable ones (usually Nickel).
In the case of the Constantan, the results were promising but quite difficult about the reproducibility of the effects. We realized that, to make a
material useful for our purpose, in the case of long and thin wires that we usually used, two steps are needed at least: a) conditioning of it (i.e.
change its morphology, from smooth to extremely sponge/coral shape, in order to increase the specific surface area; adding materials able to emit
large amounts of electrons at temperatures higher of 600 °C); b) activating them to be able to produce AHE, after proper Hydrogen absorption.
The point a) was almost easy to be performed; point b) was unpredictable. We experienced that providing very large pulsed current along the wire,
up to 40 kA/cm2, pulse width 10 s, repetition rate 2.5 kHz, time duration 6-8 hours, was enough to activate the wire and producing AHE, of the
order of 10-20%, for long times. Anyway, the procedure was difficult and only specialised Researchers were able to do it. Moreover, we observed,
sometimes, that even DC current, at enough current density (6-7 kA/cm2), was enough to activate the wire, when the time of activation was
prolonged to 1-2 weeks. As main drawback, the value of AHE were lower (factor 2-4) in respect to pulsed activation. Main advantage of DC operations
is the high accuracy of measurements because of no EM noise induced. In conclusions, we make systematic studies about DC activation and enriched
the studies to check if the high temperature of the wire, by itself, is able to increase the values of AHE. The frustrating aspect of irreproducibility in
LENR-AHE experiments, was solved, at least for Academic purposes.
We take the advantage of Workshop, also via web, to ask, to all the people attending our presentation, to examine deeply our procedures and try
to find possible errors. Waiting time to send comments was fixed to 1 month. The document reported is an edited version of what presented last
December 2021, enriched with the suggestions of the Researchers attending by web. We anticipate that no key-errors were found in our procedures.
3
Outline
Introduction, Motivations & an Overview of the Experimental Procedures.
A short review and details on INFN-LNF procedures and reactor design.
Presentation of experimental results:
Reactor Design Type_a (standard thermal insulation),
Reactor Design Type_b (enhanced thermal insulation).
Some side experiments, and a qualitative summary of “anecdotal” observations.
A procedure to assess the mean-time stability of activated material.
Conclusions.
We invite the reader to send questions and help the Authors in the hunt for possible mistakes. Please
send comments/suggestions/critics within 30 days to: franzcelani@libero.it
4
Introduction, Motivation, Operating Procedures
This work relates to the production of Anomalous Heat Effects (AHE) by the interaction of Hydrogen
(H), Deuterium (D), and Tritium (T), absorbed/adsorbed on specific materials that are afterward
subjected to non-equilibrium conditions (thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, acoustic, nuclear).
Allegedly, these non-equilibrium conditions or “stimuli” are instrumental at promoting, a FLUX of
active species (H, D, T) through the surface of wires, and perhaps in the lattice of the materials.
These studies are known, since 2002 as “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions-Anomalous Heat Effects”
(LENR-AHE, where AHE was added in 2012 by J. J. Truchard, CEO of NI-USA).
Historically, this line of research became known after March 23rd 1989 when Prof. M. Fleischmann and
S. Pons
1
announced thermal evidences of nuclear fusion in electrolytic experiments with palladium
cathodes and heavy water, followed soon afterwards by the report of nuclear evidence of the same
alleged reaction by S. Jones.
Both groups used electrolytic systems, based on Heavy Water (D2O).
1
Today it is well recognized that Fritz Paneth and John Tandberg must be credited as a real pioneer of this “idea” as they conducted similar
experiments already in the 20’s of the twentieth century.
5
On the base of the authors experience:
AHE may be obtained following procedures comprised of two main two steps:
a) preparation of the “possibly active material, usually by physical-chemical procedures
able to produce a particular microstructure;
b) activation phase.
With respect to gas phase experiments, the studied materials are Pd with its alloys, Ni and
Constantan (Cu-Ni-Mn). Nonetheless we cannot yet exclude that several other transition elements
and alloys might show a similar behaviour.
The surface of these materials requires a specific treatment to produce sub-micrometric
structures, namely, to increase largely their surfaces (they tend to become spongy).
If on side we were able to fulfil point a) in a quite satisfactory way (thanks to 20 years of
expertise); on the other we have been lacking until recently a simple and repeatable i.e.
activation procedure b).
6
We had in the past experimental evidence that our modified Constantan wires require some long-
time conditioning at high temperatures and/or current in H2 atmosphere, before producing
measurable AHE. Anyway, no systematic studies were performed, just planned.
The “modified wires” are 100-300 microns diametr wires of Ni44-Cu55-Mn1 alloy (Constantan).
Their surface is modified to obtain sub-micrometric structures (sponge/coral-like) by high
temperatures oxidation (in free air). The wires are coated afterward by multiple layers of mixed oxides
comprised of Sr, K, Mn, Fe.
Moreover, we observed that High Peak Power Pulses, with peak power as high as 10 kW/g and current
flowing along the wire of Constantan (=200 µm; l=160 cm; weight=0.45 g) as large as >12 A, (J=40*103
A/cm2), width 10 µs, repetition rate studied up to 2.5 kHz, was able to activate the wire when the
pulsing time procedure was lasting 5-8 hours and the mean power was of the order of 90 W. Some
tests were performed even at 5 and 10 kHz, with reduced time duration (respectively 5 and 2.5 µs).
We observed that the effectiveness of activation, and related AHE, increased by increasing the
repetition rate at constant mean power: we guessed that even skin effect could be useful.
7
Anyway, the pulsing procedure, although very efficient, is quite difficult to be performed by
typical Researchers around the world, in the case of an independent REPLICATION of the
experiment by a third part in his own Laboratory, at least for Academic purposes.
Moreover, our pulser, fully home-made, was partially damaged since July 2021 and some
of the key components, like high-performance (High Voltage, 1700 V; High peak Current,
40 A; very short commutation time, <<50 ns) High Power MOS device, SiC technology, were
difficult to be obtained because present situation of shortage from the electronic
components manufacturers. Only very recently we were able to get most of the spare parts
needed.
In conclusion, we were forced to explore more simple procedures to activate the material,
although time consuming: some weeks instead of few hours. One reason of longer times
needed, could arise from the wire’s SOA (Safe Operating Area): safe limit of the current that
the 200
m wire can withstand, before damage occurs, in continuous DC conditions is 2.5 A
(free air at 25°C).
8
Moreover, in the past (as before reported), the procedures in DC conditions were not fully
understood and the control parameters were not enough well identified by us. Anyway, we got
“positive indications” that even adopting only DC conditioning could be possible to activate the
wire.
The aim of recent experiments was, among others, to identify some “turning point” for the
activation, if any, and make the whole procedure reproducible/user-friendly even to a not fully-
expert Researcher in the field.
As extra bonus, we would like to verify the effect of local wire temperature, under Hydrogen
gas, in respect to the intensity of AHE (measured outside the reactor’s wall) and its dependence,
just changing the thermal insulation of the core. In details, at the same values of input powers
and similar currents (really, lightly lower) flowing along the wire.
For the sake of control/calibrations, because using thermometry and not calorimetry about the
AHE detection, several tests were made in vacuum and by He (the most similar to H2 in respect
to thermal conductibility).
9
Moreover, we studied the possible effect of uncontrolled water production inside the reactor
because Oxygen reduction (of the oxidised surface) by Hydrogen. We worried that such effect
could fake our data: we make test leaving the original gas, during the first treatments, or
replacing it. Luckily, no measurable variations were detected in the values of AHE.
In order to identify some possible turning point for the activation, due to current density and/or
wire temperature, we made (tedious!) systematic studies and decided to change the power
with close steps each other (practically, starting from 0, 1, 5, 10, 20 and later 10 W steps, up to
about 130-140 W maximum). In other words, DC current <2100 mA, gas He or H2 at few bars of
pressures. Overall main drawback: under-estimation of AHE values if the turning point of
material will happen during the first experiment under Hydrogen gas. The data of first loading
data are used as “calibration” and considered as the zero reference.
We anticipate that the “turning point” was found, mainly by dedicated analysis of AHE, at low-
mean values of it, comparing the measurements by He and the subsequent first experiments
using H2. Apart the data reported in Tab.1, 2. dedicated plots, with data fitted (polynomial, 4°
order), are reported in Fig. 8a and Fig. 9a.
10
We point out that in this presentation we omitted, for the time being, to fully explain all the
potentialities of our system and several physical effects that we used (up to July 2021) in order to
increase both the values of AHE and reduce the tendency of decreasing AHE over time: most of
them are achievable only by pulsing procedures. The physical effects were:
a) Richardson effect, i.e. the possibility of emission of electrons from materials (especially
Low Work Function types: CaO, SrO, BaO) at enough high temperatures (>600 °C);
b) Child Langmuir law, i.e. the possibility to move the electrons from the cathode (where are
produced) to the anode where are collected, thanks to proper positive voltages (V), under
low pressure conditions. Electron current intensity depends as V1.5.
c) Paschen (and/or DBD) effect, i.e. the ionization of gas due to high voltages. The behaviour
is quite complex (NOT intuitive) and depends mainly on: type of gas, its pressure, voltage
among electrodes, their distance and shape. Deeply discussed in our previous papers.
d) Skin effect: geometrical behaviour of current along a conductor at high frequencies, typical
of pulsing conditions. The thickness of skin depth () of conduction depends, apart the
frequency (), on the resistivity of the material () and its magnetic proprieties (r).
11
Reactor design and ancillary information.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the reactor body.
Fig. 2 Photo of the present set-up, very simple, for the sake of fast changing of the components and/or
assembling. SS net was added recently because safety reasons: experienced, unexpected, glass breaking of
the tick-glass reactor, although operated under large-safety regions.
Fig3. Schematic of the “standard” coil, without additional thermal insulations: used also for pulse
experiments because its simplicity. Type_a experiment.
Fig.4. Schematic of the “standard” coil, with additional thermal insulations, to increase wire temperatures
at the same power (almost same current applied). Type_b experiment.
Fig. 5. Schematic of the pulser, just for general information and comparison with commercial models.
Fig. 6. Behaviour of Voltage, Current and Power of a typical high-power pulse, sent longitudinally to the
surface modified Constant wire (l=158 cm, =200 m), coil geometry.
12
Fig.7. Behaviour of Voltage of a typical High-Voltage (>1000 V) pulse sent, by the inmost Fe counter-
electrode, transversally to the surface-modified Constant wire, coiled geometry. The distance among the
electrodes is 2-3 mm. Set-up activated in the case of Richardson (low) or Paschen (mild pressures) regimes.
Fig. 8. Main results of AHE versus input power and internal coil temperature for type_a reactor coil
(Standard geometry).
Fig.8a. Results of first couple of measurements, by He and H2. High resolution-low power effects.
Fig. 9. Main results of AHE versus input power and internal coil temperature for type_b reactor coil
(improved thermal insulation geometry).
Fig.9a. Results of first couple of measurements, by He and H2. High resolution-low power effects.
Fig. 10. Richardson curve: behaviour of current density of electrons (A/m2) that boil off at the surface of
any material, with specific Work Function (eV), versus Temperature (K). Because clarity, range shown are
restricted to that of our specific interest: WF= 0.5-3 eV; T= 273-1500 K.
13
Scheme of the reactor body
Fig. 1. Schematic of the reactor body. The container is tick-wall (3.2 mm) borosilicate glass.
14
Real reactor
Fig. 2. Photo of the reactor. Because safety reasons, it is protected by a SS net.
15
Inner reactor core, standard structure
Fig. 3. Details of the inner core of the reactor. Standard version without extra thermal screenings: Cu, insulating sheet, SS IR
reflector. Set-up used for pulsing test to avoid unexpected interferences due to Cu and SS tube. Scheme of the coaxial coil with
its inner Fe counter-electrode. The coil, wire length of 158 cm, had usually 75 turns; recently reduced to about 50 because HV
insulation problematics. The present core, in respect to ICCF23 version, is a simplified version without IR screening (by Al foil)
and thermal insulation.
16
Inner core, version with enhanced thermal screening
Fig. 4. Inner core of the reactor. Added: IR reflector (Cu), thermal insulation, SS thin tube.
17
Scheme of the pulser
Fig. 5. Schematic of the pulser with main auxiliary circuits, depicted as “black box”. Pulse duration/fall (V3) is determined by
the discharge mode along the electrodes (i.e. DBD, Paschen). The main capacitor bank C1, array of ceramic and Polipropilene
in parallel, has value of the order of 4 F and insulation voltage of over 1500 V. Main “quality factor” is their ability to withstand,
repetitive, very high values of V/t and I/t.
18
Snapshot of a typical high-power pulse, longitudinal power
Fig. 6. Snapshot of typical pulse of high power, sent longitudinally to the 200 m wire. Time: 1 s /div. The
Voltage is in red colour (peak value is -380 V), the Current is in blue colour (peak value -12.4 A), the Power is
green colour (peak value 4640 W, equivalent to 10 kV*A/g of Constantan).
19
Snapshot of a typical high-power pulse, transversal voltage
Fig. 7. Snapshot of the transversal pulse, time is 2 s/div. As reference, there is the current applied (in blue
colour). The Voltage (200 V/div), positive, among the counter-electrode (i.e. the Fe tube) and the Constantan
coil is in red colour. Maximum value, in this test, was +1060 V. High Voltage-Low Current transversal pulses are
used to activate Paschen/DBD regimes.
20
Main Results
We report mainly on 2 types of measurements, the first (type_a) with “standard” insulation of the main
core, the second (type_b) with a coil as much as possible similar in the construction with type_a but with
increased layers of insulations (Cu and SS reflectors included), in order to increase the core temperature
with the same input power applied, i.e. almost the same current (reality, a little-bit lower because wire’s
resistance increasing at higher temperatures) flowing along the wire.
In both cases the AHE increases by increasing the amount of current applied (up to 2020 mA in the present
experiments) and the time of high current applied (from about 2 hours for calibration/exploration
purposes) up to 14 h usually; 80-130 h in same cases.
The data are reported considering the value of AHE calculated under the, very conservative hypothesis,
that the first cycle of loading H2 is the reference “blank”. Moreover, at the beginning, after “vacuum
cleaning”, we collected the data using as filling gas He that has thermal insulation proprieties enough similar
to H2: it is considered as inert about AHE production, if any.
IMPORTANT: We had evidences that after applying current of 1770 mA, 517 °C inner temperature, 12 hours
duration, we got the first clear activation of the wire. There are indications that another, weaker, activation
happened at 50 W by analysis of AHE H2#1 using He as blank.
In other words, the values of AHE over 1770 mA after 1° cycle, are UNDER-estimated.
21
The AHE is estimated according to the following formula:
AHE (W)=[[(Te_act-Tr_act)/Pin-(Te_ref-Tr_ref)/Pin]/ (Te_ref-Tr_ref)/Pin]*Pin
Where:
Te: Temperature (°C) of the external wall of the glass reactor, covered by 2 layers of tick Al foil with
surface darkened by specific high temperature (up to 800 °C) and emissivity (>>90%) paint;
_act: meaning of the temperature for experiments after 1° cycle, supposed zero, (the reference).
_r: Room temperature °C;
Pin: Input power W.
The same formula is used for calculation with He, supposing the cycle by H2#1 as
(potentially) active. By observation of AHE, it can be easily seen that the first current-
temperature of large “activation” is about 1770 mA, around 500°C, 12 h of operations at
100W of input power. There are, moreover, indications that another weaker activation,
happened at power as low as 50W.
22
Results with set-up type_a (standard insulation)
Pw
He
He
H2#1
H2#1
H2#2
H2#2
H2#3
H2#3
H2#4
H2#4
H2#5
H2#5
Pw
Tint
AHE
T_int
AHE_He
T_int
AHE
T_int
AHE
T_int
AHE
T_int
AHE
5
75.3
70.1
-0.11
72.0
+0.04
69.5
+0.17
71.4
+0.23
10
123
110.2
+0.1
115.1
+0.49
112.7
+0.97
117.8
+0.64
116.1
+0.97
20
198
181.7
-1.53
187.4
+1.4
185.3
+1.83
187.8
+1.55
189.1
+1.92
30
260
240
-1.90
248
+1.90
245
+1.27
246
+2.07
250
+2.58
40
313
290
-1.34
300
+1.80
297
+1.80
299
+1.60
305
+2.90
50
361
340b
-2.26
349
+1.63
347
+2.04
346
+2.18
354
3.30
60
404
383
-2.09
389
+1.87
389
+2.81
387
+2.51
396
3.92
70
445
420
-1.23
426
+1.39
426
+2.00
426
+1.95
434
5.82
80
480
453
-1.16
464
+1.90
463
+2.47
463
+2.49
471
3.76
90
515
487
-0.77
498
+1.56
497
+2.32
497
+2.27
500
5.04
100
545
518a
-1.02
530
+1.88
529
+2.55
528
+2.81
540
4.13
110
576
552
+0.29
558
+1.53
557
+1.73
566
3.09
120
601
582
-0.86
587
+1.87
588
+1.88
595
2.76
130
630
608
+0.80
616
+1.24
612
+2.08
625
3.38
140
637
150
Tab.1. Main results with exp. using standard thermal insulation. Reported also values about He, used as cross
calibration. The AHE of exp.#1 by H2 (brown colour) is normalised to He. Because thermal conductivity of He is
lower in respect to H2 in the range of press. and temp. adopted, the internal temperature is higher.
23
Notes:
Because the thermal conductivity of He is lower than H2, at any temperatures and in the range of pressure
adopted (few bar), the internal temperatures, at the same input power, are higher in the case of He in respect
to H2. Anyway, such behaviour is not significant in the case of AHE measurements because the calculations are
performed considering ONLY the temperature at external wall of the reactor, as shown in Fig. 1 and 2. The
internal core temperature are recorded to study possible effects on the amount of AHE, related to wire
temperature that ab/ad_sorbed Hydrogen. Moreover, because the He thermal conductivity is lower in respect
to H2, also the energy lost to the environment from the full reactor tube (length is over 40 cm, see Fig.2),
although thermally insulated, and not computed, is lower. We recall that the coil has a length <15 cm.
Exp. H2#1
a) Cycle from 0 W up to maximum, usual for 1° cycle, i.e. 0->5->10->20-> 30, …. 130 W. After 12 h at 100 W,
the AHE increased from -1.02 W to +0.21 W. => Turning point. Twin data, i.e. data at the beginning and
the end of 12 h, aren’t reported for simplification, only quoted in present note.
Exp. H2#2. Same gas, H2, of experiment H2#1. Leaved at 100 W (=>1776 mA) for 120 h. AHE calculated
supposing H2#1 as ZERO reference.
Exp. H2#3. Made vacuum, later fresh H2 (3 bar). Pw=130 W (=>2029 mA) for 14 h 30 m. AHE calculated
supposing H2#1 as ZERO reference.
24
Exp. H2#4. Made vacuum, later fresh H2 (4 bar). Leaved at 142 W (2120 mA) along 13 h. Slowly Pw self-
increased to 147 W (at the same current) because the resistance of the wire increased from 31.5230 to
32.6566 Ohm (V-I measurements in situ). AHE calculated supposing H2#1 as ZERO reference.
Exp.H2#5. Used the same gas of exp- H2#4. Leaved at 130 W along 138 h. AHE calculated supposing H2#1
as ZERO reference.
25
Fig. 8. Data fitted, polynomial order, of the whole experiment, except H2#1 versus He, for clarity omitted:
shown in Fig. 8a. Because fitting procedures, for same values of input power and # of cycles, the AHE values
can be slightly different from that reported in Tab.1. Anyway, the trends are similar. It is clearly evident,
because changing of the slope of AHE curves, that, at Pw >80-90 W, happened the 2nd activation of the wire.
26
Fig.8A. Standard insulation. Detail of AHE, exp H2#1, using as blank He. Because fitting limitations, some
detailed analysis performed just using data at Tab.1 are not possible. Anyway, the general trend of data is the
same. At 40 W of input Pw, first activation point, J was about 3500 A/cm2; at 100 W, 2nd activation point was
5600 A/cm2. Data over 100 W obtained after waiting 12 h at such power.
27
Results with set-up type_b (improved insulation)
Input
He
He
H2#1
H2#1
H2#2
H2#2
H2#3
H2#3
H2#4
H2#4
H2#5
H2#5
H2#6
H2#6
Pw(W)
T_int
AHE
T_int
AHE
T_int
AHE
T_int
AHE
T_int
AHE
T_int
AHE
T_int
AHE
5
68.6
64.5
-0.01
62.6
+0.01
63.4
+0.2
KO
NA
10
109.6
101.9
-0.07
101.0
+0.07
103.3
+0.56
100.8
+0.29
103.6
+0.58
KO
NA
20
184.2
168
-0.2
+170.7
+0.32
172.1
+0.64
169.2
+0.71
172.6
+0.90
KO
NA
30
249
226
-0.5
231
+0.75
233
+1.18
230
+1.21
234
+1.61
KO
NA
40
310
283
-0.28
288
+0.83
291
+1.45
288
+1.46
294
+1.88
290
+1.69
50
367
335
-0.40a
343
+1.1
347
+1.75
343
+1.73
348
+2.51
345
+1.91
60
419
386
-0.69
393
+1.31
396
+2.35
394
+2.56
397
+3.02
394
+2.41
70
467
430
-0.25
439
+1.75
443
+1.97
439
+2.61
444
+3.26
439
+2.59
80
516
476
+0.06
486
+1.27
489
+2.44
485
+2.76
493
+3.07
485
+2.50
90
560
518
+0.02
528
+2.00
532
+3.64
527
+3.36
536
+4.35
528
+3.91
100
604
558
+0.06
569
+1.78
575
+3.16
567
+3.84
577
+4.25
567
+3.90
110
640
596
+0.10
607
+1.74
611
+3.66
604
+3.97
617
+4.83
606
+4.70
120
680
635
+0.21
646
+2.02
652
+4.01
643
+4.28
655
+5.64
644
+5.45
130
717
708
+0.41
681
+2.15
684
+4.70
679
+4.58
692
+6.37
677
+5.93
140
718
b
718
+2.04
725
+4.16
715
+5.10
734
+5.96
719
+5.82
150
Tab.2. Main results with experiment using improved insulation. Reported also values about He, used as cross
calibration. The AHE of exp.#1 by H2 (brown colour) is normalised to He. Because thermal conductivity of He
is lower in respect to H2 in the range of pressure and temperatures adopted, the internal temperature is
higher.
28
Notes.
H2#1. Cycle from 0 W up to maximum, usual for 1° cycle, i.e. 0->5->10->20-> 30, …. 130->140->150 W.
a. Evacuated the 1° H2, to study possible effects of water because H2-O recombination. Refilled with fresh
H2. Almost NO effects in respect to AHE.
b. Leaved along 14 h at 140 W.
H2#2 Experiment, from 140 W down to 0W, started after 14 h at 140 W of H2#1, b. Same gas of H2#1, following,
after vacuum, filled by fresh H2 at 50 W.
Significative effects on AHE, due to treatment of H2#1 at 140W, 14h.
H2#3. Fresh H2. Previously 142 W from 39 h. Large effects on AHE.
H2#4. Fresh H2. Previously 141 W from 14 h. Further, limited, increasing of AHE.
H2#5. Fresh H2. Previously 141 W from 63 h. Further increasing of AHE=> effect of long time at high power.
H2#6. Fresh H2. In the previous days were made several, heavy-duty, test also at very low pressures and high
power. Quite limited reduction of performances. AHE seems related, mostly, on permanent “changing” of the
bulk structures=> to be further explored in the next experiments. During the procedure of measurements (from
high values of power to lower, 10 W step), the wire got catastrophic failure in the step 5040W
29
Fig.9. Improved insulation. Data fitted, polynomial order, of the whole experiment. Used as “blank” the
values obtained by H2#1. The values of H2#1versus He, for clarity omitted: shown in Fig. 9a. Because fitting
procedures, for same values of input power and # of cycles, the AHE values can be slightly different from that
reported in Tab.2. Anyway, the trends are similar.
30
Fig.9A. Improved insulation. Detail of AHE, exp H2#1, using as blank the He. Because fitting limitations, some
detailed analysis performed just using data at Tab.1 are not possible. Anyway, the general trend of data is the
same. The improvements about AHE (blue colour) are clearly evident, in respect to experiment type_a, just due
to larger wire temperatures (red colour), at the same power applied.
31
Mean-time stability of activated material: specific test
It was made a specific test to proof experimentally that, after activation, the material “keeps” its active
state for time longer than 11 h, providing that a low power (about 20 W in our test, corresponding to a
current density of about 2530 A/cm2) was given to the system, similarly to the old-fashioned “stand-by”
condition of vacuum tubes.
The test was performed using the “standard”, type_a, insulation geometry because it was the most used
and studied up to now.
The test was made at the end of cycle #5 of power reduction, starting from the largest value (130 W) used
during such kind of experiments.
For an easy understanding of the specific test, details of our procedure to demonstrate the AHE effects are
reported in Tab.3: shown most of the main parameters of our experiments. Some details are added to allow
an easier understanding, drawback is that the table is quite long/large (18 lines, 9 columns).
In Tab 3, the term OCV (Open Circuit Voltage, negative) is the “spontaneous voltage” that is present along
the wire, with the Fe as counter electrode, just few second from when the main power supply is
disconnected. Moreover, R/Ro is the wire resistance (R) ratio in respect to the starting (Ro) value at RT: its
value gives combined indications of H loading into the bulk of the wire and its temperature.
32
Event
number
Time
(m)
Input Pw
(W)
Idc
(mA)
Gas Press.
(mbar)
Temp. int
(°C)
OCV
(-mV)
R/Ro
AHE_ext
(W)
1
0
131.1
2001
1594
625
9.92
0.9809
3.38
2
30
119.8
1917
1565.8
595
9.47
0.9790
3.69
3
63
110.2
1844
1534.8
566
8.862
0.9726
3.09
4
97
100.5
1764
1510.8
540
8.24
0.9743
4.13
5
125
90
1673
1481.2
500
7.548
0.9653
5.04
6
155
79.9
1577
1451.2
471
6.84
0.9644
3.76
7
222
69.9
1481
1421
434
6.021
0.9572
3.61
8
256
59.8
1368
1391.4
396
5.303
0.9598
3.92
9
287
50.2
1255
1358.4
354
4.547
0.9563
3.30
10
317
39.8
1121
1320
305
3.715
0.9551
2.90
11
349
29.9
972
1276
250
2.83
0.9529
2.58
12
352
20
793
13
923
19.9
794
1223
189.1
1.924
0.9591
1.92
14
968
10
559
1175.2
116.1
1.051
0.9601
0.97
15
1012
5
396
11296
71.4
0.569
0.9560
0.23
16
1115
102.8
1782
1524.2
546
8.350
0.9720
2.99
17
1177
99.8
1756
1524.38
537
8.280
0.9716
4.26
18
1222
99.8
1756
1527.96
538
8.290
0.9717
4.35
Tab. 3. Details, over time, of input power given to the wire. Most important are the (long) time at low power
(line1215, Time=660 m at low power). AHE, after giving high values (100 W), resumed or even improved:
comparison among event numbers #4 (initial) and final (#17, #18), after long times at low power (#12#15).
33
General comments
Comparing the results of AHE of experiment type_b (improved insulation), with experiment type_a
(standard insulation), the local wire’s temperature seems to play a significant role on the intensity of AHE
generation.
It is supposed that the reproducibility, about main coil construction (home made by the same operator,
overall geometrical parameters and wire chemical-physical pre-treatments each other similar to +-20%), is
enough for the purposes of the specific experiments reported.
As an example, at 100 W of input power, the typical wire temperature of experiment type_a is about 520
°C (=>790 K) while for experiment type_b is about 580 °C (=> 850 K), i.e. an increasing of only 7.5% in K. In
comparison, measured values of AHE improved of over 60-100%.
Possible candidates to explain the large temperature effects, i.e. activation, are:
a) temperature-induced enhanced mobility of useful species at the bulk and/or surface of the wire;
b) new phases formation, mainly into the bulk;
c) surface electron emission;
d) a proper, “favourable”, combination of points a, b, c.
34
About surface electron emission at point c), we can guess that the so large improvement has almost an
exponential like shape: it remembers the behaviour of Richardson formula about the electron emission at
the surface of a hot cathode versus temperature. Then, the addition of Low Work Function Materials (like
SrO in our typical experiments, since about 2016) at the wire surface could be one of the keys characteristics
of our procedures.
The Richardson formula (Fig. 10) has the expression:
J=AT2e-W/kT.
Where:
J=current density (A/m2);
T=temperature (K);
W (Work Function of Material (eV), typically 1.5-3 eV;
k=Boltzmann constant (J/K);
A= constant.
35
Fig. 10. Behaviour of current density of electrons (A/m2) that boil off at the surface of any material, with specific
Work Function (eV), versus Temperature (K). Typical Work Function of materials that we added is around 2 eV.
36
Conclusions
According to the results, it is evident that one of the key-parameter for AHE generation is the absolute
temperature, and current density flowing inside of the wire and its time “spent” at the proper high values
for its activation.
The SIMPLE procedure, reported for activation, seems to be possible. Main drawback is the long-time need,
at least 1 week.
It seems that, in our experimental conditions, the maximum Pw that could be “extracted” is of the order of
over 7 W, equivalent to a power density of over 15 W/g of Constantan. Such value is really good for
Academic purposes but not enough for practical applications, considering the complexity for the
preparation of the coil.
From observation of the trend of AHE versus temperature, it is evident that it is a not-linear behaviour:
close to exponential or similar. It remembers the electron emission at surface of materials. We guess that
even the electrons density, boiling off at the wire surfaces, could play an important role on AHE generation.
37
We planned to explore, separately, temperatures close to 900 °C to confirm the “exponential like” trend.
One simple possibility is to add (to the main H2) gases at much lower thermal conductivity in respect to H2,
like Ar or Xe, as made by us in the past several times. Supposing valid the extrapolation of exponential
trend, at 900 °C, the “gain” could reach over 20 W, i.e. over 45 W/g about power density. Possible risks of
higher temperatures are sintering phenomena at the surfaces: loss of their “sponge/volcano” shapes, as
observed by SEM.
Another simple approach is to assemble several cores, close each other as much as possible: the AHE of
one can increases the overall temperature of the others. I.E. like chain-reaction just due to the high
temperature, self-helping effect. It can be mathematical demonstrated (e.g. Jacques Ruer, CleanHME
project) that even with a CoP (Coefficient of Performances, i.e. the gain in %) of only 10%, packaging 5 cores
all-together, could be possible to get the self-sustaining regime, supposing that large current flowing is not
really necessary=> further systematic studies, and new reactors(!!), are needed.
Perhaps we have to change the body of our reactor, from present tick glass to specific SS (sulphur free),
more useful to withstand higher temperatures, pressures and fast pressure/temperature variations.
Recently, we had to overcome heavy problems from, unexpected, several catastrophic breaking of the glass
reactor and the debris shattered all around. Likely, the SS net, as shown in Fig.2, helped to reduce the
damaging to the surround.
38
We can reconfirm that pulsing procedure, for several combined proprieties, could be the technological
solution to the problem. More work is necessary to made the pulsed system in the whole (i.e. pulser and
reactor core) more resilient to unexpected operating condition that, in the past, damaged it.
As final comment, we can claim that, if there are not unexpected errors,
one SIMPLE procedure to activate “our” Constantan coil was found.
It is enough easy to be replicated from a mean-skilled Scientist,
and even PhD University student,
everywhere in the word.
39
Some of key-thinking at the base of our work.
We would like to pay a tribute to the work of Francesco Piantelli (Siena University, Italy) and Jacques
Dufour (previously at Shell Company, France) among many others.
The main work from them, that partially inspired our unconventional procedures, were the following:
Dufour, J. J. (2012, 07 11). Europe Patent No. EP2474501.
Dufour, J. J., Dufour, J.-C. X., Foos, J. H., & Murat, D. M. (1999, 4 19). Europe Patent No. EP1072041.
Dufour, J., Foos, J., & Millot, J. P. (1995). Measurement of Excess Energy and Isotope Formation in
the Palladium-Hydrogen System. Proceedings of: “5th International Conference on Cold Fusion
April-9-13, 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco.
Focardi, S., & Piantelli, F. (2004). Produzione di energia e reazioni nucleari in sistemi Ni-H a 400 C.
XIX Congresso Nazionale UIT. Genova.
Piantelli, F. (2013, 01 16). Europe Patent No. EP2368252B1.
40
Acknowledgments
We are indebted to a Metallurgical Company in the North-Eastern part of Italy (NEMC), which since 2011 provided some
financial support and performed key experiments in their own Laboratories (by their Scientist and Technicians): a fully
independent cross-check of our most critical experiments was useful to increase our confidence on reported results.
Since 2017 we initiated also a multiple collaboration with NEMC and SIGI-Favier (Italy-France), to design an original hybrid
sheath obtained by crossing Glass and AluminaQuartz fibres. The sheaths are used for the electric insulation of the wires.
These original sheaths can continuously operate up to 1200 °C and, thanks to a tailored geometry, may adsorb significant
amounts of Atomic Hydrogen. Moreover, the sheaths are porous, holes of micrometric dimension: one of the key aspects
of our experimental set-up.
Institute Fluid Association, Rome-Italy, provided us, from several years, some economical support about consumable of
Laboratory and expenses for trips even abroad Italy because Conferences/Workshop/Meetings.
Special thanks to the Scientists involved in the CleanHME European project, chaired by Konrad Czerski (Szczecin University,
Poland). In particular, for the fruitful collaboration with Prof. Bo Hoistad and Collaborators (Uppsala University, Sweden)
as well as with Dr. Andras Kowacs from the Broadbit Company.
We are especially glad to Claudio Pace and Bill Collis (and Volunteers) that organised several Workshops focused on LENR-
AHE problematics, in presence, from many years in nice locations around the City of Assisi-Italy. The strict rules, in Italy,
because Covid-19 problematics, made their work (from 2 years) more and more difficult and important to ours
Community. Fortunately, they overcome most of the problems, budget limitations included, thanks also to several private
sponsors in Italy.
41
Funding
This work has received partial funding from the European Union’s Horizon2020
Framework Program, under Grant Agreement #951974.
Disclaimer
The work reported in this document is under the full responsibility of the Authors and
do not represent necessarily the opinion of whole Clean HME project.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
The main work from them, that partially inspired our unconventional procedures, were the following: • Dufour
The main work from them, that partially inspired our unconventional procedures, were the following: • Dufour, J. J. (2012, 07 11). Europe Patent No. EP2474501.
Measurement of Excess Energy and Isotope Formation in the Palladium-Hydrogen System
  • J Dufour
  • J Foos
  • J P Millot
• Dufour, J., Foos, J., & Millot, J. P. (1995). Measurement of Excess Energy and Isotope Formation in the Palladium-Hydrogen System. Proceedings of: "5 th International Conference on Cold Fusion" April-9-13, 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco.