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The ‘science of reading’ is incomplete without the ‘science of teaching reading’

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Abstract

We now know a huge amount about early reading development, about the various skills that learners have to master and integrate to be not only effective word readers but also good comprehenders. The body of work referred to with the term ‘science of reading’ has helped illuminate these processes, and offers important guidance for the learning opportunities that educators should be making available to students in kindergarten through third grade. We argue, though, that the great advances of the last 50 years in the ‘science of reading’ need to be complemented with equivalent attention to the ‘science of teaching reading.’ We maintain that science of teaching reading is insufficient, and that learning how literacy is actually taught in the classroom and how pre-service and in-service teachers learn about how to teach reading is an important research agenda on its own, if researchers are to collaborate with practitioners effectively to improve reading outcomes.

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Este acercamiento ofrece mejoras considerables en los métodos para identificar elementos de la instrucción efectiva. تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى مساهمة الجهود الرامية إلى تحسين طرق جمع المعطيات وتحليلها المأخوذة من ملاحظات غرفة الصف في التعلم المبكر. ويعالج هذا المدخل المنهاجي المشاكل الجارية بصدد ثبات ملاحظات غرفة الصف وصدقها من خلال مراعاة الاختلافات في أنشطة المعلمين التعليمية (مثل تقليد السلوك) في مجالات معينة (مثل مرونة القراءة والاستيعاب). وقد بينت نتائج الملاحظات من تعليم معرفة القراءة والكتابة لدى معلمي الصفين الثاني والثالث أن أنشطة المعلمين التعليمية اختلفت حسب مجال مهارة التعلم وكانت أكثر تطابقاً ضمن مجالات المهارات من عبرها. وبالإضافة إلى ذلك، حظت استخدامات الأنشطة التعليمية لدى المعلمين في مجال مهارة معين بأكثر ترابطاً مع تقدمات الطلاب في الإنجاز في مجال المهارة هذا من استخدامات الأنشطة لدى المعلمين عبر كل مجالات المهارة. توفر هذه الطريقة تحسنات ملحوظة فيما يتعلق بالطرق لتعيين معالم تعليم معرفة القراءة والكتابة الفعالة. Цeль иccлeдoвaния – дoпoлнить и coвepшeнcтвoвaть cyщecтвyющиe мeтoды cбopa и aнaлизa дaнныx o cтaнoвлeнии гpaмoтнocти. Для peшeния пpoблeм вaлиднocти и нaдeжнocти дaнныx, пoлyчaeмыx в пpoцecce нaблюдeний нa ypoкax, пpeдлaгaeтcя мeтoд, yчитывaющий paзличия в yчeбныx дeйcтвияx yчитeлeй (нaпpимep, мoдeлиpoвaния) пpи paзвитии oпpeдeлeнныx нaвыкoв (нaпpимep, бeглocти чтeния или пoнимaния пpoчитaннoгo). Peзyльтaты нaблюдeний зa yчитeлями втopыx и тpeтьиx клaccoв пoкaзaли, чтo для paзвития paзныx нaвыкoв yчитeля иcпoльзyют caмыe paзныe yчeбныe дeйcтвия, oднaкo, paзвивaя oдин и тoт жe нaвык, oни дeйcтвyют cxoдным oбpaзoм. Кpoмe тoгo, дeйcтвия yчитeлeй, cвязaнныe в coзнaнии yчeникoв c oпpeдeлeнным нaвыкoм, бoлee знaчимы, чeм дeйcтвия, кoтopыe oни пpимeняют пpи cтaнoвлeнии цeлoгo pядa paзличныx нaвыкoв. Дaнный пoдxoд cyщecтвeннo coвepшeнcтвyeт мeтoды для oпpeдeлeния нaибoлee эффeктивнoгo oбyчeния гpaмoтнocти. Cette étude a pour but de contribuer aux efforts réalisés pour améliorer le recueil et l'analyse des données provenant des observations relatives à l'entrée dans l’écrit. L'approche méthodologique présentée concerne les problèmes courants de fidélité et de validité des observations faites en classe, en prenant en compte les différences d'utilisation par le maître de ses interventions pédagogiques (par exemple, recourir à un modèle) dans des domaines de compétence bien définis (par exemple, la lecture courante, la compréhension de la lecture). Il est apparu, dans des observations de la littératie en 2e et 3e année, que les interventions pédagogiques des enseignants ne sont pas les mêmes selon la compétence en littératie considérée et qu'elles sont plus constantes pour un domaine donné que d'un domaine à l'autre. De plus, les interventions pédagogiques des enseignants dans un domaine de compétence donné sont liées plus fortement aux progrès des élèves dans ce domaine de compétence qu'aux interventions pédagogiques des maîtres dans l'ensemble des domaines de compétence. Cette approche propose des améliorations significatives dans les méthodes visant à identifier les caractéristiques d'un enseignement efficace de la littératie.
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Federal mandates more than a decade old require the use of evidence-based practices in schools, and an abundance of meta-analytic evidence for reading instruction exists; however, the long lamented research to practice gap in education gives reason to explore whether this evidence has translated to classrooms. This study examined the extent to which a national sample of kindergarten, first- and second-grade teachers (n = 534) reported using evidence-based reading curricula. Results indicated that very few curricula teachers used have been evaluated using research designs that meet federal guidelines. In addition, teachers reported supplanting their core reading curricula with other materials. Results of the survey indicate the need, despite a federal push for evidence-based practices, for new models of developing, testing, and disseminating evidence-based curricula.
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Knowledge brokers are people or organizations that move knowledge around and create connections between researchers and their various audiences. This commentary reviews some of the literature on knowledge brokering and lays out some thoughts on how to analyze and theorize this practice. Discussing the invisibility and interstitiality of knowledge brokers, the author argues that social scientists need to analyze more thoroughly their practices, the brokering devices they use, and the benefits and drawbacks of their double peripherality. The author also argues that knowledge brokers do not only move knowledge, but they also produce a new kind of knowledge: brokered knowledge.
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The social-linguistic experiences of early readers in interaction with their parents were compared to that of age peers from similar families. Twelve kindergarten children, six precocious readers (ER) and six prereading peers (PR), and their parents were subjects for this study. Children were matched on age, sex, and receptive vocabulary (PPVT). ERs were reading fluently at the third grade level. The PRs presented age-appropriate emergent literacy skills. All parents were middle class, and educated at least two years beyond secondary school. The oral language of all speakers was analyzed for variables considered to be facilitative of the development of decontextualized language. Analyses of the 36 audio-recorded interactions focused on elements that described each speaker's 1) language complexity, 2) conversational devices, and 3) topic, as well as the children's performance on two decontextualized language tasks. ERs' parents created an even more enriched language environment for their children than PRs' parents. All significant and nonsignificant differences relating to decontextualized language favored ER families. ERs did not differ from PRs on the decontextualized task of giving formal definitions, though they did produce more complete and comprehensible procedural descriptions.
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Answering the call for a comprehensive textbook on what reading teachers really need to know, this is the book that arms educators with not just the what and the how, but also the why that other texts don't cover. Two prominent literacy experts team with an elementary school specialist to give preservice teachers an easy-to-understand textbook that demystifies the research and incorporates everyday classroom experience. With its meticulous coverage of every aspect of effective reading instruction, this book ensures that general educators across grade levels: (1) learn techniques for teaching all the literacy skills identified by Reading First; (2) get the clearest explanations available of the scientifically based research behind the strategies; (3) fully understand how and when literacy skills are acquired and what factors influence the process; (4) discover the best ways to teach students with learning disabilities, reading disabilities, and dyslexia; (5) get ready to conduct effective assessment of students' reading skills; and (6) find out how to use the latest instructional technology to help advance students' literacy. With its practical, research-based answers to the three most important questions literacy educators face--what to teach, how to teach, and why to teach the recommended way--this upper-level textbook will make sure teachers enter the classroom ready and motivated to implement best practices. Contents of this book include: (1) Introduction to Literacy Skills and Their Acquisition; (2) The Psychology of Reading and the History of Literacy Instruction in the United States; (3) The Psycholinguistics of Spoken Language; (4) The Psycholinguistics of Written Language; (5) Development of Spoken and Written Language Skills; (6) Developing Basic Literacy Skills; (7) Strategies for Developing Decoding, Instant Word Reading, and Spelling Skills; (8) Strategies for Developing Vocabulary Knowledge, Comprehension Skills, and Writing Skills; (9) Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; and (10) Testing and Assessment of Literacy Skills. References, Appendices, Author Index, and Subject Index are included.
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We examined the relations of teacher knowledge (n = 42 first-grade teachers), explicit decoding instruction provided, and students' (n = 437) word-reading gains. Results revealed an interaction between teacher knowledge and observed decoding instruction: For students of more knowledgeable teachers, more time in explicit instruction predicted stronger word-reading gains. For students of less knowledgeable teachers, more time in explicit instruction was associated with weaker skill gains. Findings highlight the importance of teachers' specialized body of knowledge about reading as it informs effective instruction.
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ATTEMPTS TO REFUTE THE PREMISE THAT READING IS AN EXACT SCIENCE WHICH INVOLVES PRECISE, DETAILED PERCEPTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LETTERS AND WORDS. RATHER, READING IS DEFINED AS A "PSYCHOLINGUISTIC GUESSING GAME" IN WHICH THE READER PICKS UP GRAPHIC CUES TO WORDS, FORMS A PERCEPTUAL IMAGE, AND THUS READS BY A SELECTION PROCESS. THROUGHOUT THE READING PROCESS, THERE IS CONSTANT USE OF LONG- AND SHORT-TERM MEMORY. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined ways in which children's risk of school failure may be moderated by support from teachers. Participants were 910 children in a national prospective study. Children were identified as at risk at ages 5-6 years on the basis of demographic characteristics and the display of multiple functional (behavioral, attention, academic, social) problems reported by their kindergarten teachers. By the end of first grade, at-risk students placed in first-grade classrooms offering strong instructional and emotional support had achievement scores and student-teacher relationships commensurate with their low-risk peers; at-risk students placed in less supportive classrooms had lower achievement and more conflict with teachers. These findings have implications for understanding the role that classroom experience may play in pathways to positive adaptation.
Observing learning opportunities form PK to Grade 3. A paper presented at the IES PI meeting
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Connor, C. M., Adams, A., Vandell, D., Justice, L., & Sheridan, S. (2020). Observing learning opportunities form PK to Grade 3. A paper presented at the IES PI meeting, Washington, DC.
Educator outcomes associated with implementation of Mississippi's K-3 early literacy professional development initiative
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An old and contested solution to boost reading scores: Phonics. The New York Times
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Goldstein, D. (2020). An old and contested solution to boost reading scores: Phonics. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/39CHxBW
Hard to read: How American schools fail kids with dyslexia
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Hanford, E. (2017). Hard to read: How American schools fail kids with dyslexia. APM Reports. Retrieved from https://www.apmreports.org/story/2017/09/11/hard-to-read
Why are we still teaching reading the wrong way? Teacher preparation programs continue to ignore the sound science behind how people become readers. The New York Times
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Hanford, E. (2019a). Why are we still teaching reading the wrong way? Teacher preparation programs continue to ignore the sound science behind how people become readers. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/26/opinion/sunday/phonics-teaching-reading-wrongway.html
At a loss for words: How a flawed idea is teaching millions of kids to be poor readers
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Hanford, E. (2019b). At a loss for words: How a flawed idea is teaching millions of kids to be poor readers. APM Reports. Retrieved from https://www.apmreports.org/episode/2019/08/22/whats-wrong-how-schools-teachreading
Knowledge and practice standards for teachers of reading
International Dyslexia Association (2018). Knowledge and practice standards for teachers of reading. https://dyslexiaida.org/knowledge-and-practices/
A risky science communication environment for vaccines
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Kahan, D. M. (2013). A risky science communication environment for vaccines. Science, 342, 53-54. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1245724
Learning through language: Towards an educationally informed theory of language learning
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Lieven, E. (2019). Input, interaction and learning in early language development. In V. Grover, P. Uccelli, M. Rowe, & E. Lieven (Eds.), Learning through language: Towards an educationally informed theory of language learning. Cambridge University Press.
Data: How reading is really being taught
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Loewus, L. (2019). Data: How reading is really being taught. Education Week. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2019/12/04/data-how-reading-is-really-beingtaught.html
Longitudinal impacts of the children's literacy Initiative professional development, coaching, and model classroom intervention on early literacy achievement
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Parkinson, J., Meakin, J., & Salinger, T. (2015). Longitudinal impacts of the children's literacy Initiative professional development, coaching, and model classroom intervention on early literacy achievement. Evanston, IL: Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED56235.7