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The organization of modern cloud services is based on theoretical results in logistics, operations research, supply chains, information transmission (transportation) networks, and on the practical achievements of the novel information and communication technologies. As all the inhabitants of the planet become regular users and at the same time creators of such services, the issues of decentralized decision making are becoming everyday problems. The paper presents the setup for the problem of such solutions by suppliers (providers) of cloud services and suggests a mathematical formulation of the corresponding optimization problem with resource constraints. It is a starting point for further mathematical elaboration of the new everyday problems.

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If the first computer networks represented mainly research projects for military and academic purposes (for double-purpose), the current networks represent rather competitive business structures with the highest capitalization ever. Apple is the first company in the world which achieved capitalization trillion dollars. Two years later, in 2020, Apple doubled its capitalization. Its corporate capitalization exceeds the gross domestic product of any country in the world except the United States, China, Japan, Germany, India, and the United Kingdom. The Internet-related industries finally become the true production factors and engines of human progress. Those industries need qualified microeconomic analysis, including the analysis of human capital development, with financial macroeconomic implications.
In acute experiments on laboratory rats, intra-portal administration of L-cysteine (20 mg/kg), the precursor of hydrogen sulfide synthesis, stimulated oxygen consumption of liver by 38.6% and reduced oxygen tension by 37.1%. Activation of tissue respiration occurred due to the strengthening of oxygen-dependent synthetic processes in liver, in particular those associated with mitochondrial enzyme-catalysed bile acid biosynthesis through the acidic pathway. The concentrations of taurocholic acid and mixtures of taurodeoxycholic and taurohenodeoxycholic acids increased by 10.3 and 17.9%, respectively, compared to the initial levels. In addition, the level of free cholesterol was decreased by 33.9% and esterification processes were intensified, as indicated by an increase in the concentration of esterified cholesterol by 22.6% in the bile of rats. The latter was to some extent confirmed by a decrease in the level of free bile acids (by 15.8%) involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol esters and intensification of tissue respiration in the liver. L-cysteine dilated intrahepatic vessels, resulting in a significant decrease of the systemic blood pressure and blood pressure in the portal vein by 17.6 and 24.5%, respectively. L-cysteine increased the rate of local blood flow in the liver and blood supply by 28.2 and 24.4%, respectively. Blockade of cystathionine-γ-lyase by DL-propargylglycine (11 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the L-cysteine-induced tissue respiration and bile acid biosynthesis in the liver. Administration of DL-propargylglycine resulted in constriction of blood vessels of the liver and, as a consequence, to an increased blood pressure and a decreased blood flow rate in tissue. Our data point to an involvement of hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of liver tissue respiration and bile secretory function.
The providers of cloud solutions create rentals for computing power and disk space by means of the protected Internet-connections while their consumers pay only for the resources chosen with options of flexible scaling, assuming rather adequate substitution and development for their digital infrastructure without legal property rights for hardware or software. As a result, the users of cloud products get ready services, and their providers obtain the resources necessary for further development of their products. The work is devoted to computing the total gain of all participants in such a market at various pricing models.
Internet of Things (IoT) is producing an extraordinary volume of data daily, and it is possible that the data may become useless while on its way to the cloud, due to long distances. Fog/edge computing is a new model for analysing and acting on time-sensitive data, adjacent to where it is produced. Further, cloud services provided by large companies such as Google, can also be localised to improve response time and service agility. This is accomplished through deploying small-scale datacentres in various locations, where needed in proximity of users; and connected to a centralised cloud that establish a multi-access edge computing (MEC). The MEC setup involves three parties, i.e. service-providers (IaaS), application-providers (SaaS), network-providers (NaaS); which might have different goals, therefore, making resource management difficult. Unlike existing literature, we consider resource management with-respect-to all parties; and suggest game-theoretic resource management techniques to minimise infrastructure energy consumption and costs while ensuring applications' performance. Our empirical evaluation, using Google's workload traces, suggests that our approach could reduce up to 11.95% energy consumption, and ~17.86% user costs with negligible loss in performance. Moreover, IaaS can reduce up-to 20.27% energy bills and NaaS can increase their costs-savings up-to 18.52% as compared to other methods.
Computation offloading from a user equipment (UE, also called mobile user, mobile subscriber, or mobile device) to a mobile edge cloud (MEC) provides an effective way to virtualize an ordinary smart mobile device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, handheld computer, wearable device, and personal digital assistant) into a formidable equipment, which is able to provide more and stronger functionalities than that of a laptop or a desktop computer. It is conceivable that there can be several MECs with different processing capabilities in a geographic area, and each MEC many serve many UEs with endless sequences of computation tasks, various application characteristics, and diversified communication requirements and bandwidths. Furthermore, the mobile users are competitive and selfish, which means that computation offloading strategy optimization needs to be carried out for each individual mobile user to optimize the performance of only his applications. In this paper, we conduct a mathematical study of computation offloading strategy optimization for non-cooperative users in mobile edge computing by using a game theoretic approach. The main contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows. We establish an M/G/1 queueing model to characterize multiple heterogeneous UEs and MECs, so that the average response time of all offloadable and non-offloadable tasks generated on a UE can be calculated analytically and the optimal computation offloading strategy of a UE can be defined rigorously. We construct a non-cooperative game framework for a mobile edge computing environment, in which each player (i.e., a UE) can selfishly minimize his payoff by choosing an appropriate strategy in his strategy space. We prove the existence of the Nash equilibrium of the above game. We develop algorithms to find the Nash equilibrium, including an algorithm to find the best response of a mobile user and an iterative algorithm to find the Nash equilibrium. We demonstrate numerical examples and data of our game, including numerical data for the Nash equilibrium and numerical data for the convergence of the Nash equilibrium. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first paper that effectively investigates computation offloading strategy optimization for multiple, heterogeneous, and competitive mobile users and multiple heterogeneous mobile edge clouds by using a non-cooperative game approach. Hence, the paper makes noticeable contributions towards the understanding of a competing mobile edge computing environment and its stabilization.
Lectures on the choice theory and decision making. Кyiv: Kyyivskyj universytet
  • M P Moklyachuk
On biomedical computations in cluster and cloud environment
  • T Bardadym