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TURİZM EĞİTİMİ ALAN ÖĞRENCİLERİN KÜLTÜRLERARASI DUYARLIKLARININ BELİRLENMESİNE YÖNELİK BİR ARAŞTIRMA

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Abstract

Kültür tanımlaması zor bir kavramdır. Kültür öğrenilir, miras alınmaz. Kişinin genlerinden değil, sosyal çevresinden türer. Kültür, bir yanda insan doğasından ve diğer yanda bir bireyin kişiliğinden ayırt edilmelidir, ancak insan doğası ile kültür arasındaki ve kültür ile kişilik arasındaki sınırların tam olarak nerede olduğu bir tartışma konusudur (Bruner, 1996: 3-5). Gelişen ve değişen çevrede farklı kültürlerin bir arada yaşaması gerekebilmektedir ve bunun sonucunda farklı kültürlerin etkileşim içinde olması kaçınılmazdır (Birukou vd., 2009: 4-5). Kültür aynı zamanda bir köprü gibidir ve geçmiş ve gelecek arasında bireylere aktarım sağlayan bir iletişim aracıdır.

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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Contemporary attitudes toward communication can be viewed as two‐dimensional—expressive and instrumental. The argument of this article is that the instrumental, or as we would label it, the rhetorical approach, best promises to facilitate human understanding and to effect social cohesion. Five characteristics of rhetorical sensitivity are described. These are features which, if incorporated and operationalized in discourse, can help men make the most of social interactions. The rhetorically sensitive person (a) tries to accept role‐taking as part of the human condition, (b) attempts to avoid stylized verbal behavior, (c) is characteristically willing to undergo the strain of adaptation, (d) seeks to distinguish between all information and that information acceptable for communication, and (e) tries to understand that an idea can be rendered in multi‐form ways.
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This book contains modules for use in cross-cultural training programs. A module differs from a chapter in that it is a collection of materials that guide the reader both on the content of a defined unit of training and the method of delivery of that content. The modules are grouped into four sections, three corresponding to organizations in which cross-cultural trainers work most frequently: (1) the business world; (2) elementary, secondary, and tertiary schools; and (3) social service and health services agencies. The fourth section is devoted to communication across cultural boundaries. The following modules are included: (1) "The Content of Cross-Cultural Training: An Introduction" (Richard W. Brislin and Tomoko Yoshida); (2) "Working Cooperatively with People from Different Cultures" (Richard W. Brislin); (3) "Cross-Cultural Training for the Global Executive" (Neal R. Goodman); (4) "Gender Relations in the Workplace: Using Approaches from the Field of Cross-Cultural Training" (Elaine K. Bailey); (5) "Individualism and Collectivism as the Source of Many Specific Cultural Differences" (Richard W. Brislin); (6) "Cross-Cultural Training for Adolescents and Professionals Who Work with Youth Exchange Programs" (Kenneth Cushner); (7) "Preparing Teachers for an Intercultural Context" (Kenneth Cushner); (8) "Intercultural Education at the University Level: Teacher-Student Interaction" (Neal R. Goodman); (9) "International Students and International Student Advisers" (Paul Pedersen); (10) "Intercultural Communication for Health Care Professionals" (Colleen Mullavey-O'Byrne); (11) "Intercultural Interactions in Welfare Work" (Colleen Mullavey-O'Byrne); (12) "Multicultural Counseling" (Paul Pedersen); (13) "Interpersonal versus Non-Interpersonal Realities: An Effective Tool Individualists Can Use To Better Understand Collectivists" (Tomoko Yoshida); (14) "Nonverbal Communication in Intercultural Interactions" (Ted Singelis); (15) "Approaching Cultural Crossover in Language Learning" (Mark Sawyer and Larry E. Smith); and (16) "Training Bilinguals To Interpret in the Community" (Carolina Freimanis). Each module contains references, and most contain self-assessment or teaching exercises. (SLD)
Article
The present study developed and assessed reliability and validity of a new instrument, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS). Based on a review of the literature, 44 items thought to be important for intercultural sensitivity were generated. A sample of 414 college students rated these items and generated a 24-item final version of the instrument which contains five factors. An assessment of concurrent validity from 162 participants indicated that the ISS was significantly correlated with other related scales, including interaction attentiveness, impression rewarding, self-esteem, self-monitoring, and perspective taking. In addition, the predicted validity test from 174 participants showed that individuals with high ISS scores also scored high in intercultural effectiveness and intercultural communication attitude scales. Potential limitations of the study were discussed as well. (Author/RS)