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Analysis of Carotid Ultrasound Screening of High-Risk Groups of Stroke Based on Big Data Technology

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In order to understand detection of carotid atherosclerosis in the screening of high-risk stroke populations in a certain area of China, we have analyzed related risk factors of CAS. In accordance with the requirements of the “2015 Technical Plan for the Screening and Intervention Projects for High-Risk Stroke Populations,” a cluster sampling method was used to select 4532 (number of screened persons from 2015 to 2021) permanent residents over 41 years old (一) in Shaheying Town, Liulin Town, Chenggu County, Hanzhong City, Shaanxi Province, and Da’an Town, Ningqiang County, and nearby communities are selected as the screening targets. We screened out high-risk groups of stroke based on big data technology and understood the detection of CAS. According to the screening results of big data technology, it was divided into two groups: CAS group and non-CAS group. The basic information, medical history, personal lifestyle, physical examination, and laboratory examination results of the two groups were classified and counted. The measurement data such as age and waist circumference of the two groups were tested by two independent samples, and the count data of gender, stroke history, hypertension, and other data were tested by the χ 2 test of the four-table data, and the logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors for CAS of population at high risk of stroke. The results proved the following: (1) Among the 4532 screeners, 865 cases were screened out of the high-risk population of stroke, with an average age of (58.5 ± 8.3) years, mainly 59 to 68 years old, accounting for 43.8%, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.6 : 1. (2) The detection rates of CAS, intimal thickening, plaque formation, and stenosis among high-risk groups of stroke were 55.5%, 10.2%, 52.2%, and 32.6%, respectively. (3) Among the high-risk groups of stroke, CAS patients have a history of stroke, the proportion of hypertension, age, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels that are higher than those in the non-CAS group, and the difference is statistically significant. (4) Logistic regression analysis shows that age, diabetes, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are independent risk factors for CAS in the high-risk population of stroke in this area.
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Research Article
Analysis of Carotid Ultrasound Screening of High-Risk Groups of
Stroke Based on Big Data Technology
Jiankang Guo,
1
Yanhong Bai,
1
Minxia Ding,
1
Lisha Song,
1
Guo Yu,
1
You Liang,
1
and Zhigang Fan
2
1
Department of Ultrasound Medicine, 3201 Hospital, Shanxi 723000, China
2
Department of Oncology, 3201 Hospital, Shanxi 723000, China
Correspondence should be addressed to Zhigang Fan; fzgpengyou51666@126.com
Received 1 September 2021; Revised 23 November 2021; Accepted 30 November 2021; Published 24 January 2022
Academic Editor: Rahim Khan
Copyright ©2022 Jiankang Guo et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
In order to understand detection of carotid atherosclerosis in the screening of high-risk stroke populations in a certain area of
China, we have analyzed related risk factors of CAS. In accordance with the requirements of the “2015 Technical Plan for the
Screening and Intervention Projects for High-Risk Stroke Populations,” a cluster sampling method was used to select 4532
(number of screened persons from 2015 to 2021) permanent residents over 41 years old () in Shaheying Town, Liulin Town,
Chenggu County, Hanzhong City, Shaanxi Province, and Da’an Town, Ningqiang County, and nearby communities are
selected as the screening targets. We screened out high-risk groups of stroke based on big data technology and understood the
detection of CAS. According to the screening results of big data technology, it was divided into two groups: CAS group and
non-CAS group. e basic information, medical history, personal lifestyle, physical examination, and laboratory examination
results of the two groups were classified and counted. e measurement data such as age and waist circumference of the two
groups were tested by two independent samples, and the count data of gender, stroke history, hypertension, and other data were
tested by the χ2test of the four-table data, and the logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors for CAS of
population at high risk of stroke. e results proved the following: (1) Among the 4532 screeners, 865 cases were screened out of
the high-risk population of stroke, with an average age of (58.5 ±8.3) years, mainly 59 to 68 years old, accounting for 43.8%, and
the male-to-female ratio was 1.6 :1. (2) e detection rates of CAS, intimal thickening, plaque formation, and stenosis among
high-risk groups of stroke were 55.5%, 10.2%, 52.2%, and 32.6%, respectively. (3) Among the high-risk groups of stroke, CAS
patients have a history of stroke, the proportion of hypertension, age, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
levels that are higher than those in the non-CAS group, and the difference is statistically significant. (4) Logistic regression
analysis shows that age, diabetes, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are independent risk factors for CAS in the high-risk
population of stroke in this area.
1. Introduction
Stroke has become the leading cause of death and disability
among Chinese residents. ere are currently about 70
million stroke patients in my country, about 2 million new
strokes occur every year, and about 1.88 million people die
from stroke each year. Chinese people who die from stroke
each year account for 22.45% of the total deaths [1]. erefore,
stroke seriously threatens human health. According to clinical
experience at home and abroad, stroke is preventable and
controllable. Effective intervention for the risk factors of
stroke can not only reduce the incidence of stroke, but also
reduce various burdens caused by stroke. ere are many risk
factors that affect stroke, which can be divided into nonin-
tervention and interventionable. Among them, noninter-
vention factors include age, gender, race, genetic factors, etc.,
and intervention factors include improper lifestyle, hyper-
tension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, and
asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis. Studies have shown
that CAS is an independent risk factor for stroke [2]. As an
important blood supply route for the brain, the carotid artery
can reflect the degree of atherosclerosis of the arteries
Hindawi
Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Volume 2022, Article ID 6363691, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/6363691
throughout the body. It has the advantages of superficial
location and easy detection. Lee et al. [3] showed that the
carotid artery intima-media thickness is an important indi-
cator of arterial wall disease. In 2007, Lorenz [4] et al. con-
ducted a 5.5-year follow-up study of 37, 197 people and found
that for every 0.1 mm increase in CIMT, the risk of stroke will
increase by 13% to 18%. Carotid ultrasound measurement of
CIMT and carotid plaque can help determine the degree of
CAS. It has the advantages of noninvasive, safe, low-cost,
convenient, and repeatable inspection. erefore, the dis-
covery of CAS through ultrasound is of great significance in
predicting stroke. CAS is a pathophysiological process caused
by a variety of factors. Many studies have shown that CAS is
closely related to many risk factors such as age, gender,
ethnicity, multiple chronic diseases, bad living habits, snoring,
etc. It is also closely related to the Hcy, C-reactive protein, uric
acid, fibrinogen, tumors, polyarteritis, iron deficiency anemia,
antithrombin III reduction, and other factors. However, from
the perspective of medical treatment and disease treatment,
attention should be paid to the common risk factors that have
been identified. My country has gradually entered an aging
society. e high incidence of cerebrovascular diseases in the
elderly will surely become the focus of our prevention and
treatment. At present, cerebrovascular diseases are becoming
younger. erefore, it is necessary to strengthen the screening
of CAS for middle-aged and elderly people, and to deal with
the many causes of CAS. Early comprehensive intervention of
various risk factors to delay the occurrence and development
of CAS is of great significance to the prevention and treatment
of stroke [5].
() In this paper, we have used big data technology to
sample and screen permanent residents over 40 years of age
in Shaheying Town, Liulin Town, Chenggu County, and
Da’an Town, Ningqiang County, Hanzhong City, Shaanxi
Province, to screen out high-risk stroke populations to
understand the CAS detection status of local high-risk stroke
populations and related risk factors. Likewise, we have
provided information for the prevention and treatment of
CAS in the region practical scientific basis. It is hoped that
through the prevention and treatment of CAS, the incidence
of stroke due to CAS can be reduced.
e remaining paper is organized as follows: in the
subsequent section, we have provided a comprehensive
literature review of those mechanisms which are closely
linked to the proposed methodology. In Section 3, the
proposed method along with selection and rejection criteria
for various groups is presented. Experimental results and
observations are provided in Section 5 of this manuscript
which is followed by a comprehensive and generalized
discussion. Finally, concluding remarks along with future
directives are provided in the last section.
2. Related Work
Atherosclerosis is a lesion characterized by the deposition of
subintimal lipids, fibrosis, and atherosclerosis, which are
mainly involved in the large and middle arteries, which in
turn causes the vascular wall to become hardened and
vascular. e cavity is narrow, leading to secondary
cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. As a part of the
systemic artery, the carotid artery can reflect systemic ar-
teriosclerosis. CAS has obvious characteristics of AS.
erefore, the risk factors of CAS are consistent with AS. e
formation, occurrence, and development of CAS are related
to a variety of risk factors. It not only includes traditional
risk factors such as age, gender, race, smoking, alcoholism,
obesity, high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, etc.,
but also includes homocysteine, uric acid, C-reactive pro-
tein, etc., which have only been gradually recognized in
recent years, and they are all closely related to CAS.
With the increase of age, the exposure of patients to
other risk factors also increases, especially the elderly over 65
years old often have target organ damage caused by car-
diovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and the two play a
common role in the development of CAS [6]. Most clinical
studies have shown that the incidence of CAS in men is
higher than that in women [7–9], which may be related to
poor lifestyles such as high blood lipids, coronary heart
disease, and smoking and alcoholism in men. A meta-
analysis [10] showed that 393 participants lost an average
weight of 16 kg during an average follow-up of 20 months,
and the average change in carotid artery intima-media
thickness was 0.03 mm. erefore, in obese people, weight
loss was not only positive with the reduction of CIMT.
Correlation can also reduce the risk of cardiovascular and
cerebrovascular events. Relevant studies have shown [11, 12]
that high levels of active oxygen and active nitrogen in
smokers make LDL-C more oxidizable, thereby accelerating
the process of AS. e results of Chen et al. [13] showed that
smoking can cause a decrease in serum folate and superoxide
dismutase levels, an increase in homocysteine content, and
oxidative damage to the blood vessel wall, which further
promotes the formation and progression of AS.
In 2010, Xie et al. [14] conducted a study on 14,618 Chinese
people over 35 years old and showed that among men, alcohol
intake was correlated with peripheral AS, and alcohol con-
sumption of less than 60 g/day was negatively correlated with
ankle-brachial index. And when the alcohol consumption ex-
ceeds 60 g/day, it is positively correlated with the ankle-brachial
index; the study did not find a correlation between peripheral
AS and female alcohol consumption. In the same year, Zyraix
et al. [15] conducted a study on healthy people aged 3070 years
and showed that among men, daily alcohol consumption was
positively correlated with CIMT, while this correlation was not
significant among women. In 2012, Xie and his team [16]
surveyed 13,037 Chinese people and found that drinking in the
Han population was correlated with CAS, while a small amount
of drinking was negatively correlated with CAS. e latest
research progress has shown [17] that drinking has positive and
negative effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases,
and the mechanism of different effects may be related to the
amount, duration, and drinking style of alcohol.
Studies believe that [18, 19] lack of exercise is an important
risk factor for CAS and carotid plaque formation. Aerobic
exercise can prevent and control the occurrence and develop-
ment of CAS. e mechanism is as follows: (1) reduce TC, TG,
and LDL-C levels to regulate lipid metabolism; (2) improve
vascular endothelial dysfunction; (3) strengthen the body’s
2Journal of Healthcare Engineering
antioxidant activity ability to delay the occurrence and devel-
opment of CAS [20]. Recent studies have shown [21] that only
moderate-intensity aerobic exercise produces more nitric oxide
than reactive oxygen species and increases vascular endothelial
function. Low-intensity aerobic exercise has no benefit, but high
aerobic exercise is harmful. Lannuzzi et al. [22] confirmed that a
low-calorie diet is beneficial to improve the thickness and
hardness of the carotid artery intima in obese children, and for
the first time demonstrated that a low-glycemic index diet can
improve insulin sensitivity in obese children. Leite et al. [23]
believe that a low-carbohydrate diet can not only reduce weight
and lipid deposition, but also prevent the accumulation of
oxidized low-density lipoprotein and reduce the production of
inflammatory cytokines in the vessel wall, thereby preventing
AS. Studies have shown [24] that dietary fresh vegetables and
fruits can prevent the occurrence of early CAS. Proietti et al. [25]
have shown that frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits
is negatively correlated with CAS, while frequent consumption
of milk or yogurt is positively correlated with carotid plaque
formation. However, Casalnuovo et al. [26] believe that me-
dium-chain fatty acids, including dairy products, can reduce the
accumulation of visceral fat and subcutaneous fat, improve lipid
metabolism, and prevent the occurrence of AS. e relationship
between dairy products and CAS needs to be further studied, but
high-salt, high-fat, and high-sugar diets can aggravate CAS by
causing hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia.
It proposed that the incidence of CAS in hypertensive
patients is positively correlated with blood pressure
variability. Hypertension can affect the function of vas-
cular endothelial cells, increase the permeability of the
vascular wall, facilitate the deposition of lipids in the
vascular wall, cause hemodynamic changes, activate the
inflammatory response, enhance the coagulation mech-
anism and the susceptibility to AS, and ultimately lead to
and promote the formation of AS [27]. Diabetes is an
important risk factor for CAS, which not only accelerates
the natural process of CAS, but is also a predictor of the
progression of CAS. Tropeano et al. [28] have shown that
hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for CIMT
thickening in patients with essential hypertension, re-
gardless of whether the patient is type 2 diabetic or in the
early stage of impaired fasting blood glucose. Dyslipi-
demia is one of the important risk factors for AS. High
levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cho-
lesterol, and triglycerides in serum can not only directly
lead to the formation of AS through lipid deposition and
other mechanisms, but also promote oxidative stress,
produce inflammation, secrete cytokines, and activate
coagulation factors. Increase the risk factors of AS,
thereby promoting the occurrence and development of
AS.
CAS is a chronic pathophysiological process caused by
many factors. Its pathogenic factors include not only un-
controllable risk factors such as age but also controllable risk
factors such as hypertension. However, the pathogenic
mechanism of some factors is not clear, and the research
results are not consistent. erefore, it is necessary to further
deepen the research and exploration of the mechanism and
pathogenic risk factors of CAS to provide a stronger
theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of CAS. At
the same time, comprehensive measures must be taken to
prevent and control controllable risk factors in order to
effectively reduce and prevent the brain occurrence and
development of vascular disease.
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. General Materials
3.1.1. Research Object. Relying on the “2015 stroke pre-
vention and screening project of the national health and
Family Planning Commission,” we used big data technology
to cluster screen the permanent residents over 40 years old
in shaheying Town, Liulin Town, Chenggu County, and
Da’an Town, Ningqiang County, Hanzhong City, Shaanxi
Province, including those living in the local area for more
than half a year. According to the “Technical Specifications
for Stroke Screening and Prevention and Treatment,” the
high-risk populations of stroke were screened out according
to the screening criteria for high-risk populations, and those
who had perfected carotid artery color Doppler ultrasound
were selected as the target population. A total of 704 cases
were collected. According to the results of carotid artery
color Doppler ultrasound, the target population is divided
into two groups according to whether there is CAS: CAS
group and non-CAS group.
3.1.2. Inclusion Criteria. Residents who are over 41 years old
and have local household registration meet the high-risk
population of stroke in the “Stroke Screening and Preven-
tion Technical Specifications” promulgated by the National
Health and Family Planning Commission’s Stroke and
Screening Prevention Engineering Committee and improve
the carotid artery color Doppler inspection.
3.1.3. Exclusion Criteria. Exclusion criteria are those who do
not meet the above inclusion criteria and have undergone
carotid endarterectomy, vascular bypass, or interventional
therapy before this survey.
3.2. Proposed Methodology
3.2.1. Screening Information. General information of
screeners through big data technology is collected: name,
gender, household registration, ethnicity, and export; basic
information such as date of birth, marital status, occupation,
education level, and personal average annual income; life-
styles such as smoking, drinking, exercise habits, dietary
habits, family history of stroke, history of stroke, heart
disease, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and other past
history and drug control status.
3.2.2. Judgment Criteria for High-Risk Groups of Stroke.
According to the “Stroke Screening and Prevention Tech-
nical Specifications” promulgated by the National Health
and Family Planning Commission’s Stroke Screening and
Journal of Healthcare Engineering 3
Prevention Engineering Committee, the following 8 risk
factors are risk assessed, as shown in Tables 1 and 2.
3.2.3. Carotid Artery Ultrasonography. e ultrasound
medical department of our hospital (3201 hospitals) sent two
professionally trained doctors to conduct neck vascular
ultrasound examination for people at high risk of stroke, use
Philips color Doppler ultrasound diagnostic instrument for
diagnosis, and select 312 MHz broadband linear array
probe and 15 MHz convex array probe for joint inspection.
Take the supine position, fully expose the neck of the ex-
amination side, and observe the IMT, plaque, and stenosis of
the neck blood vessels.
In this study, the CIMT thickening 1 mm was used as a
sign of the beginning of CAS. e definition of IMT and
plaque is as follows: (1) IMT <1.0 mm is normal, IMT is
1.0 mm IMT <1.5 mm, and IMT is thickened; (2) the lu-
men intima and media are locally irregularly thickened,
protruding to the cavity. Within, IMT 1.5 mm is defined as
plaque. Specific contents of cervical vascular ultrasound
examination are (1) thickening of IMT: the distal part of the
common carotid artery; (2) plaque: the bilateral common
carotid artery, internal carotid artery, subclavian artery, and
vertebrae arteries; the number is to record the number of
plaques in each segment and sum; and (3) stenosis: the sites
are bilateral common carotid arteries, internal carotid ar-
teries, subclavian arteries, and vertebral arteries; grades are
mild, moderate, severe, and occluded. e evaluation criteria
at all levels are as follows [29]: mild—the stenosis rate is
normal or <50%, the blood flow at the stenosis site has no
obvious change, the arterial lumen becomes slightly smaller,
and the PSV and EDV have no obvious change or increase
slightly; moderate—the stenosis rate is 50–69%, the flow
velocity in the arteries becomes thinner, the PSV and EDV
are accelerated, and the PSV and EDV at the distal end of the
stenosis are reduced; severe—the stenosis rate is 70–99%, the
blood flow bundle in the artery is obviously thinned, and the
PSV and EDV in the stenosis are obvious; speedup—PSV
and EDV at the distal end of the stenosis significantly slow
down; and occlusion—there is no blood flow signal in the
vessel lumen.
3.2.4. Criteria for CAS-Related Risk Factors
(1) Frequent heavy drinking: Liquor is 3 times a week or
more, and each time is more than two tales
(2) Stroke: A stroke/TIA is clearly diagnosed in a hos-
pital above the second level
(3) For risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, di-
abetes, dyslipidemia, and stroke genetics, refer to
Table 1
3.2.5. Quality Control. is study conducted unified
training for medical personnel participating in on-site
questionnaire surveys, physical examinations, blood
collection, blood specimen submission, laboratory
testing, carotid artery color Doppler ultrasound
examinations, and data entry and carried out strict
quality control, expert verification, and correct errors in
time. () e data are uploaded to the cerebrovascular
disease big data platform of stroke prevention and
Control Engineering Committee of National Health
Commission (https://chinasdc.cn), and quality control is
carried out by random inspection. For problematic data,
the original records are verified and corrected. Expert of
stroke prevention and Control Engineering Committee
of National Health Commission evaluate the data re-
ported directly from the Internet and feed back the
evaluation results to achieve real-time monitoring of the
quantity and quality of screening work.
4. Experiments and Results
4.1. Basic Characteristics of People at High Risk of Stroke.
According to Tables 3 and 4, a total of 4800 question-
naires were screened, and 4532 were qualified, with a pass
rate of 94.4%, which met the 85% sampling requirements
of the National Health and Family Planning Commis-
sion’s Stroke Prevention and Screening Project. ()
Among the 4532 screeners, there were 2995 cases in
Shaheying Town and Liulin Town, 620 cases in high-risk
groups of stroke, 1537 cases in Da’an Town, and 332 cases
in high-risk groups in the district, 952 cases in total.
ere is no significant difference in the detection rate of
high-risk groups in the two places. Among the high-risk
populations initially screened, 87 cases failed to complete
the carotid artery ultrasound examination. erefore, the
target population was 865, which was in line with the
sampling rate of 85%. ere are 865 high-risk groups of
stroke, the age range is 4183 years old, and the average
age is (58.5 ±8.3) years old, mainly 5968 years old:
61.7% of males, 38.3% of females, and male-to-female
ratio 1.6 : 1, male mainly; Han nationality accounted for
91.5%, and ethnic minorities accounted for 8.5%, mainly
Han nationality: smoking 41.2%, drinking 25.8%, lack of
exercise 48.5%, overweight 80.7%, stroke 18.2%, stroke
family history 17.8%, and hypertension. e disease was
68.2%, diabetes was 20.4%, and dyslipidemia or unknown
was 33.4%. Physical examination and laboratory indi-
cators are average neck circumference (38.4 cm ±3.4)
cm, average waist circumference (93.1 ±8.5) cm, average
TG (2.1 ±1.2) mmol/L, average TC (5.2 ±1.1) mmol/L,
the average LDL-C (3.5 ±0.9) mmol/L, and the average
HDL-C (1.1 ±0.3) mmol/L which is shown in Figures 1
and 2.
4.2. Comparison of Carotid Artery Ultrasound Examination
Results
4.2.1. Comparison of Results of Arterial Ultrasonography of
Different Genders. Among the high-risk population of
stroke, the detection rate of CAS was 55.6% in men and
52.8% in women; the detection rates of CIMT thickening,
plaque formation, and stenosis in men were 10.1%,
51.8%, and 29.8%, respectively, and the corresponding
detection rates in women were 7.6%, 50.2%, and 34.3%,
4Journal of Healthcare Engineering
respectively. e detection rates of CAS, CIMT thick-
ening, and plaque formation in men were higher than
those in women, while the detection rate of carotid artery
stenosis in women was higher than that in men. See
Table 5 for details.
4.2.2. Comparison of Results of Arterial Ultrasonography in
Different Age Groups. e detection rates of CAS among
high-risk groups of stroke in different age groups were 21.0%,
41.8%, 67.3%, and 84.0%, respectively, and the differences
were statistically significant; CIMT thickening, plaque for-
mation, and carotid artery stenosis were all in 4150 years old.
e detection rate is the lowest in the age group, and the
detection rate is the highest in the age group over 70. ere are
Table 1: Judgment criteria for risk factors of stroke.
Risk factors Judgment standard
Hypertension Systolic blood pressure 140 or diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive drugs
Heart disease Atrial fibrillation or obvious irregular pulse
Smoking At least 1 cigarette a day, for at least 1 week
Dyslipidemia TG 2.26 or TC 6.22 or LDL-C 4.14 or HDL-C 1.04
Diabetes Fasting blood glucose 7.0 mmol/L
Physical exercise 3 times a week or more, 30 minutes or more once
Significantly overweight BMI26 kg/m
2
Family inheritance Family inheritance of stroke
Table 2: Judgment criteria for high-, medium-, and low-risk groups of stroke.
Crowd classification Judgment standard
High-risk groups 3 or more risk factors or a history of stroke or TIA
Medium-risk groups Less than 3 risk factors and suffer from chronic diseases
Low-risk groups Less than 3 risk factors and no chronic diseases
Table 3: General information of people at high risk of stroke.
Item Number of cases Percentage
Sex (male) 534 61.7
Nationality (Han) 792 91.5
Smoking 356 41.2
Drinking 223 25.8
Lack of exercise 420 48.5
Overweight 698 80.7
Hypertension 590 68.2
Diabetes 176 20.4
Dyslipidemia 289 33.4
Stroke 157 18.2
Stroke inheritance 154 17.8
Table 4: Physical examination and laboratory indicators.
Item Average and error range
Neck circumference (cm) 38.4 cm ±3.4
Waist circumference (cm) 93.1 ±8.5
TG (mmol/L) 2.1 ±1.2
TC (mmol/L) 5.2 ±1.1
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.5 ±0.9
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.1 ±0.3
Age41~50
Age51~60
Age61~70
Age>70
15.7%
30.1% 41.8%
12.4%
Figure 1: Age composition ratio of high-risk stroke population.
male
female
61.7%
38.3%
Figure 2: Gender composition ratio of high-risk stroke population.
Journal of Healthcare Engineering 5
significant statistical differences between the above groups
which is shown in Figure 3. See Table 6 for details.
4.2.3. Comparison of Non-CAS Group and CAS Group.
Among the 865 high-risk groups of stroke, 385 cases
(44.50%) were non-CAS, 480 cases (55.5%) were CAS, and
most of them were CAS. e CAS group was divided into
CIMT thickening and plaque formation. ere were 29 cases
of pure CIMT thickening, accounting for 6.00% of CAS, and
452 cases of plaque formation, accounting for 94.2% of CAS.
4.2.4. Logistic Regression Analysis of the CAS Single Factor.
In order to clarify the independent risk factors of CAS in this
area, the independent variables were first screened out by
univariate analysis. After a single factor logistic regression
analysis, age, family inheritance of stroke, diabetes, stroke
history, hypertension, TC, and LDL-C were selected as
independent variables of the multivariate regression anal-
ysis, as shown in Table 7.
4.2.5. Logistic Regression Analysis of CAS Multifactors.
e selected independent variables were incorporated into a
multivariate logistic regression analysis model. rough stepwise
regression analysis, the risk factors of CAS in high-risk stroke
populations were explored. e results showed that age, diabetes,
and high LDL-C are the risk factors for CAS in high-risk stroke
populations in the region. In independent risk factors, the
difference is statistically significant; see Table 8 for details.
5. Conclusions
is paper uses big data technology to screen out 865 cases of
high-risk stroke groups from 4532 screeners. CAS is an
independent risk factor for stroke. Its occurrence and de-
velopment process include CIMT thickening, plaque for-
mation, stenosis, and occlusion. CAS is a chronic
pathophysiological process caused by multiple factors. Its
pathogenic factors include not only uncontrollable risk
Table 5: Comparison of results of arterial ultrasonography of
different genders.
Item Male
N532
Female
N333 χ2P
CAS 296 176 0.53 0.47
CIMT thickening 54 25 1.26 0.26
Plaque formation 276 167 0.17 0.68
Narrow 159 114 1.62 0.21
Table 6: General comparison of the non-CAS group and CAS
group.
Item Non-CAS
N385
CAS
N480 χ2P
Sex (male) 228 297 0.53 0.47
Nationality (Han) 349 442 0.09 0.76
Smoking 161 195 0.07 0.79
Drinking 105 119 0.62 0.43
Hypertension 229 362 20.5 0.00
Diabetes 59 118 9.3 0.00
Dyslipidemia 133 156 0.38 0.54
Stroke 41 118 22.8 0.00
Stroke inheritance 84 69 6.6 0.01
Table 7: Logistic regression analysis of the CAS single factor.
Risk factors BSE POR ORCI
Age 0.11 0.01 0.00 1.11 1.091.14
Sex (male) 0.11 0.16 0.47 0.89 0.661.21
Nationality (Han) 0.19 0.27 0.47 0.82 0.491.39
Smoking 0.04 0.15 0.79 0.96 0.711.30
Drinking 0.15 0.17 0.39 0.86 0.611.21
Hypertension 0.74 0.16 0.00 2.09 1.522.89
Diabetes 0.59 0.20 0.00 1.81 1.232.65
Dyslipidemia 0.10 0.16 0.54 0.91 0.661.24
Stroke 1.01 0.22 0.00 2.75 1.804.20
Inheritance 0.51 0.20 0.01 0.60 0.410.89
Neck (cm) 0.01 0.02 0.67 1.01 0.971.06
Waist (cm) 0.01 0.01 0.46 0.99 0.981.01
TG 0.11 0.06 0.07 0.90 0.791.01
TC 0.22 0.08 0.00 1.24 1.071.45
LDL-C 0.25 0.08 0.00 1.28 1.091.50
HDL-C 0.01 0.26 0.97 1.01 0.611.67
Table 8: Logistic regression analysis of CAS multifactors.
Risk factors BSE POR ORCI
Age 0.11 0.01 0.00 1.11 1.091.13
Diabetes 0.46 0.21 0.03 1.58 1.042.40
LDL-C 0.25 0.09 0.01 1.29 1.081.53
41~50 51~60 61~70 >70 ×2
Item
Quantity
CAS
CIMT
Plaque
Narrow
50
100
150
200
250
Figure 3: Comparison of results of arterial ultrasonography in
different ages.
6Journal of Healthcare Engineering
factors such as age, but also controllable risk factors such as
hypertension, but the pathogenic mechanism of some fac-
tors is not clear. erefore, we must not only pay attention to
the process of CAS, but also pay attention to the risk factors
that lead to the occurrence and development of CAS.
erefore, this project provides a theoretical basis for the
early detection, prevention, and diagnosis of CAS through
the analysis and research on the detection of CAS and related
risk () factors in Hanzhong City, China. e basic
characteristics of the high-risk population of stroke are
59–68 years old, male, Han nationality, a large number of
overweight people, a high prevalence of hypertension, and a
large proportion of abnormal blood lipids; TG and LDL-C
are higher than the normal reference range, TC is at the
upper limit of normal value, and HDL-C is at the lower limit
of normal value. As we all know, age and gender are the most
uncontrollable risk factors for stroke. Elderly men must be
the key population for stroke prevention and treatment. e
high-risk population for stroke in this study is mainly elderly
men, which is consistent with a large number of literature
reports. e local residents over 40 years old selected in this
study are mainly the elderly over 60 years old. eir blood
vessels tend to age, their nutritional intake increases with the
improvement of their living standards, and they prefer a
high-salt diet, lack of exercise, obesity, and other reasons.
e prevalence of hypertension in high-risk groups of stroke
is relatively high. e proportion of overweight and dysli-
pidemia among high-risk groups is relatively high, and TG
and LDL-C are relatively high. Considering that the resi-
dents in this area are mainly like pasta and fried food, but the
intake of vegetables and fruits is insufficient, the residents’
life is relatively monotonous and there are few outdoor
sports. In addition, the screening time is after the Spring
Festival. During the Spring Festival, there may be factors
such as excess nutrition and less activity, which is more
conducive to weight gain and abnormal blood lipids.
Data Availability
e datasets used and analyzed during the current study are
available from the corresponding author upon reasonable
request.
Conflicts of Interest
e authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Acknowledgments
e paper was supported by the General Project of Shaanxi
Provincial Department of Science and Technology-Social
Development Field under No. 2021SF-044.
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