Chapter

Production of Omega-3 Capsules from Fish Offal: Recycling of Resources for Sustainable Production and Consumption

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Abstract

Sustainable development and economic growth require minimization of ecological footprint by modifying the manner in which goods and resources are produced and consumed in a responsible manner. Agriculture is the largest user of natural resources like water and land. At the same time it also produces huge amount of wastes. The efficient management of the wastes, through recycling and reuse could reduce ecological foot prints and have positive environmental impacts. Thus, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) program of the United Nations has put considerable emphasis on substantially reducing waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reusing by the year 2030 (Goal 12- Responsible Production and Consumption) (World Bank 2018). This can be achieved through encouraging industries, businesses and consumers to recycle and reduce the waste. The fish waste constitutes the inedible parts of the fish such as intestine, scale, gills etc. The offal could account for about 20-40% total biomass of fish depending upon type of fish and the level of processing. The offal generated is either discarded as waste or is utilised as low value by-products such as fishmeal. One of the feasible modes of utilising the fish offal could be the production of ω-3 capsules or supplements. ω-3 PUFAs, especially, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) play important roles in keeping away several preventable human ailments: coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis in adults, childhood asthma and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in paediatric population; and dementia, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in the elderly population. Deficiency of ω-3 PUFAs has been a major nutritional challenge of the developing and underdeveloped countries. Supply of ω-3 fatty acids decrease significantly with decreasing gross domestic product (GDP) and in some of countries with the lower GDP, total ω3 PUFAs are below or very close to the lower end of recommended intake range. There is huge demand for omega-3 products and the monetary value for such product has been estimated to be USD 2.29 billion in the 2018, globally and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.4% from 2019 to 2025. w-3 PUFAs are associated with many health benefits including brain health, memory and cognition; heart health, prevention of CVD; vision, prevention of AMD and thus could greatly help in achieving SDG Goal 3- Good health and well-being.

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