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Skin naturally acts as a body's protective layer and external environmental factors that can harm internal body organs are protected by it.So, maintaining skin integrity is vital for normal physiological functioning.In our daily lives, the bodies of both animals and humans are subjected to various forms of violence, some of which are severe enough to destroy the skin's continuity.A wound is a breakdown in the continuity of the skin. When the skin's continuity is disrupted, the body's interior organs are exposed.There's a risk of death in this case.There's a risk of death in this case. The skin's immediate response to a wound is the 􀃯rst step in the healing process, which begins automatically after the injury has been in􀃰icted.It is possible to speed up this process in a variety of ways, including keeping the wound free of bacterial infection, moisture, and dirt.A number of antiseptic dressings are available for this purpose, and when applied topically,they help to speed up the healing process of wounds.They protect the wound from contamination by microorganisms and speed up the healing process.Among these are Aloe vera, honey, and turmeric, all of which have considerable wound healing capabilities.Turmeric, honey, and Aloe vera are all considered good for promoting wound healing.They are involved in the prevention of platelet aggregation, myocardial infarction, tumour formation, in􀃰ammatory cytokine release, oxidative stress, and metastasis.Several studies have demonstrated that they play a critical function in the promotion of wound healing. Their use for wound dressing has proven to be a successful method. The primary goal of this review is to summarise previous scientists' 􀃯ndings with authentic concluding verse for the use of Aloe vera,Turmeric and Honey that are safe, readily available, and less expensive.
Key Words:
Aloe vera, honey, turmeric, phytomedicine,
wounds, and healing
Skin naturally acts as a body's protective layer and external environmental factors that can harm
internal body organs are protected by it.So, maintaining skin integrity is vital for normal
physiological functioning.In our daily lives, the bodies of both animals and humans are subjected
to various forms of violence, some of which are severe enough to destroy the skin's continuity.A
wound is a breakdown in the continuity of the skin. When the skin's continuity is disrupted, the
body's interior organs are exposed.There's a risk of death in this case.There's a risk of death in
this case. The skin's immediate response to a wound is the rst step in the healing process,
which begins automatically after the injury has been inicted.It is possible to speed up this
process in a variety of ways, including keeping the wound free of bacterial infection, moisture,
and dirt.A number of antiseptic dressings are available for this purpose, and when applied
topically,they help to speed up the healing process of wounds.They protect the wound from
contamination by microorganisms and speed up the healing process.Among these are Aloe
vera, honey, and turmeric, all of which have considerable wound healing capabilities.Turmeric,
honey, and Aloe vera are all considered good for promoting wound healing.They are involved in
the prevention of platelet aggregation, myocardial infarction, tumour formation, inammatory
cytokine release, oxidative stress, and metastasis.Several studies have demonstrated that they
play a critical function in the promotion of wound healing. Their use for wound dressing has
proven to be a successful method. The primary goal of this review is to summarise previous
scientists' ndings with authentic concluding verse for the use of Aloe vera,Turmeric and Honey
that are safe, readily available, and less expensive.
An external or internal insult can cause a wound. External
assaults such as mechanical trauma, thermal, UV, or gamma
radiation therapy produce many acute wounds. Inadequate
circulation deprives tissues of nutrients and elevates pro-
inammatory cytokines, resulting in necrosis in chronic
injuries (leg, pressure ulcers, and diabetic). Wound curing is
tr aditiona lly sep arated i nto 4 phases : hem ost asis,
inammation, proliferation, and remodeling. The above
steps overlap a lot During the inammatory phase, waste [2].
and germs are eliminated from the injury. In the proliferation
phase, blood vascular invasion, connective tissue, and
epithelial regeneration wound contraction, and wound
*Corresponding Author:
Muhammad Jamil
PARC Arid Zone Research Centre, Dera Ismail
1PARC Arid Zone Research Centre, Dera Ismail Khan-29050-Pakistan
2Department of Clinical Sciences, Sub Campus Jhang, University of veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan
3Department of Plant Protection,University of Agriculture, Peshawar-25130-Pakistan
4Sardar Bahadur Khan Womenn,s University Quetta-87300-Pakistan
5PARC Adaptive Research Cum Demonstration Institute Miranshah- 21776 -Pakistan
6PARC Adaptive Research Cum Demonstration Institute Wana- 21776 –Pakistan
7Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan-29050-Pakistan
8Animal science Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, -Islamabad- 54000-Pakistan
9Institute of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi
Reciew Article
Wound Healing Efcacy of Honey, Aloe Vera, And Turmeric
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Jul-Dec 2021)
Wound Healing Ecacy Of Honey, Aloe Vera, And Turmeric
Jamil et al.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Muhammad Jamil , Muhammad Kashif ,Bashir Ahmad ,Bibi Sadia ,Imtiaz Khan ,Imran Qazi , Muhammad Fahimullah
7 8 8 9
Khan ,Mubarik Ali ,Muhammad Rasheed , Muhammad Rehan Arif
How to Cite:
Jamil, M., Kashif, M. ., Ahmad, B. ., Sadia, B. .,
Khan, I. ., Qazi, I. ., Khan, M. F. ., Ali, M. ., Rasheed,
M. . , & Ari f, M. R. . ( 2021). Woun d He aling
E  c a c y o f H o n e y , A l o e V e r a , A N D
TURMERIC. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 4(2).
PBMJ VOL.4 Issue 2 Jul-Dec 2021
healing occur. Apoptosis is used to remove superuous
tissue during the rebuilding period Infection, aging, and [3].
deprived circulation are thought to slow healing. Wound care
involves removing the harmful insult rst, then providing the
best possible environment for wound healing. Controlling a
wound's bacterial burden is critical to promoting healing.
Bacterial counts of over 105 organisms per gram of wound
tissue have been shown to impair wound healing in surgical
and chronic wounds Many topical treatments with [4,5].
diverse qualities are now used to promote wound healing.
Surprisingly, most of these products lack convincing
evidence to support their usage To help clinicians [6-9].
better understand the complexities of clinical use of
medical-grade honey, Aloe Vera and turmeric, evidence
indicators like Cochrane reviews can be used to evaluate the
lack of evidence to support their use, as well as select
clinical entities in patients who may benet from treatment
with these therapeutic agents based on their clinical
outcomes. All of these medicinal therapies' biochemical
pr operties, their independent wound healing, and
bacterial/inammatory processes will also be discussed.
HONEY: Honey is gaining popularity in wound care,
especially for burn wounds. Honey has been utilized for
nourishment and healing since prehistoric times [6].
Between 2600 and 2200 BCE, ancient Egyptians used honey
to treat wounds Although the actual mechanism for [6].
honey's wound healing benets is uncertain, research has
concentrated on honey's antimicrobial properties.Honey's
high sugar content makes it hygroscopic, which prevents
the development of microorganisms. Honey's antimicrobial
qualities are complex than merely greater sugar content,
according to research In addition to its antibacterial [10].
qualities, oxidation of glucose to hydrogen peroxide occurs
naturally in honey. And the antimicrobial effects of [6,11,12]
honey seem to vary by oral source. Hydrogen peroxide was
not necessary for the antibacterial properties of manuka
and v iper 's bug loss h oney The an tibacter ial [13].
characteristics of honey are thought to be due to an
unknown component Manuka honey also inhibits [14].
vancomyc in- res ist ant ente rococcus, MRSA, and P.
ae rugin osa speci es In a study, u lmo honey [15,1 6]
outperformed manuka honey against MRSA Finally, [17].
honey had antifungal action Honey increased wound [14,18].
healing in animals, according to histological research.
Histologically, honey reduced edoema, inammation,
necrosis, improved epithelialization, and wound contraction
in rabbits. Honey also increased wound healing on [19]
cutaneous wounds in mice Human studies found that [20]
honey-treated wounds promoted granulation tissue [21,22]
formation, enhanced epithelialization, and [21-24] [21,22]
decreased inammation This was in line with the [22,25].
PBMJ VOL.4 Issue 2 Jul-Dec 2021
earlier animal study data, but clinical observation without
histological proof is limited.
ACUTE WOUNDS : Although medical-grade honey has been
shown to speed up healing in animal trials, human outcomes
have been mixed. Three small randomized single-blind [27-
29] and one small randomized nonblinded controlled trial
[30] showed thathoney may safeguard cancer patients from
radiation-induced mucositis. Using honey and hydrogel
dressings to treat abrasions and minor lacerations were
shown to not affect on healing time in a blind, randomized
study An unblinded study found no difference in [31]. [32]
average healing times between paran gauze, honey, and
iodoform gauze for patients who had toenail avulsions.
Analysis of these 3 studies found no statistical difference
between honey and standard treatment in mild acute
wounds Compared to traditional dressings like silver [6].
sulfadiazine dressing and clear polyurethane lm [25,34-36]
dressing, using honey on minor burns (supercial to partial-
thickness burns) speeds up healing time Honey also [23].
outperformed unconventional treatments like potato peels
[37] [38]. and amniotic membrane Because of the lack of a
description of randomization, the validity of these studies
has bee n calle d into d oubt Meta-ana lys es [6,39].
demonstrated that honey quickened minor burn healing
relative to t he comparator A randomized [6,39,40].
controlled experiment found that early excision beat honey
dressing in mild burns However, the study's strength is [41].
qu es ti on ed du e t o t he lac k o f c la ri ty reg ar di ng
randomization. When selecting burn wound coverings,
clinicians must assess the evidence.
CHRONIC WOUNDS: As previously indicated, many chronic
wounds result from circulation issues. Because topical
medications do not effectively ad dress the primary
circulatory impairment, many currently utilized products
have limited evidence to support their use. Honey was used
to treat venous leg ulcers in two randomized open-label
trials. At 12 weeks, the honey-impregnated dressing did not
affect venous leg ulcers compared to standard dressing
[42]. Both groups used compression. Another study
compared honey dressing to hydrogel in soggy intravenous
ulcers. At 80 days, honey had a slightly higher healing rate
(44%) than hydrogel (33 percent). Both studies reported the
r an d om iz a ti o n a pp ro ac h. B as ed o n t he se t wo
investigations, a meta-analysis indicated that honey and
traditional dressing treat venous leg ulcers equally well A [6].
low-quality randomized controlled experiment indicated
that honey dressing accelerated recovery in Stage I and II
strain ulcers. Another low-quality study indicated honey to
hasten the healing of stage II or III pressure ulcers. The honey
plaster was observed to be equally effective as iodine
treatment in Wagner type II diabetic foot ulcers. None of the
Wound Healing Ecacy Of Honey, Aloe Vera, And Turmeric
Jamil et al.
preceding cited research revealed their randomization
process, raising concerns about their validity.
ALOE VERA PHARMACOLOGY: Wound healing is aided by a
perennial green herb from the Liliaceae family, Aloe vera,
which is the most effective. Located at the top of the stem,
the thick and juicy leaves form clusters. Slightly toothed
lanceolate leaves cover the plant. Red, yellow, or speckled
with red are the colors of the owers. A versatile crop, it is
currently farmed all over the world These include [43,44].
cancer prevention, antioxidation, anti-bacteria, and lipid-
lowering. Antihypertensive. Antioxidant. Antibacterial. Anti-
inammatory. Antiulcer. Antiviral. These are only a few
examples It is also frequently used in the treatment [45–47].
of wounds, burns, ulcers, tumors, constipation, dental
diculties, metabolic syndrome, AIDS, herpes, diabetes,
and psoriasis. For its cosmetic properties, it is utilized in
cosmetics and skincare products, as well as in the food
business, to make health drinks As a medicinal [48–50].
herb, A. vera's leaves are the most commonly utilized portion
of the plant. Syne rgistic effect s of mor e th an 2 00
physiologically active compounds, including carbohydrates,
anthraquinones, and chromones and avones, and alkaloids
as well as amino acids and lipids have been proven to be
responsible for numerous pharmacological activities
[51 ,5 2] . T hr ee se ct ion s m ake up th e A lo e l ea f.
Photosynthesis occurs in the green leaf epidermis, which is
the outermost layer. Phloem and xylem make up the layer's
structure. The xylem transports water, whereas the phloem
transports carbohydrates and other tiny organic materials,
such as cellulose. Leaf epidermis pericyclic cells secrete the
reddish-yellow latex in the center of the structure. As a
laxative, latex can be applied to the skin. Chrysophanol,
emodin, and anthraquinone make up the bulk of the active
component list Tubular cells in the parenchyma [53–55].
form a clear and smooth gel at the heart of the Aloe leaf. Skin
wounds can be treated with gel. With a water concentration
of 98%, polysaccharides are the primary active ingredient in
this formula. In addition, organic acids, vitamins, and
minerals abound in gels [56–58].
mature medicinal plant for treating skin sores. Aloe gel and
Aloe extract can be used for wound healing in the same way
[59,60]. Glucomannan and acetylated polymannan are two
examples of polysaccharides that are essential for wound
healing. Aloin, rhein, emodin, and aloesin are also important.
These compositions have antibacterial, antioxidant,
immunomodulatory, and anti-inammatory effects [61–63].
Wound healing is facilitated by these qualities. Different
growth factors i.e., FGF, epidermal, TGF, VEGF, and
interleukin (IL), inuence cell signaling and ECM activity
during wound healing (IGF). The migration and proliferation
PBMJ VOL.4 Issue 2 Jul-Dec 2021
of epithelial, endothelial, andbroblast cells are all
inuenced by basic FGF (bFGF). TGF-b1 inhibits degradation
of the extracellular matrix (ECM), regulates broblast
spread, and stimulates the formation of elastin, collagen,
and bronectin (collagen-like proteins). A. vera's enhanced
synthesis of bFGF and TGF-b promotes collagen deposition,
broblast proliferation, and angiogenesis It is [64,65].
believed that IL-1b, an anti-inammatory cytokine abundant
in phagocytes, epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial
cells, is responsible for activating T lymphocytes. The anti-
inammatory action of A. vera is due to the reduction of
proinammatory cytokines such as IL-1b For example, [66].
the inammatory period can be signicantly shortened and
malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factors (TNF-A) levels are
reduced. glucose transporter 1, IGF-1, VEGF, and FGF-2 can
also be considerably increased, which promotes cell
production, collagen production, and angiogenesis The [67].
anti-inammatory and immunomodulatory properties of
aloe polysaccharides found in A. vera make them ideal for
wound healing. Glucomannan, acetylated poly-mannan, and
acemannan are anti-inammatory polysaccharides that
lower MMP-9, IL-10, and IL-05 Aloe polyose impacts [68].
granulation tissue development and wound healing by
enhancing glycosaminoglycan and collagen synthesis [69].
The AKT/mTOR signaling pathway enhances the synthesis of
cycl in D1, which not only stimulates skin broblast
proliferation but also shifts the cell cycle from the G1 to the S
phase. Increased VEGF and type I collagen synthesis are two
mechanisms through which Acemannan enhances wound
healing M6 P is an aloe pol yose involved in [70–72].
epithelialization. Adiponectin promotes collagen deposition
and skin regeneration via binding to mannose-6-phosphate
receptors. It also inhibits TGF-1 and TGF-2 activation,
reducing brosis and encouraging epithelialization [73,74].
Anthraquinone also helps protect the skin and cure wounds.
The ability to heal wounds and promote angiogenic growth.
Anthraquinone is an antibacterial agent that inhibits the
dehydrogenation and oxidation of bacterium sugars and
metabolic intercedes, as well as the production of protein
and nucleic acid. Aloin can improve wound healing by
increasing angiogenesis and broblast proliferation via
increasing EGF expression. Aloin also makes the skin's
collagen bers more regular after healing, minimizing
scarring A-loin also protects the skin by decreasing [75,76].
lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species while
enhancing SOD and glutathione peroxidase activity [77,78].
Aloin reduces IL-6, TNF-a, iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2
express ion i n resp onse to LPS (COX-2). Aloin a lso
suppresses caspase-3 activation and apoptosis generated
by LPS. Aloin reduces inammation by decreasing NF-
kappaB signaling Aloe-emodin can aid wound [79,80].
Wound Healing Ecacy Of Honey, Aloe Vera, And Turmeric
Jamil et al.
healing by increasing cutaneous vascular-related growth
fa ctor expr ession. A loe -emo din i s a pote nt a nti-
inammatory. It reduces inammation by inhibiting iNOS
and COX-2 ex pression. Allergic to Rhein? It [48,81]
inuences cell cycle and death via MAPK and PI3K-AKT
signaling pathways Other compounds in A. vera aid in [82].
wound healing. 5.5 kDa glycoprotein has been demonstrated
to enhance keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal tissue
formation in vitro and in vivo. This glycoprotein improved
wound healing in bald mice b-Sitosterol enhances [83].
injury healing and angiogenesis by boosting VEGF and its
receptor gene expression It also possesses anti-[84].
inammatory properties, inhibiting TNF-a, LPS-induced
keratinocytes, peptidoglycan, and macrophages from
secreting inammatory factors, and inhibiting caspase-1
activation Alo esin promote s wound curing by [85].
activating Smad and MAPK/Rho signaling pathways. It
promotes cell motility by phosphorylating Cdc42 and Rac1
and modulates growth factors and cytokine release in
macrophages. Aloesin promotes collagen deposition,
angiogenesis, and granulation tissue development in
hairless mice The vitamins in A. vera help heal wounds. [86].
Vitamin E is a strong antioxidant that can reduce ROS
damage. It also modulates transcription and expression of
the gene to protect wounds agai nst infec tions like
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Vitamin C
enhances collagen formation by hydroxylatingproline and
lysine resid ues i n proc oll agen. I ts a bil ity to boost
immunological activity is also vital in wound healing [87,88].
TURMERIC: Curcuma odora is the common name for this
plant. Species of curcumin are known as wild turmeric
(vanaharidra) or yellow zedoary (Salisb) (Curcuma longa
Linn.). The plant is indigenous to India, where it is commonly
grown in Kerala and West Bengal It is both an aromatic [89].
medicinal cosmetic as well as a potential therapeutic drug.
Traditional Chinese medicine uses Curcuma aromatic (CA)
as a powerful anti-cancer herb. Uses in traditional medicine
include treating skin conditions, sprains, bruises, snake
venom, and enhancing the appearance of skin. The Chemical
and aroma attributes of the volatile oil are different from
Curcuma long it's (4-8%) volatile oil. CA's volatile oil includes
camphene, camphor, and high-boiling alcohol that C. longa
does not [90].
curcumin), d-camphor, germacrene D, p-methoxycinnamic
acid, curzerene, , and pinenes, germacrone, bborneol, ,
and Terpeniol, -Terpenolene, Myrcene, and -Thujonene,
limonine, -thujone, , and Copoaenes and -Bisabolene
are also present. A total of eighteen different compounds
were detected in the oil: alpha and beta-pinene, isofurano-
germacrene, 1,8-cineol, borneol, and its isoforms, -
PBMJ VOL.4 Issue 2 Jul-Dec 2021
curcumene, -curcumene, germacrone, xanthorrhizol, and
MEDIC INAL IMPO RTAN CE: Skin, cardiovascular, and
respiratory system ailments are among the conditions for
which the medication is prescribed in Ayurveda. There are
many uses for CA in cosmetics and traditional medicine,
including as an anti-inammatory agent, a stimulant of
blood ow, and an anti-cancer agent. It is common to utilize
rhizomes with astr ingent and fragrant herbs in the
treatment of a variety of ailments, such as bruising and skin
eruptions. There are many uses for CA rhizomes, including in
snake poison. Home remedies for headaches include a paste
of CA rhizomes Carbamazepine (CA) is conventionally [91].
used as an anti-provocative medication. According to
several research, Wild turmeric has immunological, anti-
tumor, anti-inammator y, wound healing, antifungal,
antioxidant, anti -microbia l, antiplatelet, and insect
repellent properties. Preventing coronary heart disease,
treating epilepsy, acting as an anti-allergy, and treating
auto-immune disease are all uses of CA. In the therapy of
cholecystitis, biliary calculi, and other related illnesses
extracts of CA roots are used. In mice with Ehrlich ascites
tumor cells, ethanol extract had powerful anti-angiogenic
and pro-apoptotic actions. Anti-proliferative activity
against human cancer cells was established by methanol
extracts of CA. An in vitro estrogenic effect was also seen.
Rhizomes produce 6.1 percent essential oil and have been
shown to have anti-tumor properties. Rhizomes. Cervical
cancer in its early stages can also be treated with oil. An in
vivo inhibitory impact of volatile oil on hepatocellular growth
was observed in mice. In vitro antihelmintic action was also
demonstrated using essential oil Curcumin's anti-[92].
inammatory properties, the anti-diabetic effects of
( 4S , 5S ) –( + )– ge r ma cr o ne –4 , 5– ep o xi d e, a nd th e
antiarrhythmic properties of aqueous extract due to the
presence of dipotassium magnesium dioxalatedihydrate are
just some of the other activities that have been linked to
essential oils. The oil and the methanol extract have
powerful radical-scavenging properties. – In addition, the
extracts showed impressive superoxide radical scavenging
properties. A number of the curcuminoids in CA have been
shown to have antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and
antitumor properties In the following part, we'll go into [91].
more detail about each of these. Mice tested the anti-
inammatory effects of aqueous and alcoholic extracts. In
arachidonic acid-induced ear inammations, the ethanol
extracts and formulations showed considerable anti-
inammatory action. The anti-inammatory activity was
attributed to the impacts on various mediators and
arachidonic acid metabolism including the cyclo-oxygenase
pathway An investigation of the volatile oil from [93].
Wound Healing Ecacy Of Honey, Aloe Vera, And Turmeric
Jamil et al.
Ca lifornia's anti-inammato ry properties was also
conducted. In rabbits, the powdered rhizome of CA was
found to have wound-healing properties. Studies using
excision wound models, which were used to evaluate the
wound healing activity of topical application of CA rhizome
extracts and its cream formulations likewise revealed [93],
considerable wound healing activity. A key bioactive
component of CA, Germacrone has been shown to have anti-
tumor activities. CA's most essential bioactive component is
this. An investigation into the anti-proliferative and
molecular mechanisms of germacrone's cytotoxicity on
glioma cells found that germacrone inhibits the proliferation
of cancerous cells by causing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest
in the cells. By regulating the expression of proteins
associated with apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest,
Germacone may be an effective and new chemopreventive
treatment for gliomas Researchers also looked at the [94].
anti-t umor properties of beta -elemen e, which was
extracted from the roots of agave plants in California. Two
tumor inhibitory tests on hepatoma in mice were carried out
as part of the study to investigate the inhibitory effects of
Curcuma aromatic oil (CAO) on hepatoma in mice's cell
proliferation. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)
immunohistochemical labeling was utilized to assess the
effects of CAO on hepatocarcinoma proliferation in mice
(PCNA). In two experiments, the tumor inhibitory rates of
CAO were 52 percent and 51 percent, respectively, as a result
of the consequent tumor inhibitory rates. Both variations
were statistically substantial (P 0.01) when compared to the
results of the saline-treated control groups. The [95].
researchers concluded that CAO's prevention of hepatoma
growth in mice may be connected with its suppression of
cellular proliferative activity.
PBMJ VOL.4 Issue 2 Jul-Dec 2021
When it comes to healing skin wounds, there is a wide range
of medicinal plants and natural therapies that are used.
These have been utilized for centuries to treat trauma,
infection, disease, and damage. For millennia, humans have
mastered the art of harvesting and preparing edible and
medicinal plant materials from their local surroundings.
Medicinal practices have been examined for clinical ecacy
and economic viability based on their bioactivities. As a
result, not all the mechanisms of action of each plant have
been established.For the most part, we believe that
traditions still have a lot to offer us, including the potential
for developing novel drugs and treatments for today's
therapeutic challenges. There is no escaping the fact that
modern medicine and pharmaceuticals remain out of the
reach of most people. Traditional medicine is often the
primary and only therapy choice for many people because of
this. Traditional ways will become more widely accepted and
appreciated as people grow more familiar with them. This
information should not be rejected by "modern medicine,"
but rather put to good use for the benet of humanity. There
are no adverse effects associated with using Aloe vera,
tur meric, and h oney to c ure wounds. Healing a nd
regeneration of lost tissues are facilitated by numerous
processes in these herbal creams. However, these herbal
ointments must be evaluated scientically, standardised,
and evaluated for safety. Aloe vera's high tonicity and acidic
pH are thought to be the major elements that speed up
wound healing in earlier studies, which found that wounds
treated with Aloe vera healed quickly. The wound healing
process may be accelerated by Turmeric, Honey and aloe
vera's ability to boost glycolytic enzyme activity and provide
enough energy for cell repair. To treat wounds, Turmeric,
Honey and Aloe vera can be a cost-effective option that is
safe, readily available, and has powerful healing properties.
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Full-text available
Aloe vera has been traditionally used to treat skin injuries (burns, cuts, insect bites, and eczemas) and digestive problems because its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and wound healing properties. Research on this medicinal plant has been aimed at validating traditional uses and deepening the mechanism of action, identifying the compounds responsible for these activities. The most investigated active compounds are aloe-emodin, aloin, aloesin, emodin, and acemannan. Likewise, new actions have been investigated for Aloe vera and its active compounds. This review provides an overview of current pharmacological studies (in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials), written in English during the last six years (2014-2019). In particular, new pharmacological data research has shown that most studies refer to anti-cancer action, skin and digestive protective activity, and antimicrobial properties. Most recent works are in vitro and in vivo. Clinical trials have been conducted just with Aloe vera, but not with isolated compounds; therefore, it would be interesting to study the clinical effect of relevant metabolites in different human conditions and pathologies. The promising results of these studies in basic research encourage a greater number of clinical trials to test the clinical application of Aloe vera and its main compounds, particularly on bone protection, cancer, and diabetes.
Full-text available
This work aimed to characterize compositional and bioactive features of Aloe vera leaf (fillet, mucilage, and rind) and flower. The edible fillet was analysed for its nutritional value, and all samples were studied for phenolic composition and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, tyrosinase inhibition, and cytotoxic activities. Dietary fibre (mainly mannan) and available carbohydrates (mainly free glucose and fructose) were abundant macronutrients in fillet, which also contained high amounts of malic acid (5.75 g/100 g dw) and α-tocopherol (4.8 mg/100 g dw). The leaf samples presented similar phenolic profiles, with predominance of chromones and anthrones, and the highest contents were found in mucilage (131 mg/g) and rind (105 mg/g) extracts, which also revealed interesting antioxidant properties. On the other hand, the flower extract was rich in apigenin glycoside derivatives (4.48 mg/g), effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 0.025 mg/mL and MBC = 0.05 mg/mL) and capable of inhibiting the tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 4.85 mg/mL). The fillet, rind, and flower extracts also showed a powerful antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium funiculosum, and Candida albicans, higher than that of ketoconazole. Thus, the studied Aloe vera samples displayed high potential to be exploited by the food or cosmetic industries, among others.
Full-text available
: Aloe vera is a medicinal plant species of the genus Aloe with a long history of usage around the world. Acemannan, considered one of the main bioactive polysaccharides of Aloe vera, possesses immunoregulation, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, wound healing and bone proliferation promotion, neuroprotection, and intestinal health promotion activities, among others. In this review, recent advancements in the extraction, purification, structural characteristics and biological activities of acemannan from Aloe vera were summarized. Among these advancements, the structural characteristics of purified polysaccharides were reviewed in detail. Meanwhile, the biological activities of acemannan from Aloe vera determined by in vivo, in vitro and clinical experiments are summarized, and possible mechanisms of these bioactivities were discussed. Moreover, the latest research progress on the use of acemannan in dentistry and wound healing was also summarized in details. The structure-activity relationships of acemannan and its medical applications were discussed. Finally, new perspectives for future research work on acemannan were proposed. In conclusion, this review summarizes the extraction, purification, structural characteristics, biological activities and pharmacological applications of acemannan, and provides information for the industrial production and possible applications in dentistry and wound healing in the future.
Aloin is the major anthraquinone glycoside obtained from the Aloe species and exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. However, the renal protective effects of aloin and underlying molecular mechanism remain unclear. This study was initiated to determine whether aloin could modulate renal functional damage in a mouse model of sepsis and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The potential of aloin treatment to reduce renal damage induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery in mice was measured by assessment of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lipid peroxidation, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, catalase activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. Post-treatment with aloin resulted in a significant reduction in the deleterious renal functions by CLP, such as elevated BUN, creatinine, and urine protein. Moreover, aloin inhibited nuclear factor-κB activation and reduced the induction of nitric oxide synthase and excessive production of nitric acid. Aloin treatment also reduced the plasma levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, reduced lethality due to CLP-induced sepsis, increased lipid peroxidation, and markedly enhanced the antioxidant defense system by restoring the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in kidney tissues. Our study suggested that aloin protects mice against sepsis-triggered renal injury.
Background: Aloe vera is commonly used in the primary health care of human beings since time immemorial. It is an herb widely used in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide. Systematic and scientific investigation on A. vera as a medicinal plant has drawn considerable attention, and many laboratories are involved in isolation, characterization and evaluation of phytoconstituents for their nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. Purpose: The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the phytochemical, biological and medicinal attributes of A. vera against various diseases with special emphasis on underlying mechanisms of action. Methods: PubMed, EBOSCO host, Science Direct, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases were utilized to search literature published between1977 and 2019 (till March). Major keywords used in various combinations included: Aloe vera, phytochemistry, metabolism, pharmacological activity, prevention, treatment, health, disease, in vivo, in vitro, and clinical studies. Results: Various biological and pharmacological activities of A. vera, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anticancer, and skin-protective and wound-healing responses, have been attributed to the presence of many active compounds, including anthraquinones, anthrones, chromones, flavonoids, amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Conclusion: Based on various preclinical studies, A. vera constituents have enormous potential to prevent and treat various diseases. Randomized clinical trials are needed to understand the full therapeutic potential of this unique medicinal plant.
Background: Aloe vera has been used to treat wounds since ancient times. However, the efficacy of Aloe vera for burns and split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor sites are inconclusive. Methods: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted. Patients who underwent STSG harvesting from the thigh were included. STSG donor sites were divided into two groups: Aloe vera group and placebo group. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score evaluated pain and complete epithelialization was assessed. We searched electronic databases and included only international clinical trials published in the English language. Results: Twelve patients with 24 donor sites participated. Times to complete epithelization for the Aloe vera and placebo groups were 11.5 + 1.45 and 13.67 + 1.61 days (p<0.05). VAS scores after wound dressing for the Aloe vera and placebo groups were 17.18 + 13.17 and 18.63 + 11.20. No statistical significance was found between groups. Five articles met the inclusion criteria: four involved burns and one involved STSG donor sites. Three studies of burn wounds demonstrated improved epithelization and one did not. The STSG donor site study indicated that wound healing time for the control group was significantly different from that of the Aloe vera and placebo groups. The healing rate was not statistically different between groups. Conclusion: Topical Aloe vera gel significantly demonstrated accelerated STSG donor site healing but did not show significant pain relief.
Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is widely used for healthy foods, medical and cosmetic products, while its leaf skin is usually treated as industrial waste. To have a profound understanding of the polysaccharides in the leaf skin of Aloe vera, crude polysaccharide was extracted from the leaf skin of Aloe vera and purified into three fractions, designated as ASP-4N, ASP-6N and ASP-8N, using gradient ammonium sulfate precipitation. The physicochemical properties and structural characteristics of ASP-4N were systematically investigated by methylation analysis and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that decreasing contents of neutral sugar (79%–74%) were detected among the three fractions, with the concentration increasing of ammonium sulfate used for precipitation. Small amounts of protein and uronic acid were also detected by colorimetric method. Homogeneity identified by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) indicated that the three fractions were highly purified. The relative weight average molecular weights for ASP-4N, ASP-6N and ASP-8N were 339, 130 and 67.6 kDa, successively. Monosaccharide compositions and characteristic FT-IR spectra of these fractions suggested the presence of typical acetylated glucomannan and the ratios of mannose/glucose were 19.13, 8.97 and 2.96, successively. Further structural analysis of ASP-4N suggested that it was a highly acetylated (1 → 4)-β-glucomannan. There was also some (1 → 3)-β-Manp mixed in the backbone.
Background: Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process involving various regulatory factors at the molecular level. Aloe vera is widely used for cell rejuvenation, wound healing, and skin moisturizing. Hypothesis/purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of aloesin from Aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and mechanisms involved therein. Study design: This study consisted of both in vitro and in vivo experiments involving skin cell lines and mouse model to demonstrate the wound healing effects of aloesin by taking into account several parameters ranging from cultured cell migration to wound healing in mice. Methods: The activities of Smad signaling molecules (Smad2 and Smad3), MAPKs (ERK and JNK), and migration-related proteins (Cdc42, Rac1, and α-Pak) were assessed after aloesin treatment in cultured cells (1, 5 and 10µM) and mouse skin (0.1% and 0.5%). We also monitored macrophage recruitment, secretion of cytokines and growth factors, tissue development, and angiogenesis after aloesin treatment using IHC analysis and ELISAs. Results: Aloesin increased cell migration via phosphorylation of Cdc42 and Rac1. Aloesin positively regulated the release of cytokines and growth factors (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β1 and TNF-α) from macrophages (RAW264.7) and enhanced angiogenesis in endothelial cells (HUVECs). Aloesin treatment accelerated wound closure rates in hairless mice by inducing angiogenesis, collagen deposition and granulation tissue formation. More importantly, aloesin treatment resulted in the activation of Smad and MAPK signaling proteins that are key players in cell migration, angiogenesis and tissue development. Conclusion: Aloesin ameliorates each phase of the wound healing process including inflammation, proliferation and remodeling through MAPK/Rho and Smad signaling pathways. These findings indicate that aloesin has the therapeutic potential for treating cutaneous wounds.
Aloe, the leaf juice of Aloe vera, is a popular functional food worldwide. The major constituents of aloe are polyphenolic anthranoids such as aloin, aloe-emodin and rhein. Cyclosporine (CSP), an immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window, is a probe substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux pump, and CYP 3A4. This study first investigated the serum kinetics of aloe, then evaluated the modulation effects of aloe on P-gp and CYP 3A through an aloe-CSP interaction study in rats. The serum kinetic study showed that aloe-emodin glucuronides (G) and rhein sulfates/glucuronides (S/G) were major molecules in the bloodstream. The aloe-CSP interaction study showed that the systemic exposure to CSP was significantly decreased by either a single dose or multiple doses of aloe. The results of in vitro studies indicated that aloe activated P-gp and aloe metabolites activated CYP 3A4. In conclusion, aloe ingestion activated the functions of P-gp and CYP 3A in rats.