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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A ROOFTOP HYBRID SOLAR PV SYSTEM USING HOMER PRO AND MATLAB SIMULINK

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  • Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Aviation and Aerospace University

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In this research work, the primary target was to design a hybrid solar PV system through numerical modeling here. Here a hybrid system was proposed with a load capacity of around 1 kW. MATLAB Simulink was used to design and simulate the proposed scheme. Aspects, like the availability of physical space, electrical system scale, and on-site electrical system experts mark the areas attractive sites for rooftop solar PV implementation. Moreover, rooftop hybrid solar viability is contingent upon numerous capricious factors and the success in one site may not be reproducible at another site due to some exterior aspects, like national policy, native natural gas resources, energy fares, and availability of solar irradiance. As such, this research also investigated the feasibility of diverse kinds of rooftop systems for solar power generation and distribution in residential households, which can operate in parallel with the on-grid or in an island mode to deliver a tailored state of high reliability and flexibility to grid instabilities. This cutting-edge, integrated distribution system addressed the necessity of applying them in the sites without electric supply and/or transportation limitations in inaccessible places, and to protect the loads at a critical juncture and parsimoniously thoughtful growth.
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AbstractIn this research work, the primary target was to
design a hybrid solar PV system through numerical modeling
here. Here a hybrid system was proposed with a load capacity
of around 1 kW. MATLAB Simulink was used to design and
simulate the proposed scheme. Aspects, like the availability of
physical space, electrical system scale, and on-site electrical
system experts mark the areas attractive sites for rooftop solar
PV implementation. Moreover, rooftop hybrid solar viability
is contingent upon numerous capricious factors and the
success in one site may not be reproducible at another site due
to some exterior aspects, like national policy, native natural
gas resources, energy fares, and availability of solar
irradiance. As such, this research also investigated the
feasibility of diverse kinds of rooftop systems for solar power
generation and distribution in residential households, which
can operate in parallel with the on-grid or in an island mode to
deliver a tailored state of high reliability and flexibility to grid
instabilities. This cutting-edge, integrated distribution system
addressed the necessity of applying them in the sites without
electric supply and/or transportation limitations in inaccessible
places, and to protect the loads at a critical juncture and
parsimoniously thoughtful growth.
KeywordsRooftop Hybrid Solar Home System, Design,
Simulation, MATLAB.
M. S. I. Sadek is with the Department of Electrical and Electronic
Engineering, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Aviation and
Aerospace University, Bangladesh (e-mail: sami.seu@gmail.com).
M. A. H. Joy is with the Department of Electrical and Electronic
Engineering, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh (e-mail:
2017000500008@seu.edu.bd).
M. K. Islam is with the Department of Electrical and Electronic
Engineering, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh (e-mail:
2017000500032@seu.edu.bd).
M. A. Ananna is with the Department of Electrical and Electronic
Engineering, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh (e-mail:
2017000500030@seu.edu.bd).
M. H. Bhuyan is with the Department of Electrical and Electronic
Engineering, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh (e-mail:
muhibulhb@seu.edu.bd).
M. S. Aktar is with the Department of Electrical and Electronic
Engineering, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh (e-mail:
sarminaktar.eee@gmail.com).
I. INTRODUCTION
REVIOUSLY, the major source (~75%) of electrical
energy production was the fossil fuels, such as oil,
natural gas, coal, etc. However, these sources emit lots
of carbons [1]. But, now due to the arrival of various
renewable energy sources, especially, the current solar-
based photovoltaic or PV system, a low-carbon
discharging technological solution, is suitable for most
of the South Asian regions due to the huge areas with
plentiful solar irradiation [2], because this data at the
site is necessary to assess the electrical output power
generated per day by the solar PV panels [3]. It has
already been revealed that electrical energy can be
generated from the sun radiation on a very large scale
on this earth, approximately 1.8×1011 MW [4].
Most solar PV systems are any one of the two types,
such as Utility-Scale Solar Energy (USSE) installations
[5] and distributed generation [6], which may be
installed either on the ground or the rooftops. The power
produced during the daytime, when sunlight is
available, is used locally and then feeding the surplus
power back into the power grid. In a residential system,
a small system usually up to 20 kW is sufficient while
in communal houses, commercial buildings, and
industrial structures with a size of near about 1 MW.
Due to the much-reduced size of the power plant-type
fixings, the rooftop solar system possesses countless
returns to make this world a better place to live in [7].
A hybrid rooftop solar system is a combination of
both the on-grid [8] and off-grid-tied [9] solar systems.
Hence, these systems are usually known as off-grid
solar systems with the service of backup power. They
are also known as grid-tied solar with extra battery
storage. The solar hybrid method stocks energy in
electrical form from sunlight in the day and then can
deliver reserved power when the grid power goes off.
This is seamless for house proprietors because most of
the businesses are being operated during the day; a
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A ROOFTOP HYBRID
SOLAR PV SYSTEM USING HOMER PRO AND
MATLAB SIMULINK
Md. Samiul Islam Sadek, Md. Anamul Haque Joy, Md. Koushik Islam, Mim Afrose Ananna, Muhibul
Haque Bhuyan, and Mst. Sarmin Aktar
P
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common grid-fed solar scheme is the most economically
viable option for them. As such, a rooftop hybrid solar
system is designed and analyzed using MATLAB
Simulink, in this work.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Currently, many countries including Bangladesh are
installing the solar home system on building rooftops
[10-12]. Recently, Bangladesh has installed its largest
solar rooftop with a $16 million budget and 16 MW of
power generating capacity in Chittagong [13].
The world’s largest solar mini-grid rooftop system
has been installed in Italy, which project name is CIS
(Centro Ingrosso Sviluppo Campano) in Nola, located in
Nola - Naples, Italy, Nominal Power is 25 MWp,
Annual Production is 33 GWh and which has completed
in 2013. Now this project is in operation [14].
In Bangladesh, to find out the probable capability of
the rooftop solar power generation areas for
electrification through renewable sources, Geographical
Information System (GIS) platform has been applied to
map different geographical locations [15].
India envisions adding 100 GW of solar energy to the
national grid in the next 7 years and sets a target of 40
GW for rooftop solar by 2022 [16]. In Asia, the largest
rooftop solar PV plant has been installed on a rooftop
prepared by an asbestos sheet with an area of 94,000 m2,
located in Punjab, India with a nominal power of 7.52
MWp in June 2014. It is, still in operation [17]. The
world’s largest single rooftop solar power plant of 11.5
MWp capacities was inaugurated in Amritsar, Punjab,
India [18]. Besides, Arvind Limited has installed 16.2
MWp rooftop solar plants in Gujarat [19].
The worlds first solar-powered cricket ground is
Chinnaswamy stadium in Bengaluru, India. The
Karnataka State Cricket Association (KSCA) installed a
400 kW solar power plant on its stadium gallery’s roof
to provide electrical power to the entire stadium
excluding the floodlights due to its high power
requirement [20].
Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB)
installed its first solar mini-grid system on the building
rooftop. In the fiscal year 2010-2011, BPDB installed
32.75 kWp solar roof-top PV systems at its building in
Motijheel, Dhaka, Bangladesh, and in the next fiscal
year of 2011-2012, BPDB installed 37.5 kWp solar
roof-top power systems on Bidyut Bhaban,
Segunbagicha, Dhaka, Bangladesh [21].
In 2007, the Asian Development Bank (ADB), while
sanctioning their loans, set the conditions that there
should be some mechanism to improve the energy
efficiency by using efficient ventilation methods, and
while using air conditioning, lighting, and other
electrical systems or appliances, and as such the adopted
technologies should facilitate to reduce the energy
consumption by at least 4%. Besides, distributed roof-
top solar PV systems should be installed on large
buildings, even the ADB headquarters did it [22].
III. PROBLEM STATEMENT, OBJECTIVES, AND OTHER
CONSIDERATIONS OF THIS WORK
A. Problem Statements and Objectives
As per the technical literature surveys, nearly 78-80%
of the commercial energy consumed on this earth comes
from fossil fuels, like oil, coal, and natural gas, that emit
a significant amount of carbon-di-oxide (CO2) and other
greenhouse gases and cause a hugely deleterious impact
to environments, as well as on health, land, air, climate,
and rain [23]. That is, this increases the carbon
footprints. As a result, at present, most of the countries
are shifting their focus to produce electrical energy from
such sources that would emit less amount of carbon to
the environment.
Renewable energy resources are available in nature in
plentiful and can be transformed into another form of
energy without thinking about their reserve unlike fossil
fuels, which deplete with time. There are a variety of
renewable energy resources, like wind, solar, biomass,
ocean wave, and other tidal sources that are copious to
harvest clean energy [24].
Already, renewable energy technologies improved a
lot due to the price of electrical power generation
decreased [25]. The main barrier related to generating
energy from renewable resources, such as the sun, is
stochastic due to the unpredictable nature of
meteorological conditions [26]. The availability of
sunlight depends on the location and the seasons.
Therefore, depending on a single renewable energy
resource is not a wise option to get the energy yield. As
such, the researchers suggest using two or more
renewable resources to be mixed and form a Hybrid
Renewable Energy System (HRES) [27]. The main
goals of this hybrid system are to develop an electrical
power generation system, minimize the cost, diminish
hostile effects accompanying oxidizing fossil fuels, and
increase the inclusive efficiency of energy production.
As a result, the Integrated Renewable Energy System
(IRES) is attaining extra attention by researchers, power
engineers, and policy-makers around the globe, because
a hybridized system can supply reliable and highly
efficient electricity to the consumers, unlike a single-
renewable resource [28-29].
An HRES can be implemented in stand-alone or grid-
connected modes [30]. In stand-alone mode, the system
must have big-size storage to manage the load, while in
grid-connected mode, the storage can be small size, and
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the shortages of power can be collected from the grid. It
may be pointed out that a power electronic controller
must be used to share the load as well as to control the
voltage, harmonic, and frequency in grid-connected
mode [31]. Thus, the operating model of the HRES is
categorized as the island mode and grid-connected
mode. In the first case, the produced electrical power is
consumed locally whereas in the latter case; the
renewable energy resource is coupled to the grid [32].
A photovoltaic (PV) cell is a kind of semiconductor
device that can convert sunlight to a direct current (DC).
A general Si-based PV cell can harvest around 0.5-0.7
V at open-circuit conditions independent of its size. The
current produced from the cell is directly related to the
sunlight intensity on its surface, the cell’s efficiency,
and size. The PV cells are usually tied in series and
parallel to yield the anticipated amount of voltage and
current and hence the power. This PV module is the
central construction block for a PV system. Series of
such PV panels are called PV arrays [33]. The
performance of PV modules and array are rated as per
their maximum output power (Pmax) tested under the
Standard Test Conditions (STC), which is defined at the
cell operating temperature of 25°C and incident
electromagnetic irradiance level of 1 kW/m2 [34].
In Bangladesh, energy consumption is one of the
major challenges. Still, there are some areas where
electricity couldn’t be reached and even the people who
have access to grid connection power have to face
power disruptions, especially in summer due to the
system faults. The industries require an uninterrupted
power supply to continue their production and maintain
the deadline, especially for the export-oriented
industries. Most of the power stations of Bangladesh are
run by natural gas as it is the most important indigenous
source of energy. At present, the reservation of gas has
fallen to such an alarming level that if no new gas fields
are discovered then this reserve may last for a maximum
of a decade. So, to reduce the dependency on natural
gas, alternative energy resources must be explored. As
such, Bangladesh has taken a plan to generate 5% of
total power generation from renewable sources by 2015
and 10% by 2020 [21]. The renewable energy systems
in Bangladesh start with Solar Home System (SHS) in
the rural areas where no grid line is available [22]. Now
it can be expanded by the solar mini-grid system with
the application areas of irrigation system, residential,
and official purposes. But the solar mini-grid system
needs a large land area for its installation. So, the solar
mini-grid is not a feasible solution in urban areas.
Therefore, the objective of this work was to explore and
evaluate the potential of solar hybrid systems at the
rooftop. The other objectives of this work are set as
follows:
i. To study on rooftop hybrid solar PV system
ii. To propose a rooftop hybrid solar PV system
iii. To design the proposed system using MATLAB
Simulink simulation software.
iv. To analyze the effectiveness of the system.
B. Scopes
Being a developing nation, Bangladesh has seen
decent growth in its economy over the past few years.
Its economy is ranked as the 30th largest in the world in
terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) [35] and has
achieved estimated GDP growth of 6% over. The
industrial sector alone contributes 27.9% to this
accomplishment. There are a total of 4621 garment
factories operating in the country now [36].
Bangladesh aims to become a high-income country
by the year 2041, and as such, it needs to raise its GDP
growth rate by 7.5-8% every year. However, the
important part of its GDP growth depends on ready-
made garment exports and increasing remittance flow.
So, the government of Bangladesh prepared a Power
Supply Master Plan (PSMP) of generating electricity
over 20 GW by 2020 to ensure reliable and quality
electricity supply at an affordable cost to all citizens
because there is a strong correlation between the GDP
growth and per capita electricity consumption.
Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB)
statistics indicate that the demand is increased 100%
from 2007 to 2015. As a result, the expansion of the
renewable energy sector is one of the vital approaches
recognized as part of the fuel divergence program.
According to the Renewable Energy Policy (REP) 2009,
the government of Bangladesh is steadfast to expedite
both public and private sector investments in renewable
energy schemes to replace aboriginal non-renewable
energy sources and increase the contributions towards
the current renewable energy-based electricity
generations. To achieve the target of producing 10% of
electricity from renewable sources by 2020, the
government of Bangladesh formed the Sustainable and
Renewable Energy Development Authority (SREDA) to
promote renewable energy options and energy
efficiency improvement. However, this target has not
been achieved till now. But the global target of solar
energy coverage is expected to be approximately 30%
of global energy demand by 2050 and approximately
70% by 2100.
On the globe, the latitude and longitudinal position of
Bangladesh is between 20.300 and 26.380 north 88.040
and 92.440 east. It is an ideal position to harness solar
energy. Bangladesh receives an average daily solar
radiation of 4-6.5 kWh/m². The Power Division of
Bangladesh took the initiative to generate 500 MW of
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solar-based electrical power. The long-term power
generation policy of Bangladesh is to become a low-
carbon emission country by introducing a high-efficient
power supply and using such technologies to generate
power that would release low greenhouse gas [22].
There is a strong relationship between electricity
consumption and quality of life, because, with its ever-
increasing usage, the health, education, industry, social
sectors are heightened. In rural areas, electrification can
bring socio-economic growth by increasing literacy
rates, improving health care facilities, creating
employment opportunities, generating income activities,
and advancing productivity. According to the United
Nations Development Program (UNDP), if per capita
electricity consumption can be increased then the
Human Development Index (HDI) would rise [37].
They identified that the mid-level energy initiatives,
such as solar micro-grid have a greater impact on
raising the social status because through the small-scale
solar mini-grids access to electrification can be ensured
in a community very easily and thus can be created a
positive feedback loop that facilitates the growth and
stepping up the social life.
In this paper, the possibility of implementing a solar
mini-grid system on the rooftop of buildings is
discussed in detail. Then a hybrid solar PV rooftop
system is designed in MATLAB Simulink for a load of
around 1000 W. This research also conducted into the
advantages, design, and analysis of a DC microgrid in
residential applications. The DC micro-grid system is
preferred when compared to replacing the entire
conventional AC system with DC. The focus of this
research is that a new idea of DC microgrid will be
introduced and this DC micro-grid can be implemented
in new households, or modified in the prevailing, with
the marginal influence on the other consumers relying
on the AC power. There may be verities of impacts that
may be derived from such types of initiatives.
IV. CONTROLLER CIRCUIT AND HYBRID SOLAR
SYSTEM DESIGN
An AC voltage controller is an electronic circuit that
uses various types of semiconductor devices like
thyristors, TRIACs, SCRs, MOSFETs, BJTs, or IGBTs,
to convert a fixed frequency AC voltage from one level
to another level at the output or load side. This variable
AC voltage is used for dimming street lights, varying
temperatures, controlling the speed of motors, and other
numerous applications. This kind of power electronic
circuit has the advantages of low-maintenance cost and
very high efficiency. Such a control circuit is a phase-
controlled device, that is the phase angle between the
load current and the supply voltage can be controlled by
changing the firing angle of the semiconductor devices
used in the circuit. As such, it is a kind of natural or line
commutated circuit, and hence no forced commutation
circuitry is essential. Since solar power is of DC type,
therefore, we need power electronic circuits, such as
AC-DC, DC-AC converters to have quality AC power
for our AC power-driven appliances [38-40].
Solar PV Array
Sun
Battery Inverter (DC-to-AC)
DC Load
Switch
Charge Controller
Radiation
AC Load
Secondary Source
Fig. 1. Block diagram of a rooftop solar home PV system
The block diagram of the solar PV rooftop system is
shown in Fig. 1. The solar PV array receives the solar
radiation in the form of light during daytime and then
transforms it in the form of DC electrical energy. The
DC power is stored in the battery as soon as it is
generated by the PV array via a charge controller
circuit. When an AC appliance is to be powered from
this stored DC energy, we need an inverter circuit that
transforms the stored DC energy of the battery into an
AC signal with appropriate voltage amplitude and
frequency. However, the AC load can be driven by the
power taken from any secondary source like a power
grid. In that case, the AC load is connected to the power
grid via an AC distribution board. AC power from the
inverter circuit is supplied to the switchboard from
where it is directed to the various loads connected to
that particular building where this rooftop solar system
has been installed. Depending on the type of system,
excess solar energy can either be fed into the electricity
grid for credits, or stored in different storage systems.
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Fig. 2. Voltage controller’s MATLAB Simulink diagram
On-grid or grid-tied solar energy systems are being
widely used at homes and offices without any battery
and are directly connected to the national grid to
export the surplus of the solar energy there and thus
the customer can be benefitted by lowering their
utility bill. However, these types of systems cannot
generate electricity during a grid failure because at
that time if the power is fed to the grid then it might
be dangerous for the people working there to repair
the damage that occurred in the grid. But the hybrid
solar systems have storage facilities that can isolate
the system from the grid (also called islanding)
automatically and remain to deliver power during a
national grid failure.
Figure 2 shows the voltage controller’s circuit
diagram and Fig. 3 shows the on-grid model drawn in
the MATLAB Simulink as per the block diagram of
Fig. 1. This system works in two different means,
such as the electrical power is supplied to the
consumer’s load from the utility grid when the solar
power is not available, and if the solar power is
available then the electrical power is supplied to the
consumer’s load from the solar PV system. However,
in this case, the rooftop solar system is connected to
the grid. As such, the on-grid solar system is much
more affordable and convenient to the user.
The PV panels produce electricity when there is
sunshine and it is then fed to the distribution panel to
be used by the consumer. If additional power is
generated then it is delivered to the grid. Thus the
consumer’s utility meter billing is curtailed. The
utility company charges the consumer only when they
consume any power from the grid.
The working procedures of this system have been
described in the following steps:
Step # 1: The solar PV arrays have irradiation and
temperature parameters to be set to produce electrical
energy from the sunlight.
Step # 2: The grid-tied inverter module converts
the DC output power of the PV array to a 3-phase AC
power. The three-phase loads are also shown using
the resistance and inductance. The inverter can
regulate the amount of power supplied to the load.
Step # 3: There is also provision for the voltage
and current measurement and monitoring through the
scopes from different points.
Fig. 3. On-grid system’s model drawn using MATLAB Simulink
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On the other hand, an off-grid solar energy system is
not connected to the national grid, that is, this type of
system is not able to deliver power to the grid in any
case. This is tempting because the customer is 100%
self-sustaining of electricity use.
Figure 4 shows the off-grid model drawn in
MATLAB Simulink. As the name suggests, the off-grid
solar PV system is not linked to the utility grid. As such,
the surplus electrical energy produced during the
daytime is stored in storage devices, like batteries. Such
PV systems can be installed in localities where grid
power is not accessible. Therefore, it is a completely
independent power-producing system. The stored power
is expended at night and some other times when the
sunlight is not available due to rain, storm, fog, cloud,
etc. The working procedures of this system have been
described in the following steps:
Step # 1: The main power hub is solar PV. The solar
PV arrays have irradiation and temperature parameters
to be set to produce electrical energy from the sunlight.
Step # 2: The batteries are an indispensable part of
this system to store additional electrical energy.
Step # 3: However, a standby power generator may
be added to recharge the batteries in case there is no
sunshine for a longer period.
Step # 4: The inverter module converts the DC output
power of the PV array to a 3-phase AC power. The
three-phase loads are also shown using the resistance
and inductance. The inverter can regulate the amount of
power supplied to the load.
Step # 5: There is also provision for the voltage and
current measurement and monitoring through the scopes
from different points.
Fig. 4. Off-grid system’s model drawn using MATLAB Simulink
Conversely, the hybrid solar system generates power
like a grid-tied solar system but uses a special kind of
hybrid inverter with batteries so that the surplus energy
can be stored in the batteries and can be used later. The
stored energy serves as a standby power supply when
the national grid fails as it is observed in the
Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS).
Figure 5 shows the hybrid solar model drawn in the
MATLAB Simulink. It is a combination of both off-grid
and on-grid systems. The major differentiating option
between the hybrid and other solar PV systems is that
the former has an energy storage device as well as
utility grid connectivity. As such, this type of system is
highly reliable in terms of continuity of electricity
supply to the consumer all the time. Since this system
can store electricity for a longer period in batteries,
electrical energy can be used from here in the future at
the time of need without drawing it from the utility grid,
it significantly decreases the tariff and also increases the
reliability as well. The working procedures of this
system are described in the following steps:
Step # 1: Here stored energy from the solar PV
system is shown as a DC voltage source in the diagram.
It is assumed that the DC source gets the power from
the photoelectric effect when the sun shines in the day.
A universal bridge inverter circuit is used to convert the
DC voltage to AC voltage. The batteries are being
continuously charged during the daytime to store DC
power obtained from the sunlight via the PV arrays.
Step # 2: In the absence of sunlight, the consumer
draws DC power from the battery, and conversion of it
to AC power is performed by the inverter circuit. If the
battery power goes low due to the use of a longer period
then the battery power can be restored by charging it
using the grid power and in that case, the consumer also
draws their required power from the utility grid by
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paying a tariff to the utility company. This ensures an
uninterrupted power supply to the users.
Step # 3: The inverter module converts the DC output
power of the PV array to a 3-phase AC power. The
three-phase loads are also shown using the resistance
and inductance. The inverter can regulate the amount of
power supplied to the load.
Step # 4: There is also provision for the voltage and
current measurement and monitoring through the scopes
from different points.
Fig. 5. Hybrid solar system’s model drawn using MATLAB Simulink
V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
A. Performance evaluation with on-grid system
Each panel type and architecture has a slightly
different type of curve. That means the voltage and
current characteristics are different due to the panel’s
variety. These characteristics change with temperature,
irradiance, and many other factors as we have discussed.
Since we are dealing with grid-tied systems, we need to
address the role of the I-V curve in the inverter design
using a sine-wave inverter with maximum power point
tracking. Our goal is to get the most out of the inverter
and the rest of the system.
Fig. 6. Output (a) voltage and (b) current wave shapes for the three phases obtained from the simulation of the Simulink diagram
of an on-grid system
(a)
(b)
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Fig. 7. Output (a) voltage and (b) current wave shapes for the three phases obtained from the simulation of the Simulink diagram
of an off-grid system
Fig. 8. Output (a) voltage and (b) current wave shapes for the three phases obtained from the simulation of the Simulink diagram
of a hybrid system
The I-V curve of the solar panel affects the system
performance. There is an I-V curve for Standard Test
Conditions (STC), the representative form of the I-V
curve. Figures 6 (a) and (b) show the output voltage and
output current wave shapes respectively for the three
phases of the inverter output side obtained from the
simulation results of an on-grid system. On the y-axis,
the current is represented in amperes and voltage is in
volt. As the irradiance increases, the current increases.
Therefore, in the real world, the upper portion of the
curve fluctuates up and down with time represented on
the x-axis. On the other hand, voltage is inversely
affected by temperature. As temperature rises, the
voltage decreases; as the temperature drops, the voltage
increases. The peak voltage is over 300 V and the peak
current is around 14 A. Often, the emphasis is given to
the I-V curve at STC.
B. Performance evaluation with an off-grid system
The overall efficiency of the system must be taken
into consideration while designing and sizing a solar PV
(a)
(b)
(a)
(b)
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43
system. Figures 7 (a) and (b) show the output voltage
and output current wave shapes respectively for the
three phases of the inverter output side obtained from
the simulation results of an off-grid system. On the y-
axis, the current is represented in amperes and voltage is
in volt. As the irradiance increases, the current
increases. Therefore, in the real world, the upper portion
of the curve performance evaluation with an off-grid
system curve fluctuates up and down with time
represented on the x-axis. Here also, the voltage is
inversely affected by temperature. As temperature rises,
the voltage decreases; as the temperature drops, the
voltage increases. The peak voltage is over 300 V and
the peak current is around 14 A.
C. Performance evaluation with a hybrid system
The potency of an associate off-grid star inverter
refers to the magnitude relation of its output power to its
input power underneath nominal operating conditions,
expressed as a share. In general, the nominal potency of
an associate off-grid star inverter refers to a strictly
resistive load. Because the overall value of star systems
is comparatively high, the potency of off-grid star
inverters ought to be maximized, system prices ought to
be reduced, and also the cost-effectiveness of star
systems ought to be improved. However, additionally,
the affordable configuration of the system ought to be
adopted to form the electrical phenomenon system load
work close to the simplest potency purpose the
maximum amount as doable due to the high worth of
star cells, to maximize the employment of star cells and
improve system potency.
Figures 8 (a) and (b) show the output voltage and
output current wave shapes respectively for the three
phases of the inverter output side obtained from the
simulation results of an off-grid system. On the y-axis,
the current is represented in amperes and the voltage is
in volt. As the irradiance increases, the current
increases. Therefore, in the real world, the upper portion
of the curve fluctuates up and down with time as shown
on the x-axis. We also observed that the voltage is
inversely affected by temperature. As temperature rises,
the voltage decreases; as the temperature drops, the
voltage increases. The peak voltage is over 300 V and
the peak current is around 14 A.
VI. CONCLUSIONS
In this research work, the primary target was to
design a hybrid solar PV system. At first, theoretical
studies on this topic were completed and then the
system model was designed and drawn in MATLAB
Simulink for a load of around 1 kW. After that, the
model was simulated to observe the voltage and current
wave shapes generated from this system. However, to
observe and compare the performance of this system,
both the on-grid and off-grid systems were modeled and
simulated. A hybrid solar PV system gives impetus to
the use of renewable sources of energy. Reliability is
achieved due to the regionalization of electricity supply
to get 24 hours of power supply due to receiving the
power from multiple sources.
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Md. Samiul Islam Sadek received
his BSc and MSc degrees from the
Department of Applied Physics,
Electronics and Communication
Engineering, University of Dhaka,
Bangladesh. At present, he is working
as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical
and Electronic Engineering, Bangabandhu Sheikh
Mujibur Rahman Aviation and Aerospace University
(BSMRAAU), Tejgaon, Dhaka, Bangladesh. He started
his career at Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh,
and worked there till December 2020 as a Senior
THE SEU JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING (SEUJEEE), ISSN: p-2710-2130, e-2710-2149, Volume 02, Issue 01, JANUARY 2022
A SCHOLARLY PUBLICATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY
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Lecturer in the Department of EEE. His focused
research areas include the characterization of thin-film
solar cells, Nano-photonics for photovoltaic
applications, selection of novel materials, and their
potential uses in different optoelectronic devices. He has
eight publications in both local and international
journals. Currently, he is focusing on perovskite-based
solar cells.
Md. Anamul Haque Joy was born
in Kishoreganj, Bangladesh in 1998.
He received the BSc Engg. degree in
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
from Southeast University of Dhaka,
Bangladesh in 2021. His research
interest includes power generation
from renewable energy, design, and simulation of the
hybrid solar PV system.
Md. Koushik Islam was born in
Pabna, Bangladesh in 1997. He
received the BSc Engg. degree in
Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
Southeast University, Dhaka,
Bangladesh in 2021. His research
interest includes renewable energy,
design, and simulation of the hybrid solar PV system.
Mim Afrose Ananna was born in
Naogaon, Bangladesh in 1999. She
received the BSc Engg. degree in
Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
Southeast University, Dhaka,
Bangladesh in 2021. Her present
research interests involve the design
and simulation of a solar charging station for electric
vehicles, design and simulation of smart grid, etc.
Muhibul Haque Bhuyan
(MIEEE2005) became a Member
(M) of the World Academy of
Science, Engineering and Technology
in 2005, born in Dhaka, Bangladesh
on 25 July 1972. He did his BSc, MSc,
and PhD degrees in Electrical and
Electronic Engineering (EEE) from Bangladesh
University of Engineering and Technology (BUET),
Dhaka, Bangladesh in 1998, 2002, and 2011
respectively.
Currently, he is working as a Professor of the
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering of
Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. He led this
department as the Departmental Chairman from 1st
March 2016 to 10th March 2021. Previously, he worked
at the Green University of Bangladesh, Dhaka as a
Professor and Chairman of the EEE Department;
Daffodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh as
an Assistant Professor and Head of ETE Department;
Presidency University, Dhaka, Bangladesh as an
Assistant Professor and American International
University Bangladesh (AIUB), Dhaka as a Faculty
Member since June 1999. He also worked as a
Researcher in the Center of Excellence Program of
Hiroshima University, Japan from July 2003 to March
2004. He has served as an Adjunct Faculty at AUST,
IIUC, EWU, DIU, PU, etc. So far, he has published over
60 research papers in national and international journals
and presented over 50 research works at national and
international conferences. His research interests include
MOS device modeling, biomedical engineering, control
system design, online practices of teaching and learning,
outcome-based engineering education, assessment, and
evaluation. He is a program evaluator of the Board of
Accreditation of Engineering and Technical Education
(BAETE), Dhaka, Bangladesh under IEB.
Prof. Bhuyan is a Member of IEEE, USA, Executive
and Life Member of the Bangladesh Electronics and
Informatics Society (BEIS), and Life Fellow of the
Institution of Engineers Bangladesh (IEB). He is a
regular reviewer and technical/editorial/organizing
committee member of several national and international
journals and conferences. He was the Organizing Chair
of the IEEE 22nd International Conference on Computer
and Information Technology (ICCIT) held at Southeast
University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during 18-20 December
2019. He is the recipient of the Bangladesh Education
Leadership Awards (Best Professor in Electrical
Engineering) in 2017 from the South Asian Partnership
Awards, Mumbai, India.
Mst. Sarmin Aktar was born in
Natore, Rajshahi, Bangladesh in June
1995. She received a BSc degree in
Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
Southeast University, Dhaka,
Bangladesh in 2019. Her research
interest includes renewable energy, materials synthesis,
and simulation of highly efficient perovskite-based solar
cells.
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In the last years, a significant interest in research in stand-alone (SA) and grid-connected (GC) photovoltaic (PV)-wind hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) is observed for their complementary in the satisfaction of the electrical energy demand in many sectors. However, direct comparisons between the techno-economic performance of two system modes under the same operating conditions are rarely carried out. Additionally, most of the researches are limited to specific weather conditions. This work aims to bridge the lack of this type of investigations providing a worldwide techno-economic mapping and optimization of SA and GC PV-wind HRES to supply the electrical demand of an office building district. For this purpose, energy and economic optimization problems were formulated to find the optimal SA and GC systems worldwide among 343 HRES system power configurations located in 48 different localities, uniformly divided in the sub-group of the Koppen classification. The energy reliability and economic profitability of optimal systems were geographically mapped worldwide. In general, the energy or economic optimizations of SA HRES do not lead to highly profitable systems; instead, feed-in-tariff to sell the energy in excess assures viable GC HRES in many localities. However, economically optimal SA and GC HRES, respectively, do not everywhere comply with the threshold value of 70% of the satisfied energy required by the load and are characterized by a high level of energy exchanged with the grid. The study highlighted that the most suitable climate conditions to install a SA HRES are: (i) Toamasina (Madagascar) from an energy point of view, with 76% of load satisfied and 76% of the energy generated utilized to supply the load; (ii) Cambridge Bay (Canada) from an economic point of view, with 11.1 % of the capital cost recovered each year; instead, the most suitable climate conditions to install a GC HRES are: (iii) New Delhi (India) from an energy point of view, with 48% of energy exchanged with the grid per each kWh required by the load; (iv) Lihue (Hawaii, United States) from an economic point of view, with 24.3 % of the capital cost recovered each year.