Received January 12, 2022, accepted February 2, 2022, date of publication February 15, 2022, date of current version March 1, 2022.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3151697
Comprehensive Review of KY Converter
Topologies, Modulation and Control
Approaches With Their Applications
K. RAMASH KUMAR1, K. RAMEEZ RAJA2,
SANJEEVIKUMAR PADMANABAN 3, (Senior Member, IEEE),
S. M. MUYEEN 4, (Senior Member, IEEE),
AND BASEEM KHAN 5, (Senior Member, IEEE)
1Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Dr. N. G. P. Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu 641048, India
2Research Scholar, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Aalim Muhammed Salegh College of Engineering, Muthapudupet, Chennai, Tamilnadu
3CTiF Global Capsule, Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus University, Herning 7400, Denmark
4Department of Electrical Engineering, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
5Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Hawassa University, Hawassa 05, Ethiopia
Corresponding authors: K. Ramash Kumar (email@example.com) and S. M. Muyeen (firstname.lastname@example.org)
This work was supported by the Qatar National Library.
ABSTRACT In current scenario, the challenging task in designing a DC-DC converter has high voltage gain
and small output ripple waves, which researchers deal with highly complicated. Because of its topological
and Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM), the KY converters have developed a better converter than all the
traditional DC-DC converters to overcome this intricacy of voltage transfer gain and output ripple waves.
The KY converters had comparative and various qualities when compared with the boost converter with
Synchronous Rectiﬁer (SR). The KY converter is used in photovoltaic and sustainable power applications,
which are examined in this study. KY converter incorporates mode-1 and mode-2 operation and its types,
for example, one plus D and one plus 2D where the KY can deliver the Nth type of KY converters. This
article provides a comprehensive review and investigation of the KY converters, which incorporates their
topology with control methodologies, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) techniques, working activity of KY
converters, and types for mode-1 and -2; it interprets the few strategies the KY converter is executed and its
INDEX TERMS KY converters, boost converter, Cuk converter, DC to DC converter, control methodology,
DC–DC power converters are not only becoming more
popular, but they are also being respected in the current
market. It’s better for invariable power sources in LCDs,
Ipads, MP3 players, battery-powered industrial equipment,
automobile stereos, communications equipment, fuel cells,
electric vehicles, and solar cell modules tec.,. Good output
voltage regulation, circuit layout with fewer components,
good voltage transfer gain, and reduced output ripple
voltage/current are all required for these applications. Based
The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and
approving it for publication was Alon Kuperman.
on their structure, concept, performance, and application,
many topology DC–DC converters have been constructed
and classiﬁed into six generations. In Continuous Conduction
Mode (CCM), typical non-isolated DC–DC converters/Luo
converters with/without linked inductance have resulted
in pulsating output current, higher output voltage ripples,
a greater number of components, diodes, and a right half
pole zero (RHPZ) structure –. Many KY topologies
have been created to address these cries. KY family
converters are recently derived DC-DC converters. Fuzzy
Logic Controller (FLC) plus Sliding Mode Controller (SMC)
for KY boost converter has been reported . From this
article, it is found that authors were designed FLC plus SMC
20978 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ VOLUME 10, 2022
K. R. Kumar et al.: Comprehensive Review of KY Converter Topologies, Modulation and Control Approaches
for the same converter to regulate the output voltage and in
inductor current of it. The multi structure controller for KY
negative output boost converter is well presented . From
this article, it is found that output voltage/inductor current
control for same converter with designed controller during
the line and load variations.
Concerning –, the potential lift methodology is
applied to help the output potential close by considering
tiny output potential swells. Anyhow, each of the articles
has one right-half plane zero in the non-stop –,
bi-linear characteristics, making the extraordinary show of
the transient load response difﬁcult to achieve, as opposed
to the step-down converter. Therefore, these issues are solved
and it is addressed in –.
Therefore, these issues are solved and it is addressed
in –.Concerning , it adds a vigorous control
strategy to Sliding Mode Control (SMC). For, it uses a
powerful procedure. As to , it takes a circle transmission
capacity control strategy. In , it accepts a state procedure
expectation control technique. However, from the outcome
in  to , enhancement in load transient responses is
restricted fairly through control strategies.
By considering the referred information, a potential-boost
converter is suggested. Hence, the named KY converter
reliably works in CCM. Likewise, the output charge is non-
pulsating, in this way, causing the low output voltage to swell.
Above all, it resembles that of the step-down converter with a
Synchronous Rectiﬁer (SR), and subsequently, this converter
has a superior load transient response.
The extent of the output voltage to the input potential is
at least one or more D, where D is the duty cycle of the
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control signal for the basic
switch. Subsequently, to enhance the output potential under a
comparable duty cycle, 2nd demand surmised KY converters,
at least 1 or more 2D, and at 2 or more D converters are
presented in this under a comparative development. The
output voltage of the KY converters is controlled by using
Time Ratio Control (TRC) and Current Limit Control (CLC).
In TRC divided into constant PWM method and Frequency
Modulation (FM) method . TRC method is more suitable
for linear and inductive load application whereas CLC is
only suitable for inductive load. However, the ﬁxed PWM
method is more preferred method for KY converters over
the FM method due to its ﬁxed ﬁlter is easy, lighter in
possibility of EMI with signaling, good dynamic response
and more off-time at small load voltage can the current of
the DC motor load discontinuous. FM method is excellent
transient/dynamic performances for DC-DC converters.
This paper presents an ordered comprehensive review
representation of the KY converters. In section 1 detailed
the KY converters. The step-step operating modes of KY
converters are expresses in section 2. Section 3 explains why
KY should not lift the integration of Cuk-KY and SPEIC-KY.
Section 4 deals with various types of KY converters with
voltage boosting methods. Sections 5 and 6 incorporate the
difference between what KY has executed and the utilization
FIGURE 1. KY converter.
of KY converters with their controls. Section 7 lists the
conclusion and future work of KY converters.
II. KY CONVERTERS
A KY converter is a potential boost converter that works in
CCM. Because of its low output voltage ripple, it causes a
non-throbbing output. The attributes of the KY converter are
equivalent to the buck with SR. It has a rapid transient load
response. When an output voltage separates, input gives a
summation of one and duty cycle for PWM. To wider the
output voltage, the KY converter gets separated into two
modes, for example, one plus 2D and 2 plus D, where the
module is comparable yet has varieties in PWM adjustment.
A. KY CONVERTER FRAMEWORK
The KY converter includes two MOSFET switches, S1and
S2, close to body diodes D1and D2, independently. One
output inductor L, one output capacitor C, one diode Db,
and one energy transferring capacitor Cbare massive enough
to keep the voltage across itself predictable at some value.
Obviously, Fig. 1 shows the development of the second order
KY converters, 1 plus 2D and 2 plus D converters. Four
MOSFET switches S11, S12 , S21, and S22 close by four body
diodes D11, D12 , D21, and
D22, one output inductor L, one output capacitor C,
two diodes Db1 and Db2. Moreover, two energy-transferring
capacitors, Cb1 and Cb2, are tremendous to maintain their
potential steady at speciﬁc characteristics. This design is
acquired from the KY converter that showed up in Fig. 1. The
1 plus 2D and 2 plus D converters are obtained by applying
two distinct PWM control strategies to the suggested 2nd
order KY converter conﬁguration shown in Fig.2.
S1and S2alongside by two D1and D2body diodes,
only one Dbdiode, and one Cbenergy-charging capacitance
is one cell. Fittingly, there are two cells in Fig. 2. On a
fundamental level, N–1 cell-related to the KY converter can
make two types of Nth-demand derived KY converter. Two
Nth gathered KY converters could be used to broaden the
output potential remarkably; before long, the more the cells
are, the more the potential drops across the diodes. Like this,
the provable duty cycle is expected to wander incredibly from
the ideal duty cycle. Accordingly, the KY converter and the
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K. R. Kumar et al.: Comprehensive Review of KY Converter Topologies, Modulation and Control Approaches
FIGURE 2. Second order KY converter.
2nd order KY converters, 1 plus 2D, and 2 plus D converters,
are presented subsequently and portrayed exhaustively as
follows. Additionally, the output voltage for each converter
is tended to by one output R-Resistor.
B. WORKING PRINCIPLE
As discussed before, the KY converter and the 2nd order KY
converters reliably work in CCM. As exhibited in Fig. 1, there
is only a single cell in the design of the KY converter that
contains two MOSFET switches, S1and S2, alongside D1
and D2, body diodes independently, one Dbdiode, and one
Cbenergy transferring capacitor. So, the contrasting working
rule chosen is that the switch on sort of these two switches
is (D, 1 −D), where D and 1 −D are for S1and S2,
independently. D is the duty cycle of the PWM control signal
for S1. Obviously, as exhibited in Fig.2, there are two cells
in the development of the 2nd order KY converters. The
fundamental cell contains two MOSFET switches, S11 and
S12,alongside D11 and D12 body diodes, independently. One
Db1 diode and one Cb1. However, the subsequent cell contains
two MOSFET switches, S21 and S22, close to D21 and D22
body diodes, respectively, and one Db2 diode and one Cb2
energy-transferring capacitor. Also, there are two operational
standard principles for the 2nd order KY converters, to be
Turn on Process for First:
Two switches are D and 1-D
Here, D for S11 and 1-D for S12
Where D is the duty cycle of PWM for S11
Turn on Process for a second:
Two switches are D and 1-D
Here, D for S21 and 1-D for S22
Depending on Step1, the 1 +2D KY converters is designed.
Turn on Process for First:
Two switches are 1-D and D
Here, 1-D for S11 and D for S12
Where D is the duty cycle of PWM for S12
Turn on Process for 2nd:
Two switches are D and 1-D
Here, D for S21 and 1-D for S22
Depending on Step1, the 2 plus D KY converter is designed.
FIGURE 3. Mode 1 of KY converter.
The Nth order KY converter is generated using the step 1
and step 2 of working principle.
C. MODES OF OPERATION
Earlier to taking up this part, for the comfort of assessment,
the input potential is vi; the input current is ii, the output
potential is a vo, the current traveling through L, Cb, Cb1,
and Cb2 are I, ib, ib1, and ib2 , independently. The potential
across switches and diodes during the switch-on period and
duration of blanking between two semiconductor switches are
zero. Additionally, the energy-charging capacitors Cb, Cb1,
and Cb2, working given the charge siphon rule, are charged
to speciﬁc voltages in a short time, which is not exactly
the switching time-period Ts, and the assessments of Cb,
Cb1, and Cb2 . It is logically acknowledged that the potential
across the capacitor Cbis identical to vifor the KY converter.
The voltage across the capacitor Cb1 is comparable to vi
for the one plus 2D converters and the 2 plus D converters.
The voltage across the capacitor Cb2 is comparable to vi
for the 1 plus 2D converters and vifor the 2 plus D
converters. Since these three converters reliably work in
CCM, here are two working modes in independent converters.
This way, all converters will go with assessments, holding
the details of the power stream behavior in each mode,
the depiction of the contrasting differential conditions, and
ensuring the association between input potential Viand DC
output potential Voand the relating minimal sign conditions
Mode 1: In Fig.3, when S1is closed and S2is off, the
potential across L is the input potential, vinotwithstanding
the potential viacross Cbshort the output potential voalong
these lines makes L to be polarized. Moreover, the current
traveling during C is comparable to the current i travel
during L short the charge traveling during R. Additionally,
in this mode, Cbis delivered. Also, subsequently, the relating
differential conditions are
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K. R. Kumar et al.: Comprehensive Review of KY Converter Topologies, Modulation and Control Approaches
FIGURE 4. Mode 2 of KY converter.
Mode 2: In Fig. 4, when S1is a turn-on, and S2is a switch-
off, the potential across L is the input potential vishort the
output potential vo, making L non-magnetized. The charge
traveling through C is comparable to the charge i fall through
L, short the charge traveling during R. In addition, Cbis out of
the down charged to viinside a brief time frame in this mode,
which is not as much as Ts. Additionally, the comparing
differential conditions are
Going before getting the shown up at the midpoint of
conditions as of (1) and (2), here is a picture (x) that is used
to address the ordinary worth of a variable x, where x shows
potential or charge, as follows:
hxi = 1
As demonstrated by (1)–(3), the tracked down centre
worth of conditions can be obtained to be, where d
is a variable representing the duty cycle of the PWM
control signal. Considering the current–2nd equilibrium,
(ib) can be communicated as a function of (i) to
∂t= hii − hv0i
hiii = hii + (1−d)hibi(4)
Moreover, therefore, by subbing (5) into (4), (4) can be
hibi = d
In addition, the resulting minimal sign representation of
the KY converter is shown in Fig. 3 (11), where T is
the ideal transformer with a turn ratio of 1:1 in addition
FIGURE 5. Mode 1 of 1 plus 2-D converter.
FIGURE 6. Mode 2 of 1 plus 2D converter.
1 Plus 2-D Converter:
Mode 1: In Fig.5, when S11 and S21 are closed, and
S12 and S22 are off, the potential across L is comparable
to the input potential vinotwithstanding the potential vi
across Cb1 notwithstanding the potential viacross Cb2 short
the output voltage Vo, accordingly, making L be polarized.
Furthermore, the charge traveling during C is identical to the
current i travel through L, less the charge spilling during R.
Additionally, Cb1 and Cb2 are delivered in this mode. More-
over, subsequently, the contrasting differential conditions
Mode 2: In Fig 6, when S11 and S21 are turned off,
and S12 and S22 are switched on, the potential across L
is equivalent to the input potential vi, short that outputs
vo, subsequently making L to be non-magnetized. Likewise,
the charge streaming through C is equivalent to the current
i through L short the charge streaming through R. Also,
in this mode, Cb1 and Cb2 are unexpectedly changed to vi
within a brief timeframe, considerably fewer than Ts. Also,
subsequently, the relating differential conditions are
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FIGURE 7. Signal of 1- plus 2-D converter.
By a relative methodology applied to the KY converter, the
voltage change extent of the one plus 2D converters can be
Moreover, the little sign conditions can be bought as
1.2 Plus-D Converter:
Moreover, the resulting minimal sign model of the 1 plus
2D converter shows up in Fig. 7, where T is the ideal
transformer with the turn’s ratio of 1:1 plus 2D.
Mode 1: In Fig.8, when S12 and S21 are closed, S11 and
S22 are opened. The e.m.f across the L is comparable to the
input potential vinotwithstanding the potential 2viacross
Cb2 less the output potential vo, in a like manner causing L
to be charged. The charge moving through C is identical to
the charge i traveling through L, short the charge traveling
through R. Furthermore, in this mode, Cb1 is unexpectedly
charged to viin a brief period, which is altogether not as much
as TsCb2 is delivered. Also, in this manner, the conditions that
are observed at differential equations are
Mode 2: In Fig. 9, when S12 and S21 are opened, S11 and
S22 are closed. The potential across L is identical to the input
potential vi, notwithstanding the potential viacross Cb1 less
the output potential vo, as needs are causing L to be non-
magnetized. The charge moving through C is identical to the
charge I gush through L less than through R. Also, Cb1 is
delivered in this mode. Yet Cb2 is startlingly charged to 2vi
inside a short period, which is not just about as much as Ts.
FIGURE 8. Mode 1 of 2- plus D converter.
FIGURE 9. Mode 2 of 2- plus D.
Also, from now on, the conditions for looking at differential
With a relative strategy applied to the KY converter, the
voltage change extent of the 2 plus D converters can be
Also, the little sign conditions can be obtained to be
In addition, subsequently, the contrasting minimal sign model
of the 2 plus D converter shows up in Fig. 10, where T is the
ideal transformer with the extent of the turn of 1:2 in addition
III. MANAGING APPLIED TECHNIQUES
The KY converter was the proposed structure block for the
KY converter, and the 2nd order derived KY converters only.
20982 VOLUME 10, 2022
FIGURE 10. Signal mode of 2- plus D converter.
The one-comparator counter-based PWM control with no
simple to the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) considering
the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)  is used
in this way. The limits of the PID controller are tuned by
the load transient responses from no load to assess load
and from evaluated burden to no load. The output potential
after the potential divider is obtained through the comparator.
After that, it transmitted an FPGA with a structure clock
of 100 MHz to generate the ideal PWM control signals for
driving the MOSFET switches after the entryway drives.
A. WHY KY & WHY NOT BOOST CONVERTER
Table 1 discusses the features of KY converters as compared
to the boost converter.
B. MAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN KY AND CUK
Table 2 discusses the differences between the KY and Cuk
C. INTEGRATION OF CUK-KY CONVERTERS
The Cuk converter is subject to discontinuous capacitor
potential mode. The switches are nil potential and charge
interchange , and movement-up-converter is used in the
traded mode power deliver device. The Cuk converter-based
power age has not used the inductor channel at the output side
and moves the power quality using the control procedures.
The Cuk converter has an unending charge at both input
and output sides and is used for execution. The interleaved
Cuk converter is used to diminish the data charge wave
and to advance transient displays. The beneﬁt of the Cuk
converter has improved gain because of scratch-off source
charge wave, a reduction of wave content in both output e.m.f
plus charge, and enhancement of transient execution .
The movement of the up-converter makes the huge output
potential expands. It moderates transient response because of
the pulsating output capacitor charge and the right-half plane
zero in move work from duty extent to output potential. The
KY converter has a little output, e.m.f wave’s differentiated
speedy transient response, and lift converter.
The organized KY converter has been arranged with
power parts, which are evaluated using energy-transferring
capacitors, inductors, and channel capacitors . The KY
TABLE 1. Why KY converter and why not boost converter.
TABLE 2. Main difference between KY and Cuk converters.
converter has a blend of a reviewed support converter
and a coupling inductor. This converter has separated the
connection between the output potential and the burdens
charge. The KY converter has high voltage obtained by
blending two converters, lift and coupling inductor. The
spillage inductance of the coupling inductor is used to
accomplish Zero-Voltage Switching (ZVS). The current load
on the charge siphon capacitors and the reducing speed of the
diode charge can be limited because the use of the coupling
inductor and output charge is non-pulsating . The KY
converter-based staggered speciﬁc inverter has declined the
VOLUME 10, 2022 20983
switching device’s potential, charged factor, and augmented
the converter-based system’s capability. The output e.m.f
of the Cuk-based staggered inverter has fabricated the
large increment by the turn’s ratio and duty cycle. The
output of the KY converter has two bucks, like the lift
converter , . The H interface inverter has been used
to lessen the power switches, mishaps, potential, pressure,
and converter price. The stunning inverter has decreased
the sounds and advanced the introduction of the converter
structure. The solar energy-based inverter system has a clear
and interesting power electronic device line with the supply.
The inverter has worked in both balanced and unbalanced
The design and implementation of non-isolated zeta KY
triple port converter for renewable application has been
reported . It is found that PV system and Battery was used
as a hybrid sources for the same converter to minimize the
output voltage ripples. The controller of the KY Converter
uses the best force point following the control strategy for
making enormous power from solar energy . The energy
unit-based Cuk converter controls the potential using the PI
control technique. Harmless to the ecosystem’s power, the
sun-based energy units make the DC e.m.f small. The Cuk
enhances the e.m.f, and the KY converter decreases. The
DC-interface output is dealt with in the stunning inverter,
which will make moderately fewer full-scale symphonies
twist and improve the viability of the inverter by dealing with
economic force structure , . The dc-interface voltage
is differentiated, and a reference voltage and is dealt with into
the PI control-based PWM change will coordinate the output
of the Cuk-based force module. The KY converter uses the
most limited power output to improve potential security, like
coordinating the e.m.f.
D. INTEGRATION OF SPEIC AND KY
The PV structures rapidly expand and cover the extended
electric energy headways, providing additional safe power
supplies and non-contaminating electricity power. The sys-
tem contains daylight-based sheets, a MPPT controller,
a composed Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter
(SEPIC), and a KY converter. This converter gives a reliable
dc transport potential, and the MPPT controller compels its
duty cycle. A Perturbation and Observation (P&O) approach
is applied for MPPT. By keeping up the power quality
with input control is used. The all-out system is arranged
and shown to survey its show. Reproduced results show
the MPPT controller and arranged structure for contrasting
natural conditions and burden agitating impacts.
Likewise, the SEPIC converter needs no current snubber
for the diodes. The designed SEPIC and KY convert-
ers, in which the SEPIC converter surrenders an added
development, and the KY converter reduces the potential
stress. They also provide a greater potential change extent
while decreasing the potential output expansion. This large-
progressed-up-converter has found its applications in elec-
tric vehicles, persistent or limitless  Uninterruptible
Power Supplies (UPS), High-Intensity Discharge (HID)
light, energy segment structure, and photovoltaic systems.
The joined SEPIC and KY Converter with the dc supply
driven by the sun-arranged solar cells is analyzed. This
converter uses little assessment of inductors that output larger
force thickness and appropriately enhance the structure’s
capability. The output e.m.f is increased and decreases the
consonant substance. It bunches a non-pulsating output right
now; this way not only reduces the charge load on the
output capacitor but also diminishes the output potential. This
converter uses more unobtrusive inductors, outputting large
power thickness, improving the usefulness of the system.
The output potential is held up and diminishes the consonant
substance. In this way, it bunches non-throbbing output right
now, not simply lessening the current load on the output
capacitor, yet also diminishing output voltage growth.
In this examination, the guarantee from the PV structure
is dealt with by KY and SEPIC converters. The comparing
outputs are related, and the stack and outputs are checked.
Each converter is related to the input, and outputs are related
to a comparative burden resistor .
IV. VARIOUS TECHNIQUES OF KY CONVERTER VOLTAGE
Du Xia et al. proposed a new dependent on the mathematical
portrayal of the KY converter and sigma-delta modulator for
computerized digital PWM control, which is represented in
Fig.11. This article presents a computerized PWM control
of the KY boost converter subjected to the sigma-delta
modulator. The mathematical exhibiting of the KY up-
converter and sigma-delta modulator is intended. To validate
the idea, the electronic control of the KY converter with a
sigma-delta modulator, integrator, and unloader, as well as an
automatic duty cycle converter, has been effectively innate in
Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB)/Simulation link (Simulink).
The output of the detached sigma-delta modulator can make
a discrete-time PWM signal to control the KY converter. This
exhibiting work might propose a small power dormant sigma-
delta modulator-controlled KY boost converter with small
output potential and fast transient response later. The primary
advantage of this proposed framework is a decrease in power
utilization, less popularity, versatility to alter parameters .
Zeng Wen-Liang et al. fostered a model named A
220-MHz band wire-based completely coordinated KY
converter with a quick transient response dependent on
Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) as depicted in
Fig.12. The DCM of a covered loop-based PWM control
for KY incorporates four signiﬁcant advances: (1) Arrange-
ment of the converter structure using design derivatives;
(2) development of the DCM closed loop with a type II
compensator; (3) To simulate the DCM resistor, a technique
called Zero Current Detection (ZCD) is used. Furthermore,
in the last four (4) DCM alignment loops, the principal
beneﬁts of this model are a decline in misfortune and having
a simple mode for keeping up the precision of the framework
20984 VOLUME 10, 2022
FIGURE 11. KY converter and sigma-delta modulator for digital pulse
width modulator control.
FIGURE 12. A 220-MHz band wire-based fully integrated KY converter
with a fast-transient response.
FIGURE 13. The KY converter using DCM operation under constant
in wire inductance. It achieves a loosening up time contingent
upon load transient of 2.6ns/mA .
Zeng Wen-Liang et al. proposed planning a KY converter
using DCM activity under consistent on-time control. The
primary point of this strategy is to build adequacy through
the profound light burden condition (refer to Fig.13).
While looking at the productivity of the proposed strategy
with PWM balance in KY, it conveys high effectiveness.
FIGURE 14. Voltage gain enhancement using KY converters.
FIGURE 15. Potential control for a thermoelectric Generator using a key
This strategy comprises standard 65-nm CMOS innovation.
This model applies to the low force applications like
the structure and trying different things with the PWM
adjustment regulator under CCM. This procedure permits
using straightforwardness in expectation and the least force
ZCD strategy used to manage the circuit. MATLAB is used to
generate the recreation results. A renewable energy based KY
boost converter with only voltage loop classical PI control has
been well executed . From this article, the authors has not
been addressed controller design, output voltage ripples of
this converter has produced 0.6V and also, not discussed input
voltage and load resistance changes of same converter and
its structure is shown in Fig. 14. This composition explains
the strategies to deal with voltage acquire. The KY and buck-
boost converter are used to build the KY step-up-converter.
The number of straightforward minuscule applications stirred
dependent on this progression of the KY converter. This used
to have the greatest voltage gain and least output ripple wave.
The performance was obtained using MATLAB/Simulink.
Here, the converter gives the most extreme voltage gain, drop
output voltage. The high advance-up-converter is presented
as incredibly important when differentiated from the other
regular advance converters and the KY Converter from
examining the diverse DC-DC converters. By uniting the
coupling inductor with the turn’s ratio, and the exchanged
VOLUME 10, 2022 20985
FIGURE 16. Closed-loop control of soft switched KY step-up-converter.
capacitor, the looking voltage obtained is larger than that of
the current development boost converter joining KY and step-
down converters .
Ortiz-Rivera et al. present a novelty called voltage control
for a Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) using a key generator
(see Fig. 15). It essentially characterizes the method for
controlling the voltage, which relies upon choosing the best
in duty cycle if an environmentally friendly power framework
involves a TEG should arise. The mathematical model that
depicts the TEG is presented very much like an acceptance for
ideal characteristics (for instance, current and voltage) that
give the most limited power.
The conditions for the KY-Converter are portrayed,
recalling the track down the center’s worth of conditions for
terms of the duty cycle using the switching semiconductors
in the topology. The various steps to choosing the right TEG
for a speciﬁc resistive burden are obliged by switching to the
near-most special power. Amusements are required to have a
speciﬁc resistive weight whose output potential is overseen
and controlled using a KY Converter for a TEG input .
Jose Anjaly et al. developed a closed-loop control of the soft
switched KY step-up converter, which is used to increase the
voltage obtained when a ﬁxed inductor is taken. The soft
switched procedure is used here to diminish the exchange
misfortune where the viability of a converter gets expanded,
as shown in Fig. 16. Both equal and arrangement-based
resonation circuits can similarly improve this strategy. The
real beneﬁt of this method is a decrease in the deﬁciency
of switch and conduction limit, which gives high voltage
gain. The simulation is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink.
Diversion is made with a 12V input voltage. The attained
output voltage is 72V, the output current is 0.8A, and the
output power is 60W .
Hwu, Kuo-Ing et al. explained about the execution of
Type III converter for KY converter dependent on PSIM,
and it is represented in Fig. 17. The method is designated
‘‘state-space averaging,’’ the ‘‘KY,’’ limitations, and the
small ac circuit. When the choice of a particular strategy
gets over, the proposed technique will be used to pick a
type III compensator that gives essential the phase margin,
and crossover frequency is computed based on the voltage
changes. This margin and the derivative of compensator are
FIGURE 17. Implementation of Type III converter for KY converter based
FIGURE 18. A solar energy-based KY converter.
acquired. Finally, the efﬁciency of the KY converters in
closed loop was exhibited by using PSIM software.
The little sign ac model of the open loop KY converter
is construed as the ﬁrst dependent in state-space averaging
method, and the exchange limits are set up similarly. Besides,
the arranging philosophy can be further speciﬁed by picking
the mixture repeat subject to the output potential during the
transient time span. Likewise, the results dependent upon
MATLAB and PSIM are given to check the arrangement of
the type III compensator for the KY converter. Likewise,
from the results, it will generally be seen that the KY con-
verter has a respectable execution of transient encumbrance
Bhagyalakshmi et al. portray a sun-based energy-based
KY converter with an inverter where the photovoltaic joined
with the KY converter are used to increment or diminish
the voltage where the coordinated converter inverter is used
(see Fig.18). The framework doesn’t have back-to-back cost
because the sun can be straightforwardly acknowledged
where PV acknowledges the voltage source. A phase-up-
converter is given that is an aggregate of KY converter and
inverter with the great beneﬁts that produces AC used to
join the pile. A MATLAB re-enactment is taken. The voltage
gets expanded because of the evaluated siphon and ﬁxed
inductor when a ‘‘greenhouse boost converter’’ is shaped with
a synchronic rectiﬁer. It takes a long way toward supplanting
the diodes with MOSFETs .
20986 VOLUME 10, 2022
FIGURE 19. Improved KY converter design with a low-power ZCD circuit
for wide load current application.
FIGURE 20. Design and implementation of KY Buck-Boost converter with
Xie Ying et al. talked about a curiosity called a devel-
opment of an enhanced KY converter with a ZCD circuit
for wide load charge application, as shown in Fig 19. The
current DCM methods are bankrupt. A novel ZCD procedure
is proposed and demonstrated. The KY converter is produced
using a 0.18 pm BCD measure with a working domain of
3.4 mm2. The off-chip portions of an inductor of 4.7 pH,
a load capacitor of 4.7 pF, and two ﬂying capacitors of 100 pF
Re-allowed results show that the arranged ZCD work
splendidly in the DCM of the proposed converter. The Power
Change Capability (PCC) can be kept up above 90% over
a wide weight territory from 100 mA to 2 A, and the PCC
is improved by 16.3% differentiated and ZCD at 25 mA
load current. A new ZCD system is developed to shed the
opposite current, which is miraculous under the light burden,
differentiated, and re-establishment results without ZCD.
Finally, with more than 100 mA load current, the converter
can keep up with the PCC by more than 90% .
Naveen Janjanam et al. depict a cycle of designing and
execution of the KY buck-boost converter (see Fig. 20)
with voltage-mode control for expanding the KY buck-boost
converter voltage-mode simple regulator is developed. This
converter is constructed using a PI regulator to standardize the
output voltage. A preliminary model of the KY buck-boost
converter of 30 Watt, 12 V output e.m.f, 10 kHz with the
discrete basic controller is arranged and made for an input
voltage of 10V-16V. The converter’s value with the controller
under the shut circle appears for the variety in input potential.
The beneﬁt of this model is that output voltage impacts the
FIGURE 21. A real-time simulation of KY boost converter on a miniature
full spectrum simulator.
FIGURE 22. Modeling, simulation, and design of variable structure-based
sliding mode controller for KY voltage boosting converter.
‘‘constant state’’ charge. It achieves dynamic conduction.
Diversion and elements results are familiar with checking
the handiness of the converter with the controller under
predictable state and dynamic conditions .
Shiburanj et al. proposed a model known as an real-time
design of KY boost converter on a little entire range test
system is depicted in Fig.21. It helps test the converter’s exe-
cution in a collection of works. The continuous performing
of the KY converter is done using a full spectrum simulator,
a proliferation system to explicitly deal with the entire scope
of diversion, separated propagation, constant amusement,
and equipment on the up and up. A typical showing of the
converter is done, and the KY converter library is made
in FSS-Mini. FSS is in its starting stage, and it maintains
gathering level solver options. The re-sanctioning outcomes
will be open dynamically, and they can be interfaced with
a controller in the Hardware in Loop (HIL) diversion. The
KY converter library can be efﬁciently used for controller
improvement and testing purposes.
Meanwhile, setup issues can be found, enabling expected
compromises to be settled and applied, diminishing pro-
gression costs. Testing costs can be diminished since HIL
test plans consistently price actual courses of action, and
the continuous test framework can be used for various
VOLUME 10, 2022 20987
FIGURE 23. KY step-up-converter with delicate exchanging.
applications and exercises. Furthermore, unsafe, or costly
tests using open test seats can be efﬁciently unplanted .
Selvan et al. fostered a strategy for modeling, simulation,
and designing a variable structure-based SMC for KY-voltage
up-converters. The interest in non-separated voltage-boosting
converters has experienced a striking extension as of late.
The extended application regions have a collection of
judgments and evaluations on DC/DC converters. A number
of assortments have been tended to, despite the basic buck and
lift converters. The key problem with them is a problematic
level of voltage swell, which results from the current pulse.
The KY organization of converters offers answers to this
problem, and they stay in CCM and identical the concurrent
revision in execution. This article the examination, planning,
and implementation of potential control of the positive output
KY Voltage Boost-Converter (KY-VBC) using a variable
development-based SMC. For purposes requiring the ﬁxed
power supply in battery-worked ﬂexible contraptions—PC
periphery devices, diverse clinical stuff, mechanical and
robot system applications, etc. The SMC is delivered for
the innate factor nature of the KY-VBC with the help of
the state-space averaging based model (see Fig. 22). The
presentation characteristics of the SMC are checked for its
goodness to perform over a wide extent of working conditions
through the MATLAB/Simulink model in connection with a
Proportional-Integral (PI) controller.
Theoretical assessment and re-enactment results are pre-
sented close to the total arrangement technique .
Jose et al. convey an idea called soft switched KY step-
up converter. A new voltage obtains an improved KY boost
converter with non-stop conduction mode. A KY converter
is a voltage boost converter that reliably works in strict
conduction mode. To improve the potential, a coupled
inductor can be used. Fragile switching is applied to diminish
the switching setbacks, and it advances the capability of the
converter. Propagation is done with a 12V input voltage. The
gained output voltage is 72V, the output current is 0.8A,
and the output power is 60W. A KY converter close to
a concurrent buck-support converter structure is presented
here. To get a high-voltage secured, a coupled inductor can
be used. Proliferation is done using MATLAB. The expanded
redesigned output voltage is acquired, and it is illustrated in
FIGURE 24. KY converter is the soft switching step-up-converter with
ripple-free output current.
Kim et al.’s proposed work for the KY converter is the soft
switched converter with ripple free output current. A sensitive
switching boost converter with a wave-free output charge
is suggested. This converter relies upon a voltage-boosting
converter named the KY converter. Thus, the suggested
converter has features of the KY converter, for instance,
secured switch potential stresses to the information voltage,
non-pulsating output current and fast transient response.
Also, by utilizing an additional circuit, the Zero-Voltage-
Switching (ZVS) of power switches is reﬁned. This way, the
switching losses is diminished, and the structural capability
Furthermore, the associate circuit neutralizes the channel
inductor current wave. By then, a wave-free output current
is reﬁned. The operational guidelines and reliable state
assessments of the proposed converter are given exhaustively.
Experimental results on a 60W model at a steady switching
frequency of 200 kHz are presented to afﬁrm the theoretical
examination. Thus, the overall effectiveness is improved by
1.95%, and the output channel inductor current wave reliably
ends up being very small. In this article, the suggested
converter was introduced (see Fig. 24), and the action of
its modes and the arrangement conditions were discussed
exhaustively, and preliminary results from a model were
Kumar et al. designed an improved KY Positive Output
Boost Converter (KY-POBC) execution using a traditional PI
regulator. It focuses on demonstrating the re-establishment
of complete model with expected results using PI control.
Because of the time-ﬂuctuating and switching credits of
KY-POBC, its dynamic execution is changeable. Because of
the extension of the incredible characteristics, PI control is
set up, outputting reasonable control of KY-POBC. The state
of the KY-POBC is derived with the help of an averaging
procedure from the start, and subsequently, PI control is made
using the Zeigler-Nichols tuning system. The assessment
of the designed controller is checked at different working
conditions using the transient region and supply voltage
variations by making the MATLAB/Simulink model. The
results showed arranged controller has proﬁcient at various
working regions . The converter model is stated in Fig.25.
20988 VOLUME 10, 2022
FIGURE 25. Improved performance of the KY positive output boost
converter using a classical PI controller.
FIGURE 26. DC operation analysis of the KY converter.
Zeng et al. promoted a DC operation examination of the
KY converter. The KY converter (see the model in Fig. 26) is
completed into a fused circuit; its DCM operation cannot be
eliminated because of a little inductor regard. The limit for the
DCM movement area, DCM dc potential, and minimal sign
exchange limits are suggested, which ﬁll the opening of the
DCM action theory for the KY converter. The performance
was carried out by using MATLAB/Simulink .
V. APPLICATIONS: PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS
A. PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM FOR AN AUTOMOBILE WHILE
Using a photovoltaic structure on the boat may diminish the
price and contamination achieved by petroleum products.
To propelling the effectiveness of the PV structure, a suitable
MPPT ought to be done on the structure. The MPPT should
have a speedy response to beat the fast changes of daylight-
based irradiance, considering boat advancement or ordinary
occasions. A blend of Artiﬁcial Neural Network (ANN)
based MPPT and KY converter is used and is supported by
a PC-based amusement. The results show that the procedure
can drive the solar-powered system execution with a quick
response to differences in solar irradiance .
B. PHOTOVOLTAIC FOR H2O SYSTEM
Sun-situated-based water siphoning systems are getting a
broad idea since sun-situated energy is the best game plan
for the ﬂow of customary power resources. Furthermore,
sun-arranged solar cells for water siphoning are supported
as a strategy in remote areas for various applications.
The KY-based DC-DC converter is proposed to deal with
the water siphoning structure with a Brushless DC motor
(BLDC). Voltage swell reduction is one of the essential
advantages of a KY converter with a large transient response.
For following the most limited power under various enlight-
enment conditions, P & O based MPPT is used by changing
the duty cycle of the KY converter. There may be more than
six switches on a voltage source inverter (VSI), but four
switches are used, where cost saving is reﬁned by reducing
the number of inverter power switches. A BLDC motor is
related to driving the outward guide since it has an ideal
component while partnering with a PV generator .
C. RENEWABLE ENERGY APPLICATIONS
Another high capability, high development boost, non-
isolated, interleaved DC-DC converter is presented for harm-
less ecosystem power applications. Two adjusted increases in
KY converters are interleaved in the suggested topography
to achieve great change without coupled inductors. The KY
converter has a larger potential gain that is acquired with
an appropriate duty cycle. Notwithstanding the incredible
voltage gain of the suggested converter, the potential stress
of the power switches and diodes is small. Like this, switches
with low conduction incidents can be applied to improve
Additionally, due to the utilization of interleaving systems,
the current ripple wave is low, making the suggested converter
a fair opportunity for supportable force applications, such
as the PV power structure. The proposed converter’s action
standard and steady-state assessment in CCM and DCM
are discussed exhaustively. Moreover, the theoretical impacts
of the proposed converter are resolved. Finally, to survey
the suggested converter movement by a harmless to the
ecosystem power source like a PV, the re-sanctioning
outcomes are presented .
Harmless to the ecosystem, power is the energy that is
assembled from endless resources. Because of the rising
utilization of fossil fuels, harmless to the ecosystem, power
is the source of power humankind will saddle with electrical
power—the power so improved by DC change to give the load
properly. The lift converter is used by and for the chopper
control in wind and sun-arranged power structures that give
response scribes that can be improved via completing a KY
converter rather than the lift converter. The KY converter
is a phase-up DC-DC converter with transient response
working in CCM reliably with low voltage swell, non-
pounding current. The KY converter gives a higher voltage
output than the standard lift converter. In this topography,
where it is gotten together with buck help converter, DCM
is conceivable. The KY converter is ﬁnished in element to
analyze the action in every way that matters and check the
credibility of using the converter in a harmless way to the
ecosystem’s power systems .
VOLUME 10, 2022 20989
TABLE 3. Comparison of KY converter topology with control methods.
20990 VOLUME 10, 2022
TABLE 3. (Continued.) Comparison of KY converter topology with control methods.
D. BLDC MOTOR FOR WATER PUMP
Hwu et al. show the assessment of a BLDC motor using
a KY converter. Customarily, the landsman converter is
used to restrict the growth of the inverter yet make high
return power expand. In this way, the inverter’s output in
the KY converter decreases waves, and even dc source
accommodates the inverter. It will be used to work a
brushless dc motor, which subsequently improves the motor
execution. The electronically commutated brushless DC
with a voltage source inverter can be worked at a high
repeat rate to reduce switching adversities and increase
VOLUME 10, 2022 20991
VI. COMPARISON OF KY CONVERTER TOPOLOGY WITH
Table 3 presents the comparative analysis of the KY converter
topologies with different controlling techniques.
Likewise, in a solicitation to develop the output voltage,
additional converters acquired from the KY converter are
conferred at something very much like time. The KY con-
verter and the two 2nd order KY converters can consistently
and controllably work through reproduced and tested results.
The coupled inductor based KY converters has been
improved more voltage transfer gain in comparison with
normal KY converter. The output ripple voltage of the KY
converter was mV range.
Another step-up-DC-DC converter, named KY converters,
was suggested in this article, which gives low output
ripples/high output potential without pulsating. Likewise, it is
proper to give the ability to devices that should work under
small-ripple conditions. Not in the slightest degree like the
traditional converter. It offers speedy transient responses,
compared with the other fundamental DC-DC converters.
Additionally, the two Nth order derived KY converters
can develop the output voltage if essential. Subsequently,
this investigation causes the specialists of KY converters
to have an insightful investigation of the constant power
source applications such as medical instruments, stereo,
telecommunication, robot communication interface device,
motherboard, DC micro grid, AC grid, variable frequency
drives and EVs etc.,. This article carried out a critical
comprehensive review of KY converters via application,
structure modiﬁcation, topologies, operating modes, mod-
ulation techniques, coupled inductor concept, and control
methodology. These reviews clearly show that interleaved
and parallel operation of KY converters has not been reported.
Furthermore, the closed-loop operations of the topologies
with the applications were performed infrequently. This
review is more beneﬁcial for researchers working in this KY
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VOLUME 10, 2022 20993
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K. RAMASH KUMAR received the B.E. degree
in electrical and electronics engineering from the
University of Madras, India, in 2002, the M.Tech.
degree from the Pondicherry Engineering College,
Pondicherry, India, in 2005, and the Ph.D. degree
from the Department of Electrical Engineer-
ing, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University
(J.N.T.U), Hyderabad, India, in 2014. He has
18.02 years of teaching experience in the reputed
engineering colleges. Currently, he is working
as a Professor with the Dr. N.G.P. Institute of Technology, Coimbatore,
Tamilnadu, India. He has authored more than 68 papers published in
national and international conference proceedings and professional journals.
He has published four books/book chapters as the author. He has published
three national patents. He received funds from various government/non-
government agencies, such as CSIR and AICTE for organizing confer-
ences/seminars/product developments/projects. He received seed money for
research project from the Management, Karpagam College of Engineering,
Coimbatore, Tamilnadu. His research interests include classical controller
design for dc–dc converters, luo converters, resonant converters, power
quality, modeling of power converters, high power factor converters,
multilevel converters, and inverters. He has made a signiﬁcant contribution to
the sliding mode control for LUO family converters through his publications
and has developed close ties with the international research community
in the area. He received the Kalpa Acharya Award, the Best Researcher
from BEEA-2021, CSR Professional, CGI, Neonatologist, NHS, London,
Digpreneur, London, City Healthcare Private Ltd. He regularly reviews
article of IET Power Electronics,International Journal of Power and Energy
System (Elsevier), Electric Power Component and System (Taylor and
Frances), International Journal of Power Electronics (Indescience), WASET,
International Transaction on Electrical Energy System (Wiley), WSEAS
Transaction on Circuit and Systems/Control Systems, IEEE TRANSACTION
ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, and IEEE TRANSACTION ON POWER ELECTRONICS.
He is an Active Member of the professional societies, IAENG, ISTE, IRED,
and ISRD. He is an Editorial Board Member of the International Journal
of Electronic Engineering Research (Research India Publication) and Open
Journal of Engineering Research and Technology.
K. RAMEEZ RAJA received the B.E. degree in
electrical and electronics engineering and the M.E.
degree in power electronics and drives from Anna
University, India, in 2008 and 2015, respectively,
where he is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree
in power electronics with the Department of
Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Currently,
he is working as an Assistant Professor with the
Aalim Muhammed Salegh College of Engineering,
Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. He has authored six
papers published in national and international conference proceedings and
professional journals. His research interests include in modeling and design
of contemporary controllers for power converters.
SANJEEVIKUMAR PADMANABAN (Senior
Member, IEEE) received the bachelor’s degree
in electrical engineering from the University of
Madras, Chennai, India, in 2002, the master’s
degree (Hons.) in electrical engineering from
Pondicherry University, India, in 2006, and the
Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the
University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, in 2012.
He was an Associate Professor with VIT
University, from 2012 to 2013. In 2013, he joined
the National Institute of Technology, India, as a Faculty Member. In 2014,
he was invited as a Visiting Researcher with the Department of Electrical
Engineering, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar, funded by the Qatar National
Research Foundation (Government of Qatar). He continued his research
activities with the Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland, in 2014.
Further, he served as an Associate Professor with the Department
of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Johannesburg,
Johannesburg, South Africa, from 2016 to 2018. Since 2018, he has been
a Faculty Member with the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg
University, Esbjerg, Denmark. He has authored over 300 scientiﬁc papers.
He is a fellow of the Institution of Engineers, India; the Institution of
Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers, India; and the Institution of
Engineering and Technology, U.K. He was a recipient of the Best Paper
Cum Most Excellence Research Paper Award from IETSEISCON’13, IET-
CEAT’16, IEEE-EECSI’19, IEEE-CENCON’19, and ﬁve best paper awards
from ETAEERE’16 sponsored Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering
(Springer). He is an Editor/Associate Editor/Editorial Board for refereed
journals, in particular the IEEE SYSTEMS JOURNAL, IEEE TRANSACTION ON
INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, IEEE ACCESS,IET Power Electronics,IET Electronics
Letters, and International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems
(Wiley); a Subject Editorial Board Member of Energy Sources andEnergies
(MDPI); and the Subject Editor of theIET Renewable Power Generation,IET
Generation, Transmission and Distribution, and FACTS Journal (Canada).
S. M. MUYEEN (Senior Member, IEEE) received
the B.Sc.Eng. degree in electrical and electronic
engineering from the Rajshahi University of
Engineering and Technology (RUET, formerly
known as the Rajshahi Institute of Technology),
Bangladesh, in 2000, and the M.Eng. and Ph.D.
degrees in electrical and electronic engineering
from the Kitami Institute of Technology, Japan,
in 2005 and 2008, respectively. Currently, he is
working as a Full Professor with the Electrical
Engineering Department, Qatar University. He has been a keynote speaker
and an invited speaker at many international conferences, workshops,
and universities. He has published more than 250 articles in different
journals and international conferences. He has published seven books as the
author or an editor. His research interests include power system stability
and control, electrical machine, FACTS, energy storage systems (ESSs),
renewable energy, and HVDC systems. He is a fellow of Engineers Australia.
He is serving as an Editor/Associate Editor for many prestigious Journals
from IEEE, IET, and other publishers, including IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
ENERGY CONVERSION, IEEE POWER ENGINEERING LETTERS,IET Renewable
Power Generation, and IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution.
BASEEM KHAN (Senior Member, IEEE) received
the B.Eng. degree in electrical engineering from
Rajiv Gandhi Technological University, Bhopal,
India, in 2008, and the M.Tech. and D.Phil.
degrees in electrical engineering from the Maulana
Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal,
in 2010 and 2014, respectively. He is currently
working as a Faculty Member with Hawassa
University, Ethiopia. His research interests include
power system restructuring, power system plan-
ning, smart grid technologies, meta-heuristic optimization techniques,
reliability analysis of renewable energy systems, power quality analysis, and
renewable energy integration.
20994 VOLUME 10, 2022