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Patterns in recent urban tree plantations and their implications for urban greenery management under the climate change

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Abstract

The article focuses on the analysis of new plantations of trees in the last 5 years in the Czech Republic. The analysis is based on the largest Czech database of woody plant inventories in Czech cities that were gathered by arborists at the portal www.checktrees.com. The distribution of tree species among young trees planted in Czech cities and along the roadways is analysed regarding the most popular species for planting. Based on the results, we discuss whether the actual trends in planting (together with the knowledge on the care requirements of particular species, their known resistance to weather extremes and susceptibility to deceases) respect not only the present conditions, but also the future development under climate change. The article synthetizes the implications of the recent trends in urban tree growing in Czech cities on the successful management of urban greenery in future.
Patterns in recent urban tree plantations and their implications
for urban greenery management under the climate change
Kateřina Kaprová1, Andrea Szorádová2, Barbora Vojáčková2
Charles University Environment Center1, SAFE TREES, s. r. o.2
Kaprová, K., A. Szorádová, B. Vojáčková (2018): Patterns in recent urban tree plantations and their
implications for urban greenery management under the climate change. Journal of Landscape
Management 9/2, p. 22-29.
Abstract
The article focuses on the analysis of new plantations of trees in the last 5 years in the Czech Republic.
The analysis is based on the largest Czech database of woody plant inventories in Czech cities that were
gathered by arborists at the portal www.checktrees.com. The distribution of tree species among young
trees planted in Czech cities and along the roadways is analysed regarding the most popular species for
planting. Based on the results, we discuss whether the actual trends in planting (together with the
knowledge on the care requirements of particular species, their known resistance to weather extremes
and susceptibility to deceases) respect not only the present conditions, but also the future development
under climate change. The article synthetizes the implications of the recent trends in urban tree growing in
Czech cities on the successful management of urban greenery in future.
Keywords: climate change, tree inventory, tree planting, urban biodiversity, urban greenery, urban trees
Introduction
Tree plantations form an important component of
urban greenery, which is widely recognized to
provide many benefits to the residents. Apart
from the aesthetical and recreational functions of
greenery in the urbanised landscape, trees also
increase the attractiveness for living. They bring
substantial health benefits to urban populations
and contribute to human well-being by providing
convenient microclimatic conditions,
by decreasing the urban heat island effect and
by capturing airborne fine particulate matters and
noise both from industrial and traffic sources.
Furthermore, they also provide biotopes, help
with retention of rain water in the soil and
increase the relative humidity (Brune et al.,
2016).
Regarding the above-mentioned functions
of urban greenery, it is obvious that planting
of trees in urbanised landscape contributes to
climate change adaptation in urban areas. An
essential issue concerning adaptation is the
choice of newly planted tree species which will
form the population of trees in urbanised areas in
the future, i. e. under the climate change
scenarios. Based on real data on tree plantations
in the Czech Republic, we discuss whether the
patterns in selection of trees for planting conform
to the increased stress that is expected under
climate change conditions, and whether the
observed tree planting choices are promising in
keeping the urban vegetation healthy so that it
can provide the favourable conditions for living in
urbanised areas also in the future.
Material and Methods
The analysis of young solitary trees is based on
the database www.checktrees.com, which
covers at present more than 1.1 million
individually assessed trees in the Czech
Republic. The database is run by SAFE TREES,
Ltd. A large portion of the data on tree inventory
projects is publicly available and may be
visualised in an online map
(https://www.checktrees.com/map/).
Most of the data on woody plants in the
database represent woody plants growing on
areas that are owned by municipalities or by
other public institutions (such as Road and
Motorway Directorate or state enterprises
Povodí), or by other larger landowners.
The database therefore provides an insight into
the state and development of urban greenery in
public areas in cities and villages (urban parks,
squares, tree alleys in streets), also around
public facilities (schools, hospitals, outdoor
swimming pools, cemeteries etc.). Also,
it represents trees around roadways, railways
and watercourses in the open countryside. The
tree inventories cover both intentionally planted
new trees and self-seeded specimens (these
represent a minority, and consist mostly of young
trees that were left to grow in urban parks etc.).
We focus on the recent patterns in tree
plantations, and therefore limit the analysis only
to young trees. These are defined as trees
classified in the first two age groups during the
tree inventory, i. e. “planting” or “acclimatized
young tree” (the following age groups are
“middle aged tree”, “mature tree” and “veteran
tree”. We analyse data from last 5 years of tree
inventories in the database (i. e. from year 2013
to 2018). During this time period, none of the
trees under inventories changed the age groups
of “young trees”.
The data account for 115 407 young trees, which
are located on the area of 566 municipalities
(i. e. 9% out of total 6 254 municipalities in the
Czech Republic), in all 14 Czech regions. The
geographical distribution of the analysed data on
young solitary trees is depicted in Figure 1.
Fig. 1 Geographical distribution of young trees
from the database www.checktrees.com
(N=115 407)
FIGURE 1 HERE
Source: SAFE TREES, Ltd. (2018), State
Administration of Land Surveying and Cadastre
(2018)
Following previous studies of similar focus (e. g.
Sjőman et al., 2012 or Jim and Chen, 2009), the
methodology of the article is based solely on
descriptive statistics and frequency tables, which
we consider sufficient to answer the research
questions. The botanical nomenclature
employed in the article is based on Hejný and
Slavík, eds. (1988-1997).
Results
The overall results show that broadleaved tree
species are dominating among the young trees
in the database, accounting for 86.8 % of all
newly planted trees. Coniferous trees form only
13.2 % of the total sample.
Table 1 depicts the distribution of 20 most
common new tree plantations. Analysis of the
number of tree genera in all inventoried areas
reveal a clear dominance of Acer and Tilia over
the dataset, which account for more than 15%
of all newly planted trees each (Acer: 16.3%,
Tilia: 15.6%). The third most popular genus for
new tree plantations is Cerasus, which forms
almost 8% of the total sample of young trees in
the database, and the last genus the occurence
of which exceeds 5% of the sample is Fraxinus
(5.2%). Out of conifer trees, the majority of new
tree plantations employ Picea species (5.0% of
the total sample), which also represent the fifth
most common newly planted tree genus. These
5 genera account for almost 50% of the newly
grown trees. All other genera are less frequented
than 5% among newly planted trees.
According to our data (Table 1), we may observe
that 80% of young trees in inventoried areas
belong to 15 genera that have been most
popular for plantation across all the analysed
areas.
Tab. 1. Proportion of different genera among
newly planted trees (N=115 407)
TABLE 1 HERE
* Due to inventarization conditions (e. g. winter),
only genus was determined (not specie nor
cultivar).
Almost half of the young trees (48.6%) in the
analysed data are original species that are native
in the Czech Republic (according to the
classification of Hejný and Slavík, eds., 1988-
1997) and represent the original specie, not
cultivars. The distribution for each of the most
frequent 20 tree genera among native species
versus exotic species and cultivars of species is
shown above in Table 1. We may observe that
the native original species (not cultivars) form
a large portion of the newly planted and self-
seeded trees in urban areas. For 5.6% of the
inventoried trees, unfortunately only the genus is
known to the data owner and the exact specie
was not determined (for example due to tree
inventory timing to winter). Regarding the
important representation of some genera (mainly
Malus sp.), we have decided to keep such trees
in the sample so as not to bias the results.
Table 2 shows the proportion of 30 most
common tree species among newly planted
trees. Almost each one in tenth young tree is
Tilia cordata, which is 3 times as popular for
planting as Tilia platyphyllos. Among Acer trees,
Acer platanoides and Acer pseudoplatanus are
the most popular species for planting. Also
Fraxinus excelsior is very popular; these four
species form 22% of all young trees in the
database. Vast majority of the commonly planted
species are original species (not cultivars) that
are native in the Czech Republic. Among the
exotic species, the most popular is Cerasus
serrulata ‘Kanzan’ (2% of young trees). Cultivars
of native species that are popular for planting
involve Acer platanoides ‘Globosum’ (1.8%),
Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’ or Acer campestre
‘Elsrijk’ (both 1.2%).
Tab. 2. Proportion of species among newly
planted trees (N=115 407)
TABLE 2 HERE
We further analyse which species of young trees
are common in urban areas of different use and
tree care mode. We have chosen six most
common urban area types which are associated
with different use by the public, represent various
conditions for tree growth and tree care, and
have a high coverage in the sample. These six
area types include: parks, village and town
squares, housing estates, school areas, tree
alleys and trees along roadways. Other types of
areas, such as cemeteries, playgrounds, outdoor
swimming pools or trees along watercourses are
not so frequented in the dataset.
Table 3 lists all species that represent at least
1.5% of all trees in at least one type of the areas
and their relative occurrence among all trees in
the respective area.
Tab. 3. Proportion of species among newly
planted trees according to the type of the area
(N=115 407; species representing at least 1.5%
of particular area type)*
TABLE 3 HERE
* Values lower than 1.5% marked in grey italics;
Values lower than 0.05% are omitted from
display.
Among all urban area types, the broadleaved
species dominate within the newly planted trees,
whereas conifers represent only minor
components. Almost all tree species in Table 3
are planted at least in five out of six presented
types of urban areas. The most common tree
species among the young trees, Tilia cordata
and Acer platanoides, have large populations in
all the area types. On the other hand, young
specimens of Fraxinus excelsior are planted
typically along roadways, and in the other types
of urban areas this specie represents only
a small portion of the newly planted species.
Parks represent urban parks, gardens and
orchards in towns, on riverbanks, in hospitals or
around castles. The sample includes trees in
parks of all sizes. Most common young trees are
Acer platanoides, Tilia cordata and Quercus
robur - all native species -, which form together
22.3% of trees in parks in the sample. Parks are
characterized by high diversity of tree species,
and most of the species planted (including
cultivars) account only for less than 1 percent
of the total tree population in this type of urban
area. Cultivars are frequently planted to enrich
the visual diversity of colours and shapes of park
trees; the most popular cultivar in parks is
Cerasus serrulata ‘Kanzan’.
For village and town squares, newly planted
trees typically include Crataegus lavigata, Tilia
cordata, Tilia x vulgaris Pallida’, Cerasus
serrulata ‘Kanzan’ or Acer platanoides, which
each represent more than 5% of the trees in the
sample in this type of urban area. 50% of the
sample is represented by 8 tree species, and the
diversity of species is lower than in parks and
housing estates. This is probably caused by
more restrictive conditions of tree stands
compared to parks which limit the choice of
adequate tree species and do not allow for much
experimentation with different tree species. Also,
in historical centres, the choice of tree species is
restricted by cultural heritage conservation rules,
which lead to strict preference of historically
authentic species.
Housing estates have a similar pattern of popular
trees as parks, but relatively more coniferous
trees are planted (Picea abies, Picea omorika,
Pinus nigra). The diversity of tree species is
comparable to parks.
School areals comprise areals of maternity and
primary schools, including school gardens.
Among newly planted trees, Malus sp. is very
frequented, accounting for almost 10% of the
young trees in school areas in the sample.
Similarly to housing estates, there is also
a tendency to include conifers into the new
plantations in school areals. The diversity of tree
species in school areals is comparable to parks
and housing estates.
Tree alleys represent both street alleys in towns
and alleys in the open landscape. The latter
include alleys along cycling trails, hiking trails
and farm roads; these alleys frequently lead from
a village or town to a local point of interest, such
as small sacral monument or church, cemetery
or small-scale natural area or viewpoint. Among
young plantations, traditional Tilia cordata or Tilia
platyphyllos represent a large portion of trees.
Maples (Acer spp.) are also typical for tree
alleys: mainly Acer platanoides, including the
cultivar Acer platanoides ‘Globosum’ with
visually interesting globular tree crown, and Acer
pseudoplatanus. These five species account for
30% young trees in tree alleys.
Trees along roadways involve trees that are
planted along the motorways, either by
municipalities, regions, or by the Road and
Motorway Directorate. The choice of species is
by far most limited among the analysed types
of urban areas by the unfavourable conditions of
tree stands (space, salinity of soil etc.). The
location in open landscape leads to the
preference of native trees, which is apparent in
the sample, but the diversity of species is very
low. Fraxinus excelsior is by far most common
and represents 24% of newly planted trees along
roadway. Other 18% young trees are Tilia
cordata, and typical species planted along
roadways are also Sorbus aucuparia (8.5%) or
Acer pseudoplatanus (9.1%). These five species
account for more than 60% of newly planted
trees along roadways in the sample.
Discussion
The present choices of newly planted trees
directly affect the aesthetical and microclimatic
aspects of urban areas. An important function of
urban trees is to provide a convenient
microclimate and to decrease the heat island
effect (Kleerekoper et al., 2012).
More frequently than in the open landscape,
cultivars and non-native tree species are planted
in the urban areas. In urban areas, the
requirement on the nativity of the planted trees is
not as strict as in the open landscape. The
prevailing conditions of tree stands in the urban
areas may in many cases be not favourable for
most native tree species, which leads to
selection of more resilient exotic species or
cultivars. The cultivars and non-native tree
species are planted either for their increased
resistance to generally unfavourable conditions
of urban tree stands, or may be preferred for
aesthetical reasons, as they enrich the visual
diversity of urban tree shapes and leaf colours;
also, some cultivars (e. g. 'Fastigiata' or
'Globosa') are preferred for their crown shape
that offers reaching desired passage profile or
clearance for traffic.
The discussion of risks related to non-native
trees spread to natural environments leads to
increased attention to potentially invasive
species (Pergl et al., 2016). These species are
regulated mainly in the open landscape. In the
sample of young trees, <1.5% of the sample
belongs to species on the Black List that may be
however tolerated outside natural areas (Ibid.).
In minimal quantities, some of these species are
intentionally planted in urban areas. Out of
these, the most popular is Robinia pseudacacia,
mainly due to its high vitality even in
unfavourable conditions; in tree alleys this specie
is most frequented out of all six analysed types
of urban area types (1.5% of newly planted trees
in tree alleys). Pinus strobus is also still relatively
popular for planting in parks, housing estates
and school areas. Several young specimen of
Acer negundo and Populus x canadiensis are
found along the roadways, also in the open
landscape. Some other species such as Rhus
typhina and Ailantus altissima were found in
several housing estates and school areas (not
close to the urban area boundaries) in low
quantities (in total account for <0.2 % of the
inventoried young trees). The last two mentioned
species are significant for urban residents also
for their health-related aspects, as they are toxic
plants (Šerá, 2014). Overally, the sample shows
that the potentially invasive tree species are
relatively well under control in the inventoried
urban areas.
The known future scenarios of climate change
are of no less importance for the choice of new
plantations of trees. According to EEA (2017),
the Czech Republic may be more exposed to
increased temperature, drought episodes and
heat waves in future, which will also affect the
conditions growth conditions for urban
plantations. There are several mechanisms
through which the increased heat stress and
drought stress affect the tree health: either these
factors alter the health status of the tree directly,
or the changed conditions favour the expansion
of tree pests and fungal and other pathogens,
including the spread of non-native pests and
pathogens from other climatic regions (Tubby
and Webber, 2010). For further provision of
healthy microclimatic and living conditions to the
inhabitants of urban areas in the years to come,
the adaptation is essential, which constitutes of
selection of such tree species that match not
only current, but also the future site conditions
(Brune, 2016).
The research on tree species suitability under
changing climate is still in progress and the
available results are much scarcer for urban tree
species than for tree stands and forests in the
open landscape. According to Brune (2016) and
Roloff et al. (2009), Betula pendula (represents
1,6% of young trees - see Table 1) is very
tolerant to heat and drought related stress, and
other frequently planted species Acer
platanoides (5,6%), Fraxinus excelsior (4,1%)
and Quercus robur (2,5%) are moderately
tolerant to both stress factors. On the contrary,
among popular species that are very sensitive to
drought Brune (2016) mentions Alnus glutinosa
(0.9%) and Pinus nigra (1.3%). Roloff et al.
(2009) consider Tilia platyphyllos that is very
popular across newly planted trees in our sample
(3.1% in total - Table 1), which holds for all
analysed types of urban areas (as may be seen
in Table 3) sensitive to longer periods of drought,
during which their leaves dry. Tilia cordata
(9.3%) is considered less problematic by the
authors. Also Sorbus aucuparia (1,8%) is
considered low-resilient to drought. For the
Malus genera which is very common in school
areals, it is difficult to assess the drought
sensitivity - the category involves a broad range
of ornamental species and cultivars the
sensitivity of which is distinctive for particular
specie.
The choice of newly planted tree species also
determine the level of maintenance needed in
the future, together with the amount of financial
resources that the tree owners have to set aside
for the management of greenery. According to
our results, within the popular tree alley genera
in urban environment, tall trees with spreading
crowns are frequent, such as Tilia, Acer,
Fraxinus; or Platanus (Table 1). These contribute
highly to the reduction of the urban heat island
effect due to the crown size; however, their
crowns often interfere with buildings in their
vicinity or may create a serious traffic obstacle.
Therefore, a formative pruning is essential to
reach a required passage profile (or clearance to
traffic). Smaller cultivars could be an option in
case of narrow streets - it is apparent that trees
with slender (Acer campestre 'Elsrijk') or small
(Acer platanoides 'Globosum') crowns are
frequently used as the alley tree.
It is apparent that mainly trees with large crown
are planted along the roadways (Fraxinus
excelsior 24,3%, Tilia cordata 18,4%, Acer
pseudoplatanus 9,1%). Specially in this case
the urban greenery managers have to bear in
mind that provision of a formative pruning to
raise the crowns is essential. In view of the fact
that these species need an adequate room for
their future crown, they should be planted in
larger distances. Though, from the experience of
the authors, this has not been often respected in
practice.
Recently, there emerged possibilities of
substantial financial support from different
sources for new tree planting in the Czech
Republic. Unfortunately, post-planting tree care
is only partially supported, including the
formative pruning - although the formative
pruning is undoubtedly the most efficient and
cheapest way how to avoid static relevant defect
in the future.
Also, regarding the climate change scenarios,
watering of both the new plantations and mature
trees of tree species not resilient to drought, or
even other trees located in tree stands with low
level of groundwater, is likely to become an issue
in the future. At present, the watering regime of
mature trees differs vastly across the (large) tree
owners, and it is not uncommon not to provide
watering of mature trees at all. Should this trend
continue also in the future, a small but
nonmarginal proportion of nowadays newly
planted trees in urban areas is endangered by
withering.
Conclusion
The article synthetizes the implications of the
recent trends in woody plant growing in Czech
cities on the successful management of woody
plants in the cities in future. Based on the
results, we may conclude that the actual trends
in tree planting respect not only the present
conditions of climate in urbanised areas, but the
majority of newly planted trees may be relatively
resilient also the future development of stand
conditions under the climate change.
For the analysed types of urban areas we may
conclude specifically: i) that even though the
trees along roadways face more challenging
conditions than trees in parks, most of the newly
planted trees represent species that are
relatively tolerant to drier conditions and higher
temperatures and may therefore withstand well
the projected climate scenarios; and further that
ii) in parks, housing estates and school grounds,
the high diversity of newly planted species may
be an important factor for lowering the pest and
disease infestation in future and may also play
role in the prevention or deceleration of the
spread of tree pests and diseases across these
urban areas.
However, the urban greenery managers and tree
owners may expect that the increased
occurrence of heat and drought related stress
conditions in the future may affect the cost of
tree maintenance, as the results show that small
but nonmarginal proportion of newly planted tree
species is drought-sensitive. Concerning the
maintenance cost, there is also evidence that for
a significant part of the newly planted trees along
the roadways and alleys, the formative pruning is
very promising in reducing future financial cost to
deal with static defects of tree crowns. At
present, the existing subsidy schemes for tree
planting only partially cover the post-planting
care, so these cost have to be provided by the
tree owners themselves.
References
Brune, M. (2016). Urban trees under climate
change. Potential impacts of dry spells and heat
waves in three German regions in the 2050s.
Report 24. Hamburg: Climate Service Center
Germany. 129 p.
EEA (2017). Climate change, impacts and
vulnerability in Europe 2016. An indicator-based
report. EEA Report 1/2017.
Hejný, S., B. Slavík, eds. (1988-1997). Květena
České republiky (1.-5. díl). Praha: Academia.
Jim, C. Y., W. Y. Chent (2009). Diversity and
distribution of landscape trees in the compact
Asian city of Taipei. Applied Geography 29, 577-
587.
Kleerekoper L., M. van Esch, T.B. Salcedo
(2012). How to make a city climate-proof,
addressing the urban heat island effect.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 64, 30
38.
Kučera, T. (2015). Dřeviny ve městě a jejich
význam pro biodiverzitu. Veřejná zeleň II.
Ochrana přírody 6, 18-22.
Pergl, J., et al. (2016). Black, Grey and Watch
Lists of alien species in the Czech Republic
based on environmental impacts and
management strategy. NeoBiota 28, 1-37.
Roloff, A., S. Korn, S. Gillner (2009). The
Climate-Species-Matrix to select tree species
for urban habitats considering climate change.
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 8 (4), 295
308.
Sjőman, H., J. Őstberg, O. Bűhler (2012).
Diversity and distribution of the urban tree
population in ten major Nordic cities. Urban
Forestry & Urban Greening 11, 31-39.
Šerá, B. (2014). Pylové alergie - negativní vliv
dřevin ve městech. Životné prostredie 48(2),
104-109.
Tubby, K. V., J. F. Webber (2010). Pests and
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changing climate. Forestry 83(4), 451-459.
Acknowledgement
The work on the article was supported by the
Technological Agency of the Czech Republic
under the grant no. TL01000020 “Authentication
of computation of the social value of woody
plants growing out of forest for the purpose of
calculation of the extent of compensation
measures for felling“. The support is gratefully
acknowledged.
Fig. 1 Geographical distribution of young trees from the database www.checktrees.com (N=115 407)
Source: SAFE TREES, s. r. o. (2018), State Administration of Land Surveying and Cadastre (2018)
Tab. 1. Proportion of different genera among newly planted trees (N=115 407)
Genus
Total occurence:
Out of genus occurrence in % of trees:
No. of trees
In %
Native and
original specie
Cultivar or
non-native
N/A*
Sum
Acer
18 823
16.3
61.8
38.0
0.2
100
Tilia
17 969
15.6
79.2
20.7
0.1
100
Cerasus
9 022
7.8
19.4
67.0
13.6
100
Fraxinus
6 003
5.2
83.4
16.6
0.0
100
Picea
5 748
5.0
49.0
50.9
0.1
100
Quercus
4 868
4.2
64.6
35.2
0.2
100
Carpinus
4 222
3.7
45.3
54.7
0.0
100
Sorbus
4 010
3.5
66.6
32.1
1.3
100
Malus
3 924
3.4
0.0
9.9
90.1
100
Pinus
3 512
3.0
38.9
60.6
0.5
100
Prunus
3 260
2.8
0.6
83.9
15.5
100
Aesculus
2 820
2.4
0.0
99.5
0.5
100
Crataegus
2 712
2.4
50.0
47.6
2.4
100
Betula
2 425
2.1
75.2
24.5
0.3
100
Salix
2 182
1.9
55.9
32.5
11.6
100
Pyrus
2 043
1.8
0.0
85.3
14.7
100
Robinia
1 878
1.6
0.0
100.0
0.0
100
Platanus
1 550
1.3
0.0
100.0
0.0
100
Fagus
1 519
1.3
51.0
49.0
0.0
100
Abies
1 236
1.1
16.9
82.3
0.8
100
Other
15 681
13.6
18.6
78.5
2.8
100
Total no.
of trees
115 407
x
52 858
56 044
6 505
x
* Due to inventarization conditions (e. g. winter), only genus was determined (not specie or cultivar)
Tab. 2. Proportion of species among newly planted trees (N=115 407)
Species
N
%
Cumulative %
Origin; cultivar
Tilia cordata
10 735
9.28
9.28
Native
Acer platanoides
6 430
5.56
14.84
Native
Fraxinus excelsior
4 723
4.08
18.92
Native
Acer pseudoplatanus
3 839
3.32
22.24
Native
Tilia platyphyllos
3 554
3.07
25.31
Native
Malus sp.
3 539
3.06
28.37
N/A
Quercus robur
2 920
2.52
30.9
Native
Picea abies
2 814
2.43
33.33
Native
Cerasus serrulata ‘Kanzan’
2 384
2.06
35.39
Exotic; cultivar
Acer platanoides ‘Globosum’
2 110
1.82
37.21
Native; cultivar
Sorbus aucuparia
2 044
1.77
38.98
Native
Carpinus betulus
1 913
1.65
40.63
Native
Aesculus hippocastanum
1 906
1.65
42.28
Exotic
Betula pendula
1 834
1.59
43.87
Native
Cerasus avium
1 727
1.49
45.36
Native
Pinus nigra
1 543
1.33
46.69
Exotic
Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’
1 430
1.24
47.93
Native; cultivar
Acer campestre
1 376
1.19
49.12
Native
Platanus x hispanica
1 344
1.16
50.28
Exotic
Acer campestre ‘Elsrijk’
1 335
1.15
51.44
Native; cultivar
Picea omorika
1 248
1.08
52.51
Exotic
Cerasus sp.
1 234
1.07
53.58
N/A
Prunus domestica
1 159
1.00
54.58
Native
Pinus sylvestris
1 157
1.00
55.58
Native
Alnus glutinosa
1 025
0.89
56.47
Native
Tilia x vulgaris ‘Pallida’
1 011
0.87
57.34
Native; cultivar
Crataegus laevigata
1 000
0.86
58.21
Native
Corylus colurna
852
0.74
58.94
Exotic
Robinia pseudoacacia
836
0.72
59.67
Exotic
Picea pungens ‘Glauca’
809
0.70
60.37
Exotic; cultivar
Tab. 3. Proportion of species among newly planted trees according to the type of the area
(N=115 407; species representing at least 1.5% of particular area type)*
Species / % of trees within
given area type
Parks
Village and
town squares
Housing
estates
School
areas
Tree
alleys
Trees along
roadways
Acer campestre
1.1
2.1
1.4
0.4
0.9
0.1
Acer campestre ‘Elsrijk’
0.8
4.8
1.7
0.1
1.9
0.3
Acer platanoides
8.6
5.1
5.7
4.1
4.4
3.9
Acer platanoides ‘Globosum’
0.5
7.4
0.7
1.2
4.5
Acer pseudoplatanus
1.7
0.7
2.4
2.1
3.5
9.1
Aesculus hippocastanum
3.9
3.2
1.1
0.7
1.2
1.3
Aesculus x carnea
1.6
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.6
0.1
Alnus glutinosa
1.0
0.3
0.2
0.7
Betula pendula
1.2
0.3
1.3
0.5
0.6
5.4
Carpinus betulus
3.1
0.4
2.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’
1.6
2.6
1.6
0.5
0.9
Cerasus sp.
0.4
0.2
1.6
1.9
1.1
Cerasus avium
0.7
0.1
1.9
3.1
0.7
1.9
Cerasus serrulata
0.3
1.9
0.6
0.2
0.2
Cerasus serrulata ‘Amanogawa’
0.1
0.2
1.3
1.8
0.5
Cerasus serrulata ‘Kanzan’
1.9
5.3
3.7
2.6
2.2
Crataegus laevigata
0.5
8.4
0.5
0.9
0.3
0.8
Crataegus x lavallei ‘Carrierei’
2.1
0.1
Fraxinus excelsior
2.5
1.8
1.9
1.0
2.8
24.3
Fraxinus ornus
0.1
2.7
0.2
0.4
0.3
Malus sp.
3.2
0.5
2.8
9.9
1.3
2.2
Picea abies
0.5
3.2
3.1
1.1
Picea omorika
0.8
0.2
1.9
3.2
0.1
0.1
Picea pungens ‘Glauca’
0.4
0.1
1.1
2.1
0.1
Pinus nigra
0.9
0.5
2.9
1.4
0.2
0.1
Pinus sylvestris
1.6
0.9
1.2
0.9
0.7
Platanus x hispanica
1.1
4.0
1.1
0.6
2.1
0.2
Prunus domestica
0.4
2.8
0.4
0.9
Pyrus calleryana ‘Chanticleer‘
1.7
0.6
0.9
1.1
Pyrus communis ‘Beech Hill’
1.9
0.1
Quercus robur
6.1
0.8
1.6
0.9
1.0
1.6
Robinia pseudoacacia
0.8
0.4
1.5
1.0
Salix caprea
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
3.4
Sophora japonica
0.5
1.0
0.3
0.1
2.5
Sorbus aucuparia
0.5
0.3
1.6
1.7
1.6
8.5
Thuja occidentalis
0.3
1.9
Tilia cordata
7.6
7.3
5.3
4.2
11.9
18.4
Tilia platyphyllos
3.2
1.5
1.8
1.6
6.3
3.1
Tilia x euchlora
0.2
0.3
0.2
1.8
Tilia x europaea
0.1
0.1
2.2
Tilia x vulgaris ‘Pallida’
0.1
7.0
0.5
2.7
Other species
39.0
24.3
41.7
42.6
35.9
10.2
Total no. of trees per area type
15 014
2 925
29 083
4 235
19 094
7 597
* Values lower than 1.5% marked in grey italics; Values lower than 0.05% are omitted from display.
... To our best knowledge, this is the first study employing such a large dataset on this topic that can aspire to yield representative results on non-forest tree species inventory, both in the Czech and in the international context. The last Czech evidence is limited to a study focusing on vegetation (trees, shrubs, and herbs) along several particular motorways [23]; and another article that addressed new plantings of trees in different land use contexts in non-forest settings [24]. Foreign studies account only for a limited number of articles (e.g., recent studies [25,26] in Asia; in Europe, e.g., studies [27,28]), all of which focused solely on the urban environment. ...
... Foreign studies account only for a limited number of articles (e.g., recent studies [25,26] in Asia; in Europe, e.g., studies [27,28]), all of which focused solely on the urban environment. Only a few of the above-cited studies [24,25,27] incorporate at least a short discussion of the implications of sustainable tree management. ...
... European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is one of the most common species found along the main roads in the study site (12.5% of all tree plantings- Table 3), and its popularity is increasing among new roadside plantings. It is also one of the most frequently planted species among all new non-forest tree plantings in the Czech Republic in all landscape settings [24]. Similar problems in the Czech Republic encountered mostly at the local level are associated with the presence of Euproctis chrysorrhoea on Malus and Tilia trees and with various species of Yponomeuta genus. ...
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