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Developing Pedagogical Methodologies in Teaching Islamic Economics

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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between the financial performance of Islamic finance and economic growth in all of Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Turkey and Saudi Arabia within the endogenous growth model framework. Design/methodology/approach This study applied dynamic panel system GMM to estimate the impact of the financial performance of Islamic finance on economic growth using quarterly data (2014:1-2018:4). CAMELS system parameters were employed as variables of the financial performance of Islamic finance and gross domestic product (GDP) as a proxy of economic growth. The sample contained all Islamic banks working in the five countries. Findings The findings demonstrated that the only significant factor of the financial performance of Islamic finance, which affects the endogenous economic growth, is profitability through return on equity (ROE). The experimental findings also indicated the necessity of stimulating other financial performance factors of Islamic finance to achieve a significant contribution to economic growth. Practical implications The analysis in this paper would fill the literature gap by investigating the link between financial performance of Islamic finance and economic growth, as this study serves as a guide for the academians, researchers and decision-makers who want to achieve economic growth through stimulating Islamic finance in the banking sector. However, this study may well be extended to investigate the link between the financial performance of Islamic finance and economic growth over the Z-score model as another measure for the financial performance of Islamic finance. Originality/value This paper is the first that investigates the link between financial performance of Islamic finance and economic growth empirically using CAMELS parameters within the endogenous growth model to provide robust information about this link based on a sample of the top pioneer Islamic finance countries.
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The doctrine of corporate social responsibility (CSR), which has emerged and developed rapidly as a field of study, is a framework for the role of business in society. It sets standards of behavior to which a company must subscribe in order to impact society in a positive and productive manner while abiding by values that exclude seeking profit at any cost. Despite the many attempts to construe CSR initiatives, it remains open to wide criticism for its inherent problems via-à-vis justification, conceptual clarity, and possible inconsistency. These problems are more acute when it comes to implementing and operationalizing CSR on the ground, especially in a situation that involves trade-offs. This paper offers an instructive understanding of CSR from an Islamic perspective. In particular, the implication of maqasid al-Shari`ah (the Shari`ah’s objectives) and the application of maslahah (the public good) to CSR are discussed in detail to shed light on how Islam’s holistic and dynamic perception of CSR take into consideration reality and ever-changing circumstances. These principles also provide a better framework that managers can use when faced with potential conflicts arising from the diverse expectations and interests of a corporation’s stakeholders.
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This study aims to determine the development map of mathematic model in islamic economics and finance research that is indexed by Dimensions with the keyword "Mathematical in Islamic economics finance". The data analyzed were 76 selected publications. The development map of mathematic model in islamic economics and finance research analyzed using the Biblioshiny-R and VOSviewer application program to find out the bibliometric map. The results showed that the number of publications on the development of mathematic model in islamic economics and finance research from 1980-2020 experienced a significant increase and the highest impact were published in International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management. Network visualization showed that the map of the development of mathematic model in islamic economics and finance research was divided into 3 clusters. The majority of research is related to modeling of Profit Loss Sharing (PLS) schemes. Islamic bank financing is still an interesting trend topic in recent research. However, despite the development of using mathematical model in those researches, the approach tends to be adaptive (inductive) from conventional models that already exist. A challenge to review the mainstream model need to be further critically reviewed.
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This study aims to determine the development map of mathematic model in islamic economics and finance research that is indexed by Scopus and other reputable journal with the keyword "Mathematic model in islamic economics and finance". The data analyzed were 100 selected publications. The development map of mathematic model in islamic economics and finance research analyzed using the VOSviewer application program to find out the bibliometric map. The results showed that the number of publications on the development of mathematic model in islamic economics and finance research indexed Scopus from 1983-2019 experienced a significant increase and the most were published in Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economics. Network visualization showed that the map of the development of mathematic model in islamic economics and finance research was divided into 3 clusters. The majority of research is related to modeling of Profit Loss Sharing (PLS) schemes. However, despite the development of using mathematical model in those researches, the approach tends to be adaptive (inductive) from conventional models that already exist. A challenge to review the mainstream model need to be further critically reviewed. Hence, it is necessary for researcher to formulate a mathematical model with a deductive approach that is reduced from Islamic norms or ethics derived from the Alquran and Sunnah.
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This paper aims to study Islamic fintech operations in Bangladesh and Turkey. FinTech is now extensively used in different countries around the world. It is known to be financial products of the twenty-first century. Fintech applications are using pervasively in the different Islamic finance operating systems. Turkey and Bangladesh emphasized more in fintech after the 2008 global financial crisis. Both country's banks prioritized their regulations and compliance with innovation. The rise of Islamic Fintech in Turkey and Bangladesh started with the main banking applications. The use of shariah-compliant Islamic fintech in both countries is increasing significantly to carry out financial transactions and processes more efficiently through technological innovations. Qualitative methods and secondary data have been used in this study. Turkey practically became a hub for Islamic financial technology in recent years considering its operational activities. Asian countries, particularly Turkey and Bangladesh are expected to show their highest growth potential for Islamic fintech in 2020. This study also attempts to unearth the possibilities of Islamic FinTech in Bangladesh and Turkey. Islamic finance based on Islamic Shariah benefited significantly by using financial technology in recent years. Bangladesh and Turkey can be a potential destination for Islamic FinTech with the help of financial technology.
Purpose This study aims to design appropriate micro-fintech models for Islamic microfinance institutions (IMFIs), especially Baitul Maal wat Tamwil (BMT) in Indonesia, thus enabling BMT to combine Islamic social and commercial microfinance optimally. Design/methodology/approach This study uses the analytic network process and Delphi methods, with three groups of experts as the respondents, namely, academician-regulators, BMT practitioners and Fintech practitioners. Findings The first results show that the micro-fintech tools needed by IMFI/BMT are digital banking, payment, peer-to-peer (P2P) financing, P2P social and e-commerce. These could be developed by a BMT alone or with an APEX or Association, which could also collaborate with an existing fintech company that specialises in micro-fintech, applying the offline to online approach. This means that commercial funding, as well as social fundraising of zakat and waqf, would be conducted online, whereas commercial financing for micro and small enterprise customers and the disbursement of zakat and waqf would be conducted offline. The second results show that the limited open ecosystem and hybrid ecosystem are the most appropriate micro-fintech ecosystems for IMFIs/BMT, with various alternative models. In addition, the private closed ecosystem preferred by BMT would be feasible if all criteria show improvement in the future. Research limitations/implications This study is qualitative in nature. The methods used have limitations, meaning the models could be improved by incorporating other methods. Moreover, the case and respondents are all Indonesian, which means that the results may only be applicable to BMTs in Indonesia. Practical implications A BMT and/or BMT association could immediately apply micro-fintech with a limited open ecosystem, while in the future, they could apply micro-fintech with a private closed ecosystem. Social implications The micro-fintech model could be used to optimise the collections of zakat, infaq and waqf, meaning BMT could provide more social programmes for those in need. Originality/value The growth of fintech in Islamic microfinance has occurred only recently, while only a limited number of studies have been conducted; therefore, no study exists on the development of a micro-fintech model appropriate for IMFIs, especially BMT.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to examine the level of Islamic social reporting (ISR) disclosure of Islamic banking in Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) countries using a checklist based on Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institution (AAOIFI) standards. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative method – Tobit Model – is adopted in this study. The unweighted disclosure method used to measure the ISR disclosure checklist consist of 51 items in Islamic banks (IBs) in the GCC countries. The stakeholder theory and legitimacy theory are used to investigate the possible banking performance factors affecting the accounting practices such as ISR disclosure in IBs. Findings The findings show that the ISR disclosure index is linked to the IBs’ performance indicators in GCC countries. The result indicates both Islamic banking profitability and age establish positive and statistically significant relationship with ISR disclosure while leverage establishes significant negative relationship with ISR disclosure. This implies that Islamic banking profitability, leverage, and age are essential bank performance indicators that make ISR disclosure worthy of doing even in the presence of Islamic bank stakeholders in GCC countries. This finding linked compliance with the mandatory disclosure recommendations of AAOIFI Standard No. 7, as well as voluntary disclosure. Research limitations/implications This study used cross sectional data for the year 2019, which is considered more recent despite its being a year data analysis. However, future research should consider mix method as well as more analysis tools provided their number of observations are sufficient enough. Social implications The study identifies the factors that may enhance Islamic financial institutions, including Islamic banking in GCC countries, to comply with ISR disclosure. The application of this study supports Accounting standards setters to consider standards that support ISR disclosure in Islamic banking in different countries. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is novel in exploring the level of ISR disclosure in Islamic banking in GCC countries by using a checklist based on AAOIFI standard No. 7 and establishes the relationship between ISR disclosure index and IBs profitability, leverage, as well as age of Islamic banking in operation.
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This textbook offers a comprehensive introduction to panel data econometrics, an area that has enjoyed considerable growth over the last two decades. Micro and Macro panels are becoming increasingly available, and methods for dealing with these types of data are in high demand among practitioners. Software programs have fostered this growth, including freely available programs in R and numerous user-written programs in both Stata and EViews. Written by one of the world’s leading researchers and authors in the field, Econometric Analysis of Panel Data has established itself as the leading textbook for graduate and postgraduate courses on panel data. It provides up-to-date coverage of basic panel data techniques, illustrated with real economic applications and datasets, which are available at the book’s website on springer.com. This new sixth edition has been fully revised and updated, and includes new material on dynamic panels, limited dependent variables and nonstationary panels, as well as spatial panel data. The author also provides empirical illustrations and examples using Stata and EViews. “This is a definitive book written by one of the architects of modern, panel data econometrics. It provides both a practical introduction to the subject matter, as well as a thorough discussion of the underlying statistical principles without taxing the reader too greatly." Professor Kajal Lahiri, State University of New York, Albany, USA. "This book is the most comprehensive work available on panel data. It is written by one of the leading contributors to the field, and is notable for its encyclopaedic coverage and its clarity of exposition. It is useful to theorists and to people doing applied work using panel data. It is valuable as a text for a course in panel data, as a supplementary text for more general courses in econometrics, and as a reference." Professor Peter Schmidt, Michigan State University, USA. “Panel data econometrics is in its ascendancy, combining the power of cross section averaging with all the subtleties of temporal and spatial dependence. Badi Baltagi provides a remarkable roadmap of this fascinating interface of econometric method, enticing the novitiate with technical gentleness, the expert with comprehensive coverage and the practitioner with many empirical applications.” Professor Peter C. B. Phillips, Cowles Foundation, Yale University, USA.
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Purpose This study aims to critically examine the pricing of Islamic financial assets (Sharīʿah-compliant assets, Sharīʿah-compliant securities, Sharīʿah-compliant financing and Sukuk) in the three South-East Asia countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei to provide necessary information to the policymakers and Islamic finance investors for making a sound decision. Design/methodology/approach This study used secondary data and used the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lags (NARDL) model to estimate the reaction of Islamic financial assets in South-East Asia towards price changes. Wald-test was used to diagnose the final model. Findings The result of this study shows that the majority of Islamic financial assets in the three South-East Asia countries exhibit positive and negative long-run effects. The findings reveal a long-run asymmetric relationship that supports rockets and feathers effects. The indication is that Islamic financial assets pricing deviates from weak form EMH. Pricing of Islamic financial assets reveals unfair pricing. Practical implications Price adjustment of Islamic financial assets requires urgent attention of policymakers to prevent Sharīʿah non-compliant risk. Therefore, the Shariah advisory board in those countries, Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions and Islamic Financial Services Board are hereby advised to act on the factors that might enable rockets and feathers effects on the pricing of Islamic financial assets, as the long-run asymmetric relationship is established. Originality/value This study is novel as it critically and simultaneously examines the pricing behaviour of Islamic financial assets in the three South-East Asian countries. The findings from the study provide vital information on the pricing behaviour of Islamic financial assets to the policymakers and investors.