PresentationPDF Available

Abstract

In this presentation, the role of pre-hospital emergency in disaster management is discussed. Regardless of the situation or its origin,one particular responding group can significantly affect the outcome of any disaster event: emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. Having a well-prepared EMS system that has been tested in disaster response decreases the morbidity and mortality associated with the event. From the moment an event unfolds, an emergency call is made, and multiple agencies respond, including police, fire, and ambulance personnel.
EMS role
In Disasters and Emergencies
Arezoo Dehghani Zahra Eskandari
PhD in health in emergencies and disasters
Shahid Beheshti university of medical sciences
2022
dehghani.am64@gmail.com z_eskandari@sbmu.ac.ir
INTRODUCTION
2 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
one particular responding group can significantly affect the outcome of any
disaster event: emergency medical services (EMS) personnel
Having a well-prepared EMS system that has been tested in disaster response
decreases the morbidity and mortality associated with the event
From the moment an event unfolds, an emergency call is made, and multiple
agencies respond, including police, fire, and ambulance personnel
INTRODUCTION
3 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
EMS involve trained personnel responding to care for another person in medical need, as well as the use
of a vehicle and common equipment and the need for expertise in managing emergency medical issues.
EMS systems as an integral part of any effective and functional health care system.
The goal of any international EMS system must be to :
adapt a model and create a system that meets the local needs
works with regional health care resources
sensitive to the local and national customs, while working
the political and financial structure in each individual community
EMS systems based on how the service is regulated
4 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
1. National system: EMS systems administered by national governments or ministries
2. Local or regional system: EMS systems administered by local or regional governments, often as a part of local or regional police or fire
departments
3. Private system: Systems in which private EMS companies contract with local, regional, or national governments to provide prehospital
care
4. Hospital-based system: EMS system based at and/or run by central or referral hospitals
5. Volunteer system: Common in smaller, rural areas, where the systems rely on community volunteers, who donate their time to provide
local prehospital care
6. Hybrid system: EMS systems that combine some or all of the features of the above-mentioned systems
EMS systems based on the level of care provided
5 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
1. Unorganized: Common in developing countries, in these systems, the sick and
injured are transported to the hospital in a no organized manner, by an unstructured
system, and often by bystanders who have no knowledge of medicine and who
transport the person via a personal vehicle. Providers may or may not have official
training or certification, and the vehicles are not regulated.
2. Basic life support (BLS): These systems consist of essential non-invasive life-saving
procedures (CPR, artificial ventilation/oxygenation, basic airway management,
haemorrhage control, extremity splinting, spinal immobilization, and vital signs).
EMS systems based on the level of care provided
6 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
3. Advanced life support (ALS): BLS skills as well as more-advanced invasive life-saving procedures (advanced airway
adjuncts, intravenous infusions, medication administration, defibrillation, electrocardiogram interpretation,
community paramedicine, etc.) are included.
4. Physician service: In these systems, a physician staffs the ambulance or a car and responds as part of the ambulance
crew to evaluate and provide care on scene. The physician may opt to treat on scene and not take the patient to the
hospital or to take the patient into the hospital for treatment.
Comparison between Franco-German Model and Anglo-
American Model15
7 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
8 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
EMS and Disasters
9 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
to provide responsible prehospital care to the unfortunate victims of the disaster
maximizing care to the most viable
giving comfort to those who are doomed not to survive
helps to bring a sense of order to a very chaotic situation.
EMS and Disasters management cycle
10 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
Mitigation measures also include public awareness campaigns, a keen eye by EMS and
other health care personnel entering peoples homes, and reporting of unusual
circumstances, identification of flood zones, hurricane planning, and legislative action.
Preparedness encompasses the training and education of both public safety personnel and
members of the community and preparedness efforts and creating standards for health and
medical services
EMS and Disasters management cycle
11 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
Response local EMS and resources must be self-sufficient for 72 hours
because it often takes 48 to 72 hours to organize these large teams and
arrange travel for them to a disaster area.
EMS personnel may be tasked with providing care outside their scope in
more of a primary care role rather than their typical emergency-response
capacity
EMS systems and personnel must also be equipped for and prepared to
function for 24 to 48 hours, as major disaster scenes are rarely mitigated
completely without a more significant time commitment
EMS and Disasters management cycle
12 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
implement the ICS
Coordination
Triage
treatment
transport are the highest priorities for most paramedics and emergency medical
personnel, and specialized medical units
EMS and Disasters management cycle
13 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
Recovery EMS systems usually do not serve a primary role in recovery, but this final phase of
management is critical for system reassessment and improvement.
Analysis of specific methodologies used during incident management, including the efficacy of
triage and predictive outcome assessments, is useful to the global community.
A critical function of recovery within an EMS system must also account for responder well-being.
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing(CISD) is an extremely important part of recovery because the
mental anguish of family loss, personal loss, financial loss, and rescuer fatigue weighs on the
individuals who have responded to the situation and may be victims themselves.
EMS and Disasters management
14 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
EMS preparedness for Disasters management
15 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
EMS personnel must be:
extremely familiar with ICS (or their own equivalent)
regularly conduct drills using the system
understand the concepts of triage in a disaster situation
familiarity with such massive, disruptive events
understand the importance of preparing for any MCI


 
16 1/18/2022 


  
17 1/18/2022 


18 1/18/2022 
:S1-1 

EOC)
19 1/18/2022 
  

 





20 1/18/2022 

 








21 1/18/2022 






22 1/18/2022 
:S1-2


23 1/18/2022 
 







24 1/18/2022 


EMD ( 








25 1/18/2022 




26 1/18/2022 
:S1-3 

  
27 1/18/2022 
 
 
  
28 1/18/2022 


 
 




29 1/18/2022 






 

30 1/18/2022 
31 1/18/2022 
:S1-4


32 1/18/2022 


  
 
33 1/18/2022 








34 1/18/2022 
...



 




35 1/18/2022 



36 1/18/2022 
:S1- 5


 
37 1/18/2022 








38 1/18/2022 
...









39 1/18/2022 




40 1/18/2022 
:S1-6

 
41 1/18/2022 

  

 

  
 
42 1/18/2022 


 






43 1/18/2022 




44 1/18/2022 
:S1-7


45 1/18/2022 





46 1/18/2022 









47 1/18/2022 


48 1/18/2022 
49 1/18/2022 
References
50 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
References
51 1/18/2022 
52 1/18/2022 EMS role In Disasters And Emergencies
THANKS
... It has also been observed that "the timely spread of reliable information is a vital part of the response to and recovery from a disaster. [10]" and mobile devices play a key role in this process. ...
... The trouble with relying on cellular networks however is that they have centralized points of failure in the form of cell towers, which can be easily rendered inoperable in a disaster, in addition to having limited capacity [11,12], and thus communication is often lost or overloaded on these networks [13,10] in the face of a major disaster, particularly in the face of many people in the disaster area attempting to make calls for help. Despite these problems, in the case of hurricane Katrina [13] it was seen that cellular phones were the first communication technology that became operational in the aftermath [14,12,10]. ...
... The trouble with relying on cellular networks however is that they have centralized points of failure in the form of cell towers, which can be easily rendered inoperable in a disaster, in addition to having limited capacity [11,12], and thus communication is often lost or overloaded on these networks [13,10] in the face of a major disaster, particularly in the face of many people in the disaster area attempting to make calls for help. Despite these problems, in the case of hurricane Katrina [13] it was seen that cellular phones were the first communication technology that became operational in the aftermath [14,12,10]. Thus, the technology from which smartphones are evolving has already shown utility in various crisis situations and the importance of this communication medium can not be stressed enough. ...
Article
Full-text available
The computing world is now populated with smartphones which combine the features of a phone with a general purpose computer and come loaded with sensors including digital cameras, global positioning system (GPS) receivers, accelerometers and many more. In this paper we argue that these devices are an ideal platform for collecting data for use in urgent computing simulations. We describe how these devices will have far reaching impacts on how people connect with and organize their communities and discuss how this coincides with the rise of community driven response to disasters and the need for decentralized command and control that is discussed in disaster management literature. We also that smartphones, by providing technology which can network people without the use of centralized infrastructure, and which are carried, used, and maintained as part of daily life, are a promising platform for building distributed disaster management applications, which could be part of the inputs provided to an urgent computing simulation. In this paper we describe not only the potential of the platform, but also analyze the challenges it faces in order to realize that potential, and discuss how our middleware is designed to meet these challenges and bring about the future of disaster management applications for smartphones using urgent computing.
Article
The paper provides an analysis of a new type of mobile sensing data, called Auto-GPS, for the purpose of discerning human mobility and behavior during a large-scale crisis. More than nine billion Auto-GPS traces were collected nationwide from August 2010 to July 2011 in Japan. After the Great Japan earthquake on March 11, we analyzed the shifts in activity among populations at the heart of the most impacted areas. Our results reveal useful information on how humans react in disaster scenarios and how the evacuation process can be monitored in near real-time by decision-makers. This research suggests a number of promising new directions for crisis response and management.
Article
This article discusses some of the lessons learned in recent disaster response efforts with regard to medical data transmission in disasters, along with various alternatives to the accomplishment of this task and their associated problem areas. One possible solution devised by the US Army and currently fielded will be discussed in detail – the BMIST‐J (Battlefield Medical Information System Tactical ‐ Joint).
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.