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Justice beliefs and cultural values predict support for COVID-19 vaccination and quarantine behavioral mandates: a multilevel cross-national study

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Abstract

Understanding how individual beliefs and societal values influence support for measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission is vital to developing and implementing effective prevention policies. Using both Just World Theory and Cultural Dimensions Theory, the present study considered how individual-level justice beliefs and country-level social values predict support for vaccination and quarantine policy mandates to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Data from an international survey of adults from 46 countries (N = 6424) were used to evaluate how individual-level beliefs about justice for self and others, as well as national values—that is, power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, and indulgence—influence support for vaccination and quarantine behavioral mandates. Multilevel modeling revealed that support for vaccination and quarantine mandates were positively associated with individual-level beliefs about justice for self, and negatively associated with country-level uncertainty avoidance. Significant cross-level interactions revealed that beliefs about justice for self were associated more strongly with support for mandatory vaccination in countries high in individualism, whereas beliefs about justice for others were more strongly associated with support for vaccination and quarantine mandates in countries high in long-term orientation. Beliefs about justice and cultural values can independently and also interactively influence support for evidence-based practices to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission, such as vaccination and quarantine. Understanding these multilevel influences may inform efforts to develop and implement effective prevention policies in varied national contexts.

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... In the context of group living, values give the group members an intersubjective understanding of the social world and what matters in life, as they supply the standards that help evaluate different social situations and make one's experiences meaningful (Chiu et al., 2010). As recent research has shown, values priorities of the normative culture were associated with the degree of endorsement of vaccination, the extent of effectiveness of quarantine measures and the overall tendencies in spread and mortality from COVID-19 in different societies during the pandemic (Endress, 2022;Lucas et al., 2022). Societal values have also recently been linked to the economic evidence to explain the role of cultural factors in variations in economic performance (Beugelsdijk & Maseland, 2010;Shostya et al., 2023). ...
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A value is an important concept for social scientists due to values’ links to behavior, emotion, motivation, and identity. This domain is one of the best-researched and methodologically diverse fields in cognitive anthropology, psychology and sociology. Studying entities such as values is also important for understanding the role of culture in the macro-level dynamics of human societies. Armed conflict is one striking instance that casts into a sharper relief the aspects of values’ engagement in identity processes that ordinarily are less visible. Carrying threats of impending death and destruction, war conditions modify social ecologies of groups and affect individual perception, cognition and behavior. Within the Terror Management theoretical framework, the concept of sacred values is often mentioned in the discussion of a response to life threats or death salience. In our study we focus on exploration of personal values, cultural values, and sacred values to investigate their connections with perceived similarity with the group, identity fusion, and the likelihood of group-serving behavior during the war in Ukraine. The results of the quantitative study conducted in Spring 2023 provide evidence that the sacred values are strongly connected to identity fusion and their endorsement increases the likelihood of engaging in self-sacrificial behavior. We show that during the war, the Ukrainian values priorities highlight freedom and sovereignty of Ukraine on both individual and collective levels. This study intends to contribute to the larger literature on the sacred values and seeks to provide deeper understanding of social behavior and social perception in war-time context.
... Sekar et al. (2022) also argue that the national cultural dimension explains about 66% of the variance in the initiative and found that low power distance, low masculinity, and high uncertainty avoidance were associated with the increased initiative against the pandemic. Lucas et al. (2022) found that cultural values were associated with support for vaccination and quarantine prevention policies, and they observed a relationship between beliefs in justice and national values (i.e., power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, and indulgence), illustrating that the impact of belief in justice on mandates supporting COVID-19 behavior may depend on national context. For example, in countries with high levels of uncertainty avoidance, people will naturally avoid social gatherings, suggesting that coercive policies may be unnecessary. ...
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Over the past 50+ years researchers have dedicated considerable effort towards studying the belief in a just world (BJW). A significant development in the field was the introduction of the bidimensional model, which indicates differential outcomes for the belief in a just world for the self (BJW-self) when contrasted with the belief in a just world for others (BJW-general). Theorizing and research on BJW-general is well-established. However, the distinction between the two spheres, and specifically the unique characteristics and correlates of BJW-self, are not yet widely acknowledged by researchers. Therefore, we present a review of the BJW-self literature, in three parts. First, we outline the fundamental tenants of justice motive theory and the chronology of BJW-self research. Second, we discuss the notable relationships that have emerged from this literature, in particular the links between BJW-self and wellbeing, coping with negative life events, prosocial behaviours, and a positive future orientation. Finally, we suggest avenues for future research and theoretical advance.
Chapter
The “belief in a just world” refers to those more or less articulated assumptions which underlie the way people orient themselves to their environment. These assumptions have a functional component which is tied to the image of a manageable and predictable world. These are central to the ability to engage in long-term goal-directed activity. In order to plan, work for, and obtain things they want, and avoid those which are frightening or painful, people must assume that there are manageable procedures which are effective in producing the desired end states (Erikson, 1950; Merton, 1957).
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Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the conditional relations is often a tedious and error-prone task. This article provides an overview of methods used to probe interaction effects and describes a unified collection of freely available online resources that researchers can use to obtain significance tests for simple slopes, compute regions of significance, and obtain confidence bands for simple slopes across the range of the moderator in the MLR, HLM, and LCA contexts. Plotting capabilities are also provided.
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the fundamental problem of cross-cultural psychology, I believe, is that it needs two paradigms: one for psychological processes, and one for the cultural environment in which these take place / the first operates at the level of individuals and groups; the second, at the level of societies or at least of social systems as most of us will be sufficiently familiar with the individual-level paradigm, I will try to demonstrate what can be done with a social-system-level paradigm and will illustrate how cultural differences among societies can be expressed into cultural variables available model for expressing cultural differences into variables / culture's consequences: differences in work-related values among national samples / four dimensions of national cultures / cultural biases in the researchers' mind: the Chinese Value Survey / Confucian Work Dynamism as a fifth dimension / the proof of the pudding (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Time frame and justice motive: future perspective moderates the adaptive function of general belief in a just world
  • T Lucas
  • CE Drolet
  • P Strelan
  • JC Karremans
  • RM Sutton