Thesis

Evaluation and Analysis FBG Characteristic Parameters for Sensor Solutions

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Abstract

The main goal of the bachelor thesis is to evaluate and analyze FBG Characteristic Parameters for sensor Solutions. Nowadays, most fiber optic sensor systems are created using fiber Bragg grating technology. Many technology giants focus on fiber Bragg grating(FBG) based sensing solutions because of their unbeatable advantages such as fast response, small size, high sensing capability, and use in harsh environments. The literature part of the thesis is divided into three sections. The first section describes the theory about fiber optics. It includes all the essential information about fiber optics, such as structure, refractive index, Attenuation mechanisms, fiber data losses, scattering, and advantages of fiber optic. The second chapter is dedicated to fiber optic sensors. It is a sensor that uses optical fiber as a sensing element. Moreover, the third part is the most related chapter for the topic. It describes Fiber Bragg grating. Finally, related FBG experiments were conducted to identify characteristic parameters for sensing solutions. The work contains a total of 86 pages. 170 figures, 14 tables, 8 equations, and 57 references are displayed in the thesis for a better and clear graphical explanation.

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Article
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Fiber Bragg grating has embraced the area of fiber optics since the early days of its discovery, and most fiber optic sensor systems today make use of fiber Bragg grating technology. Researchers have gained enormous attention in the field of fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensing due to its inherent advantages, such as small size, fast response, distributed sensing, and immunity to the electromagnetic field. Fiber Bragg grating technology is popularly used in measurements of various physical parameters, such as pressure, temperature, and strain for civil engineering, industrial engineering, military, maritime, and aerospace applications. Nowadays, strong emphasis is given to structure health monitoring of various engineering and civil structures, which can be easily achieved with FBG-based sensors. Depending on the type of grating, FBG can be uniform, long, chirped, tilted or phase shifted having periodic perturbation of refractive index inside core of the optical fiber. Basic fundamentals of FBG and recent progress of fiber Bragg grating-based sensors used in various applications for temperature, pressure, liquid level, strain, and refractive index sensing have been reviewed. A major problem of temperature cross sensitivity that occurs in FBG-based sensing requires temperature compensation technique that has also been discussed in this paper. © 2020 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
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Advanced sensing techniques are in big demand for applications in hypersonic wind tunnel harsh environments, such as aero(thermo)dynamics measurements, thermal protection of aircraft structures, air-breathing propulsion, light-weighted and high-strength materials, etc. In comparison with traditional electromechanical or electronic sensors, the fiber optic sensors have relatively high potential to work in hypersonic wind tunnel, due to the capability of responding to a wide variety of parameters, high resolution, miniature size, high resistant to electromagnetic and radio frequency interferences, and multiplexing, and so on. This article has classified and summarized the research status and the representative achievement on the fiber optic sensing technologies, giving special attention to the summary of research status on the popular Fabry-Perot interferometric, fiber Bragg gratings and (quasi) distributed fiber optic sensors working in hypersonic wind tunnel environment, and discussed the current problems in special optical fiber sensing technologies. This article would be regarded as reference for the researchers in hypersonic wind tunnel experiment field.
Article
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In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG), as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on photodetectors and optical receivers. It introduces the basic concepts behind the photodetection process. The chapter then discusses several kinds of photodetectors commonly used for optical receivers. It describes the components of an optical receiver with emphasis on the role played by each component. The chapter then deals with various noise sources that limit the signal-to-noise ratio in optical receivers. It is devoted to receiver sensitivity and its degradation under nonideal conditions such as extinction ratio, intensity noise and timing jitter. Finally the chapter focuses on the performance of optical receivers in actual transmission experiments. The basic concepts include responsivity, quantum efficiency, rise time, and bandwidth that are common to all photodetectors and are used to characterize them. The photodetector discussed in this chapter includes p-n photodiodes, p-i-n Photodiodes, avalanche Photodiodes and Metal-semiconductormetal (MSM) photodetectors. avalanche photodiodes; extinction ratio; optical receivers; p-i-n photodiodes; signal to noise ratio; thermal noise; timing jitter
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