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Zrównoważony proces toryfikacji miskantusa stosowanego jako biopaliwo stałe, biowęgiel oraz nośnik do nawozów organicznych

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Abstract

Streszczenie Biomasa otrzymywana z roślin energetycznych bardzo często wymaga przetworzenia przed jej ostatecznym wykorzystaniem. W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań związanych z przetwarzaniem miskantusa. Przeprowadzono badania w skali laboratoryjnej nad procesem toryfikacji tego typu biomasy. Analizy laboratoryjne zostały skupione na procesie toryfikacji, początkowo z wykorzystaniem technik TGA i DSC (do oceny energii aktywacji (EA), a następnie reaktora przepływowego, pracującego na pięciu poziomach temperatury (225, 250, 275, 300 i 525℃). Przeprowadzono analizę SEM-EDS miskantusa po procesach toryfikacji w trzech różnych temperaturach. Analiza procesu toryfikacyjnego pokazuje wyraźnie, że optymalna temperatura procesu z punktu widzenia współczynnika strat masy oraz perspektywy ekonomicznej wynosiłaby około 300-340℃. Praca ta wyraźnie pokazuje, że miskantus jest bardzo ciekawym materiałem zarówno w produkcji peletów, jak i w dalszej przeróbce, wykorzystywanym nie tylko jako nośnik energii, ale także jako nowy rodzaj źródła węgla w mieszankach nawozowych, gdzie przedstawiono go jako nośnik dla nawozów organicznych.




Zrównoważony proces toryfikacji miskantusa
stosowanego jako biopaliwo stałe, biowęgiel
oraz nośnik do nawozów organicznych
Wiktoria Lewandowska1, Szymon Szufa2






Streszczenie
        
     



 

        
       







224 Wiktoria Lewandowska, Szymon Szufa
1. Wprowadzenie
        

 






    
         






 
      





  
        





2. Przegląd literatury
  




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Zrównoważony proces torykacji miskantusa stosowanego jako biopaliwo stałe, biowęgiel...

         


         



          
      

         
        
    



       

       

 oraz
      






3. Materiały i metody
3.1. Metody


      
        

      

226 Wiktoria Lewandowska, Szymon Szufa
Rys. 1. Instalacja do procesu torykacji miskantusa do produkcji zwęglonych
materiałów stałych i biowęgla jako nośników dla bionawozów [79]
3.2. TGA, DSC, analiza kinetyczna, analiza VOC I SEM

       
        





    


        

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      

    
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   
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Zrównoważony proces torykacji miskantusa stosowanego jako biopaliwo stałe, biowęgiel...
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
       

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     
      
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         
       
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




A
Ee 

T
4. Wyniki i dyskusja
4.1. Procedura i urządzenie eksperymentalne

    
()= 


228 Wiktoria Lewandowska, Szymon Szufa






    


   


Rys. 2. Schemat stanowiska pomiarowego sumy LZO, podczas procesu
torykacji miskantusa przy użyciu pieca elektrycznego [79]
      
        
       



229
Zrównoważony proces torykacji miskantusa stosowanego jako biopaliwo stałe, biowęgiel...
  



Rys. 3. Próbki miskantusa po przetworzeniu w wybranych temperaturach [79]
4.2. Analiza kinetyczna miskantusa




Rys. 4. Wyniki analizy termograwimetrycznej dla prędkości
nagrzewu 5, 10 i 20 K/min określone dla miskantusa [79]
230 Wiktoria Lewandowska, Szymon Szufa



  
kEa

       n  n  


     




  
         

   

Rys. 5. Dopasowanie obliczonego modelu kinetycznego do danych
doświadczalnych dla miskantusa [79]
4.3. Analiza TGA oraz analiza C, H, N, O, S
 przy

231
Zrównoważony proces torykacji miskantusa stosowanego jako biopaliwo stałe, biowęgiel...



      





   







       


lub H      

Rys. 6. Analiza termograwimetryczna procesu torykacji miskanta w celu produkcji
biowęgla w temperaturze 525°C (szybkość nagrzewu 20 K/min) w atmosferze N2
232 Wiktoria Lewandowska, Szymon Szufa
Tabela 1. Końcowa analiza miskantusa przed i po procesie torykacji. M zawartość
wilgoci, C – zawartość węgla, N – zawartość azotu, H – zawartość wodoru, S – zawar-
tość siarki, O zawartość tlenu, Cl zawartość chloru, V zawartość substancji lotnych,
A – zawartość popiołu, HHV – wyższa wartość opałowa, ad – stan suszenia na powie-
trzu, d – stan suchy
ad

d

Nd

Hd

d

Od

d

d

Ad

d

          

          
          
          



         





         










         









233
Zrównoważony proces torykacji miskantusa stosowanego jako biopaliwo stałe, biowęgiel...
Rys. 7. Analiza utraty masy miskantusa za pomocą krzywych DTG podczas procesu
torykacji [79] (krótkie ciągłe krzywe opisywane są przez oś rzędnych po lewej stronie,
zaś krótkie przerywane krzywe przez oś rzędnych po prawej stronie)

        
 
  
     

 

  
     



 



   
 


         
     
234 Wiktoria Lewandowska, Szymon Szufa
  
        
        


       

Rys. 8. Proces torykacji miskantusa: wyniki analizy termograwimetrycznej i optymalne wa-
runki procesowe dla produkcji zwęglonego biopaliwa stałego, nośnika nawozów naturalnych
i węgla aktywnego współczynniki grzania: (a) 5 K/min, (b) 10 K/min, (c) 20 K/min [79]
a)
b)
c)
235
Zrównoważony proces torykacji miskantusa stosowanego jako biopaliwo stałe, biowęgiel...
a)
b)
c)



       


      




      
      

5. Wnioski




         

 


        
        

        



    

       

       




236 Wiktoria Lewandowska, Szymon Szufa



Literatura
   

 


 
     


            
       

 


     
 

         
       
 
 
   
  

            

      

  

 

       
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Zrównoważony proces torykacji miskantusa stosowanego jako biopaliwo stałe, biowęgiel...
 


 


 



           
  
 

           The
       
  

 

     

 


            

       


 
   

 
 


 
wood



238 Wiktoria Lewandowska, Szymon Szufa
 

 
 
    
       


 
 

     


       


 
         

 


 
 

 

    



               
    


 
          
      

 


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Zrównoważony proces torykacji miskantusa stosowanego jako biopaliwo stałe, biowęgiel...
 


 


  
  

       
 

 
.
 


 



 


 
  

 


 


           

 




 



240 Wiktoria Lewandowska, Szymon Szufa
            
        

           
          

 


 
 

 


  
   
     

          
       
          
 
 

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
 


 

 
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
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        
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 
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


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Zrównoważony proces torykacji miskantusa stosowanego jako biopaliwo stałe, biowęgiel...
 
        

 
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 
           

 
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
       


    
 
     

 
 
 


  
     
 
 
        
   

 


  


            



 

242 Wiktoria Lewandowska, Szymon Szufa
          


        


          
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        
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    

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Miscanthus is resistant to dry, frosty winters in Poland and most European Union countries. Miscanthus gives higher yields compared to native species. Farmers can produce Miscanthus pellets after drying it for their own heating purposes. From the third year, the most efficient plant development begins, resulting in a yield of 25-30 tons of dry matter from an area of 1 hectare. Laboratory scale tests were carried out on the processes of drying, compacting, and torrefaction of this biomass type. The analysis of the drying process was conducted at three temperature levels of the drying agent (60, 100, and 140 °C). Compaction on a hydraulic press was carried out in the pressure range characteristic of a pressure agglomeration (130.8-457.8 MPa) at different moisture contents of the raw material (0.5% and 10%). The main interest in this part was to assess the influence of drying temperature, moisture content, and compaction pressure on the specific densities (DE) and the mechanical durability of the pellets (DU). In the next step, laboratory analyses of the torrefaction process were carried out, initially using the Thermogravimetric Analysis TGA and Differential Scaning Calorimeter DSC techniques (to assess activation energy (EA)), followed by a flow reactor operating at five temperature levels (225, 250, 275, 300, and 525 °C). A SEM analysis of Miscanthus after tor-refaction processes at three different temperatures was performed. Both the parameters of biochar (proximate and ultimate analysis) and the quality of the torgas (volatile organic content (VOC)) were analyzed. The results show that both drying temperature and moisture level will affect the quality of the pellets. Analysis of the torrefaction process shows clearly that the optimum process temperature would be around 300-340 °C from a mass loss ratio and economical perspective.
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The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of biogas plant waste on the physiological activity, growth, and yield of Jerusalem artichoke and the energetic usefulness of the biomass obtained in this way after the torrefaction process. The use of waste from corn grain biodigestion to methane as a biofertilizer, used alone or supplemented with Apol-humus and Stymjod, caused increased the physiological activity, growth, and yield of Jerusalem artichoke plants and can limit the application of chemical fertilizers, whose production and use in agriculture is harmful for the environment. The experiment, using different equipment, exhibited the high potential of Jerusalem artichoke fertilized by the methods elaborated as a carbonized solid biofuel after the torrefaction process. The use of a special design of the batch reactor using nitrogen, Thermogravimetric analysis, Differential thermal analysis, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and combustion of Jerusalem artichoke using TG-MS showed a thermo-chemical conversion mass loss on a level of 30% with energy loss (torgas) on a level of 10%. Compared to research results on other energy crops and straw biomass, the isothermal temperature of 245 °C during torrefaction for the carbonized solid biofuel of Jerusalem artichoke biomass fertilized with biogas plant waste is relativlely low. An SEM-EDS analysis of ash from carbonized Jerusalem artichoke after torrefaction was performed after its combustion.
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In this study three kinds of biomass were investigated: wood biomass (pine), energy crop (Sida hermaphrodita) and agriculture biomass (straw) using the hydrothermal carbonization process (HTC). The HTC process was conducted in a specially designed reactor under the following conditions: 220 °C temperature and 4 h residence time. The solid (hydrochar) and liquid products of hydrothermal conversion were determined in terms of their chemical and physical properties. Futhermore, the basic parameters of the obtained hydrochars were established: ultimate and proximate analyses, higher heating value, mass and energy yield and energy densification ratio. The liquid products were analysed by measuring pH and conductivity, which confirmed their acidic and polar character, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) at very high value indicating that the liquid phase contained a high concentration of organic matter and nutrients. Additionally, the TGA of hydrochar was performed in an air and inert atmosphere to simulate the combustion and pyrolysis process. Moreover, the pyrolysis process of the hydrochars was investigated using Py-GC-MS apparatus. The process was performed to analyze the composition of pyrolysis products from the hydrochars. The samples were pyrolyzed in sequence at 400, 500, and 600 °C with rapid heating and a short residence time. The pyrolysis of the hydrochars resulted in varied organic compounds dependent on the pyrolysis temperature and chemical composition of hydrochars.
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This publication presents research work which contains the optimum parameters of the agri-biomass: maize and oat straws torrefaction process. Parameters which are the most important for the torrefaction process and its products are temperature and residence time. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed as well as the torrefaction process using an electrical furnace on a laboratory scale at a temperature between 250–525 �C. These biomass torrefaction process parameters—residence time and temperature—were necessary to perform the design and construction of semi-pilot scale biomass torrefaction installations with a regimental dryer and a woody and agri-biomass regimental torrefaction reactor to perform a continuous torrefaction process using superheated steam. In the design installation the authors also focused on biochar, a bi-product of biofuel which will be used as an additive for natural bio-fertilizers. Kinetic analysis of torrefaction process using maize and oat straws was performed using NETZSCH Neo Kinetics software. It was found that kinetic analysis methods conducted with multiple heating rate experiments were much more e�cient than the use of a single heating rate. The best representations of the experimental data for the straw from maize straw were found for the n-order reaction model. A thermogravimetric analysis, TG-MS analysis and VOC analysis combined with electrical furnace installation were performed on the maize and oat straw torrefaction process. The new approach in the work presented is di�erent from that of current scientific achievements due to the fact that until now researchers have worked on performing processes on oat and maize straws by means of the torrefaction process for the production of a biochar as an additive for natural bio-fertilizers. None of them looked for economically reasonable mass loss ratios. In this work the authors made the assumption that a mass loss in the area of 45–50% is the most reasonable loss for the two mentioned agri-biomass processes. On this basis, a semi-pilot installation could be produced in a further BIOCARBON project step. The kinetic parameters which were calculated will be used to estimate the size of the apparatuses, the biomass dryer, and biomass torrefaction reactor.
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The article presents the results of experimental research and simulation of computer processes of heat exchange in a heat exchanger working on the basis of the principle of heat pipes for the purpose of heat transfer from the ground. The article presents the results of experimental tests at the experimental stand and computer simulations of the effects of heat exchange and phase transformations, both on the heat supply side and on the heat pickup side in order to build them from above. a heat source heat exchanger that allows efficient transport of heat from the ground. The final result of the conducted tests are the results of measurements and characteristics of heat exchange processes and the actual efficiency of analyzed heat exchangers, such as heat pipes made of copper, 1780 mm long and 18 mm in diameter. One of the main assumptions was the analysis and evaluation of the heat pump's efficiency for various working factors and related phase transitions as well as in different temperatures in the range of 5-50 ⁰C both on the heat supply side and heat reception. The heat streams collected and given off by the heat pipe during the operation were examined, which in the selection of the optimization criterion in the form of type and amount of working medium resulted in the efficiency of the heat pipe exceeding 90% with heat streams reaching 200 W. The article presents research issues necessary for the analysis of the efficiency and usefulness of heat pipes as heat exchangers mounted in the lower heat sources of the central heating installation, including in air conditioning and construction engineering because the temperature range at the time of testing was 5-50 ⁰C, which coincides with the scope of work of heat exchangers working in the above-mentioned environments. Obtained satisfactory results of experimental tests in the size of heat streams collected and given by the heat pipe at the level of 200 W and its efficiency in heat transfer exceeding 90% on the one hand enable reduction of operating costs of central heating and cogeneration devices for heat and electricity production, on the other hand they enable their ecological work, which in turn will contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere.
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