Chapter

Jackfruit and its beneficial effects in boosting digestion and immune-enhancing properties

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Jackfruit is considered as the largest edible fruit in the world and found to contain large quantities of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Both the fruits and the seeds of jackfruit have been consumed widely. Most importantly, several countries have developed food products namely jam, jellies, marmalades, and ice creams using jackfruit. In addition, several parts of jack tree such as, latex, leaves, and barks have been extensively used in traditional medicine as well. Studies by various research groups documented the anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, wound healing, and hypoglycemic effects along with digestive and immunological benefits of jackfruit. Therefore, this book chapter intends to disseminate the evidence on nutritional, digestive, and immunological benefits of jackfruit/seeds to promote its utilization for commercial scale food production.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., which is commonly known as jackfruit is a tropical climacteric fruit, belonging to Moraceae family, is native to Western Ghats of India and common in Asia, Africa, and some regions in South America. It is known to be the largest edible fruit in the world. Jackfruit is rich in nutrients including carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Both the seeds and the flesh of jackfruit are consumed as curries and boiled forms, while the flesh in fully ripen stage can be eaten directly as a fruit. Several countries have developed different food products such as jam, jellies, marmalades, and ice creams using pureed jackfruit. The several parts of jack tree including fruits, leaves, and barks have been extensively used in traditional medicine due to its anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and hypoglycemic effects. Despite all these benefits, unfortunately, the fruit is underutilized in commercial scale processing in regions where it is grown. The aim of this review is to disseminate the knowledge on nutritional and health benefits of jackfruit, in order to promote utilization of jackfruit for commercial scale food production.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To determine anti-viral activities of three Artocarpus species: Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus camansi, and Artocarpus heterophyllus (A. heterophyllus) against Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Methods: Antiviral activities of the crude extracts were examined by cell culture method using Huh7it-1 cells and HCV genotype 2a strain JFH1. The mode of action for anti-HCV activities was determined by time-of-addition experiments. The effect on HCV RNA replication and HCV accumulation in cells were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Results: The dichloromethane (DCM) extract of A. heterophyllus exhibited strong anti-HCV activity with an inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of (1.5 ± 0.6) μg/mL without obvious toxicity. The DCM extracts from Artocarpus altilis and Artocarpus camansi showed moderate anti-HCV activities with IC50 values being (6.5 ± 0.3) μg/mL and (9.7 ± 1.1) μg/mL, respectively. A time-of-addition studies showed that DCM extract from A. heterophyllus inhibited viral entry process though a direct virucidal activity and targeting host cells. HCV RNA replication and HCV protein expression were slightly reduced by the DCM treatment at high concentration. Conclusions: The DCM extract from A. heterophyllus is a good candidate to develop an antiviral agent to prevent HCV grant reinfection following liver transplantation.
Article
Full-text available
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by aberrant immune responses against healthy cells and tissues. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the development of these conditions remain unknown. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of mature T cells which have an important role in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmune diseases. Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), a member of the fork head transcription factor family, is recognized as a marker of CD4+CD25+ Tregs. The decreased number and/or function of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral blood and related tissues has been demonstrated in systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and other autoimmune diseases, which are at least partially regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetics refers to the study of potentially heritable alterations in gene expression without underlying changes of the nucleotide sequence, mainly including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs (miRNAs). For example, DNA methylation status of CpG islands on the Foxp3 gene, which may be affected by normal aging and regulated by environmental factors, plays an important role in modulating the homeostasis of Foxp3 expression in Tregs. Foxp3 gene in Tregs also shows distinct acetylation and trimethylation levels of histone H3 and H4 when compared with effector T cells, leading to an open chromatin structure. MicroRNAs such as miR-155, miR-126, and miR-10a also exert an important influence on the differentiation, development, and immunological functions of Tregs. Aberrant epigenetic modifications affecting Foxp3 and other key genes in Tregs contribute to disease activity and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases, which holds great potential for providing novel targets for epigenetic therapies. Advances in research into the epigenetic regulation of CD4+CD25+ Tregs may also lead to the identification of new epigenetic biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus (A. heterophyllus) stem bark and its inhibitory effect on a-amylase and a-glucosidase. Methods: The A. heterophyllus stem bark was extracted using methanol and tested for antioxidative activity. Results: The results revealed that the ethanolic extract has polyphenolics and free radical scavenging compounds which were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than their respective standard, at concentration dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of A. heterophyllus stem bark was observed to show inhibitory activities on a-amylase and a-glucosidase with IC50 of (4.18 ± 0.01) and (3.53 ± 0.03) mg/mL, respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that ethanolic extract of A. heterophyllus stem bark exhibited non-competitive inhibition for a-amylase and uncompetitive inhibition for a-glucosidase activities. Also, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry showed the presence of different bioactive compounds in extract. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be inferred from this study that ethanolic extract of A. heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in the management of diabetes mellitus probably due to bioactive compounds observed in the extract.
Article
Full-text available
ArtinM, a D-mannose binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, has immunomodulatory activities through its interaction with N-glycans of immune cells, culminating with the establishment of T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity. This interaction protects mice against intracellular pathogens, including Leishmania major and Leishmania amazonensis. ArtinM induces neutrophils activation, which is known to account for both resistance to pathogens and host tissue injury. Although exacerbated inflammation was not observed in ArtinM-treated animals, assessment of neutrophil responses to ArtinM is required to envisage its possible application to design a novel immunomodulatory agent based on carbohydrate recognition. Herein, we focus on the mechanisms through which neutrophils contribute to ArtinM-induced protection against Leishmania, without exacerbating inflammation. For this purpose, human neutrophils treated with ArtinM and infected with Leishmania major were analyzed together with untreated and uninfected controls, based on their ability to eliminate the parasite, release cytokines, degranulate, produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and change life span. We demonstrate that ArtinM-stimulated neutrophils enhanced L. major clearance and at least duplicated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) release; otherwise, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) production was reduced by half. Furthermore, ROS production and cell degranulation were augmented. The life span of ArtinM-stimulated neutrophils decreased and they did not form NETs when infected with L. major. We postulate that the enhanced leishmanicidal ability of ArtinM-stimulated neutrophils is due to augmented release of inflammatory cytokines, ROS production, and cell degranulation, whereas host tissue integrity is favored by their shortened life span and the absence of NET formation. Our results reinforce the idea that ArtinM may be considered an appropriate molecular template for the construction of an efficient anti-infective agent.
Article
Full-text available
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have an ambiguous and complex role in the carcinogenic process, since these cells can be polarized into different phenotypes (proinflammatory, antitumor cells or anti-inflammatory, protumor cells) by the tumor microenvironment. Given that the interactions between tumor cells and TAMs involve several players, a better understanding of the function and regulation of TAMs is crucial to interfere with their differentiation in attempts to skew TAM polarization into cells with a proinflammatory antitumor phenotype. In this study, we investigated the modulation of macrophage tumoricidal activities by the lectin jacalin. Jacalin bound to macrophage surface and induced the expression and/or release of mainly proinflammatory cytokines via NF- κ B signaling, as well as increased iNOS mRNA expression, suggesting that the lectin polarizes macrophages toward the antitumor phenotype. Therefore, tumoricidal activities of jacalin-stimulated macrophages were evaluated. High rates of tumor cell (human colon, HT-29, and breast, MCF-7, cells) apoptosis were observed upon incubation with supernatants from jacalin-stimulated macrophages. Taken together, these results indicate that jacalin, by exerting a proinflammatory activity, can direct macrophages to an antitumor phenotype. Deep knowledge of the regulation of TAM functions is essential for the development of innovative anticancer strategies.
Article
Full-text available
ArtinM is a D-mannose-binding lectin extracted from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus that interacts with TLR2 N-glycans and activates antigen-presenting cells (APCs), as manifested by IL-12 production. In vivo ArtinM administration induces Th1 immunity and confers protection against infection with several intracellular pathogens. In the murine model of Candida albicans infection, it was verified that, in addition to Th1, ArtinM induces Th17 immunity manifested by high IL-17 levels in the treated animals. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms accounting for the ArtinM-induced IL-17 production. We found that ArtinM stimulates the IL-17 production by spleen cells in BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice, a response that was significantly reduced in the absence of IL-23, MyD88, or IL-1R. Furthermore, we showed that ArtinM directly induced the IL-23 mRNA expression and the IL-1 production by macrophages. Consistently, in cell suspensions depleted of macrophages, the IL-17 production stimulated by ArtinM was reduced by 53% and the exogenous IL-23 acted synergistically with ArtinM in promoting IL-17 production by spleen cell suspensions. We verified that the absence of IL-23, IL-1R, or MyD88 inhibited, but did not block, the IL-17 production by ArtinM-stimulated spleen cells. Therefore, we investigated whether ArtinM exerts a direct effect on CD4+ T cells in promoting IL-17 production. Indeed, spleen cell suspensions depleted of CD4+ T cells responded to ArtinM with very low levels of IL-17 release. Likewise, isolated CD4+ T cells under ArtinM stimulus augmented the expression of TGF-β mRNA and released high levels of IL-17. Considering the observed synergism between IL-23 and ArtinM, we used cells from IL-23 KO mice to assess the direct effect of lectin on CD4+ T cells. We verified that ArtinM increased the IL-17 production significantly, a response that was inhibited when the CD4+ T cells were pre-incubated with anti-CD3 antibody. In conclusion, ArtinM stimulates the production of IL-17 by CD4+ T cells in two major ways: (I) through the induction of IL-23 and IL-1 by APCs and (II) through the direct interaction with CD3 on the CD4+ T cells. This study contributes to elucidation of mechanisms accounting for the property of ArtinM in inducing Th17 immunity and opens new perspectives in designing strategies for modulating immunity by using carbohydrate recognition agents.
Article
Full-text available
The effect of processing on plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed Artocarpus heterophyllus seed diets at different concentrations were investigated. Fifty five rats were used for this study, they were divided into eleven groups of five rats each (one control group and ten test groups), the test groups were fed raw, boiled, roasted, fermented and soaked diets at 10% and 40% concentrations. The study lasted for thirty five days. The diets led to significant decrease (p<0.05) in plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol of rats fed 10% and 40% concentrations of the diets, and a significant increase (p<0.05) in high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 40% concentrations of the test diets. The diets also produced decrease in low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), cardiac risk ratio (CRR), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and atherogenic coefficient (AC) at 40% concentrations except the soaked group that showed slight elevation of LDL, CRR, AC and AIP at 40% concentration. Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds could be beneficial to health because of its ability to increase plasma HDL and reduce plasma LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic indices at higher diet concentration.
Article
Full-text available
The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially omega - 3 is projected to be way below the recommended intake in Kenya. Thus, there is need to find other sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This study screened for the lipid profile and levels of omega-3 PUFAs in jackfruit and explored the variation in lipid profile of jackfruit seeds in different areas and treatments. The extracted lipids were characterized and analysis done using gas chromatography. The lipid content was found to be 0.45 ± 0.24%, iodine number was 60.76 ± 3.25, saponification number was 353.65 ± 14.21, and levels of omega-3 and of omega-6 PUFAs were also found to be 9.94 ± 0.99% and 31.19 ± 0.82%, respectively. Boiling and drying of seeds were found to greatly decrease the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids such omega-3 and omega-6 and thus, not suitable methods for processing or preservation of jackfruit seeds. Keywords: Jackfruit, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, lipid profile.
Article
Full-text available
Artocarpus heterophyllus (Syn. Kathal) belonging to family Moraceae is an integral part of common Indian diet and is freely available in Indian and adjoining continents, its medicinal properties are also mentioned in Ayurveda. The plant is reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Artocarpus heterophyllus is an important source of compounds like morin, dihydromorin, cynomacurin, artocarpin, isoartocarpin, cyloartocarpin, artocarpesin, oxydihydroartocarpesin, artocarpetin, norartocarpetin, cycloartinone, betulinic acid, artocarpanone and heterophylol which are useful in fever, boils, wounds, skin diseases, convulsions, diuretic, constipation, ophthalmic disorders and snake bite etc.
Article
Full-text available
Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin) lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop) agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana) lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus). The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
TLR2 plays a critical role in the protection against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conferred by ArtinM administration. ArtinM, a D-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, induces IL-12 production in macrophages and dendritic cells, which accounts for the T helper1 immunity that results from ArtinM administration. We examined the direct interaction of ArtinM with TLR2using HEK293A cells transfected with TLR2, alone or in combination with TLR1 or TLR6, together with accessory proteins. Stimulation with ArtinM induced NF-κB activation and interleukin (IL)-8 production in cells transfected with TLR2, TLR2/1, or TLR2/6. Murine macrophages that were stimulated with ArtinM had augmented TLR2 mRNA expression. Furthermore, pre-incubation of unstimulated macrophages with an anti-TLR2 antibody reduced the cell labeling with ArtinM. In addition, a microplate assay revealed that ArtinM bound to TLR2 molecules that had been captured by specific antibodies from a macrophages lysate. Notably,ArtinM binding to TLR2 was selectively inhibited when the lectin was pre-incubated with mannotriose. The biological relevance of the direct interaction of ArtinM with TLR2 glycans was assessed using macrophages from TLR2-KOmice, which produced significantly lower levels of IL-12 and IL-10 in response to ArtinM than macrophages from wild-type mice. Pre-treatment of murine macrophages with pharmacological inhibitors of signaling molecules demonstrated the involvement of p38 MAPK and JNK in the IL-12 production induced by ArtinM and the involvement ofPI3K in IL-10 production. Thus, ArtinM interacts directly with TLR2 or TLR2 heterodimers in a carbohydrate recognition-dependent manner and functions as a TLR2 agonist with immunomodulatory properties.
Article
Full-text available
ArtinM is a D-mannose-binding lectin extracted from Artocarpus heterophyllus that promotes interleukin-12 production by macrophages and dendritic cells. This property is considered responsible for T helper 1 immunity induced in vivo after ArtinM administration. In this study, we investigated the effect of native (jArtinM) and recombinant (rArtinM) forms of lectin on murine spleen cells and isolated T lymphocytes. We found that ArtinM binds to the surface of spleen cells. This interaction, which was blocked by D-mannose, induced cell activation, as manifested by increased mitochondrial activity, interleukin-2 production, and cell proliferation. We verified that a 30-times higher concentration of rArtinM was required to trigger optimal activation of spleen cells compared with that needed with jArtinM, although these proteins have identical sugar recognition properties and use the same signaling molecules to trigger cell activation. Because the distinction between native and recombinant is restricted to their tertiary structure (tetrameric and monomeric, respectively), we postulated that the multi-valence of jArtinM accounts for its superiority in promoting clustering of cell surface glycoreceptors and activation. The jArtinM and rArtinM activation effect exerted on spleen cells was reproduced on purified CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that ArtinM interaction with T cells leads to responses that may act in concert with the interleukin-12 produced by antigen-presenting cells to modulate immunity toward the T helper 1 axis. Further studies are necessary to dissect ArtinM/T-cell interactions to more fully understand the immunomodulation induced by carbohydrate recognition.
Article
Full-text available
During long standing hyperglycaemic state in diabetes mellitus, glucose forms covalent adducts with the plasma proteins through a non-enzymatic process known as glycation. Protein glycation and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications like retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, cardiomyopathy along with some other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and aging. Glycation of proteins interferes with their normal functions by disrupting molecular conformation, altering enzymatic activity, and interfering with receptor functioning. AGEs form intra- and extracellular cross linking not only with proteins, but with some other endogenous key molecules including lipids and nucleic acids to contribute in the development of diabetic complications. Recent studies suggest that AGEs interact with plasma membrane localized receptors for AGEs (RAGE) to alter intracellular signaling, gene expression, release of pro-inflammatory molecules and free radicals. The present review discusses the glycation of plasma proteins such as albumin, fibrinogen, globulins and collagen to form different types of AGEs. Furthermore, the role of AGEs in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications including retinopathy, cataract, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiomyopathy is also discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood glucose level. It has become an epidemic disease in the 21st century where, India leads the world with largest number of diabetic subjects. Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) is severe form of diabetes, occurs between reducing sugar and proteins which results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that leads to the other complicated secondary disorders. In this context, Mangifera indica (Mango), Syzygium cumini (Jambul), Vitis vinifera (Grapes), Citrus sinensis (Orange), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit), Manilkara zapota (Sapodilla) seeds were evaluated for their antiglyation activity. Attempts were made to isolate the polyphenols in the seeds that have recorded the maximum activity. Different extraction methods (shake flask, centrifugation and pressurized hot water) using various extractants (organic solvents, hot water and pressurized hot water) were adopted to investigate the in vitro antiglycation activity. Central composite (CCD) design based Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was espoused to optimize the extraction process of polyphenols from the fruit seeds that have recorded poor antiglycation activity. The PTLC analysis was performed to isolate the polyphenols (Flavonoids and phenolic acids) and LC-PDA-MS analysis was done for structure prediction. Pressurized hot water extraction of Artocarpus heterophyllus (87.52%) and Citrus sinensis seeds (74.79%) was found to possess high and low antiglycation activity, respectively. The RSM mediated optimization process adopted for the Citrus sinensis seeds have revealed that 1:15 solvent ratio (hexane to heptane), 6 minutes and 1:20 solid to liquid ratio as the optimal conditions for the extraction of polyphenols with a maximum antiglycation activity (89.79%). The LC-PDA-MS analysis of preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) eluates of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed has showed the presence of compounds like quercetin (301.2), 4-hydroxy phenyl acetic acid (149.0), rhamnosyl-di-hexosyl quercetin sulphate (857.6), quercetin-3-O-xyloside (428.2), rutin (613.4), diosmetin (298.1) and luteolin (283.0). The Artocarpus heterophyllus was observed to possess a significant antiglycation activity and the activity of Citrus sinensis was improved after the optimization process, which proved that both the seeds may be used as a traditional medicine in the management of chronic diabetes mellitus.
Article
Full-text available
Some physicochemical and rheological properties of jackfruit seed flour and starch, isolated from the flour were investigated. The flour had good capacities for water absorption (205%) and oil absorption (93%). Substitution of wheat flour with the seed flour, at the level of 5, 10 and 20% markedly reduced the gluten strength of the mixed dough. The Brabender amylogram (6% concentration, db) of seed starch showed that its pasting temperature was 81 °C and its viscosity was moderate, remained constant during a heating cycle and retrograded slightly on cooling. The starch showed an A-typed X-ray powder diffraction pattern.
Article
Full-text available
We have examined the A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma) and HT29 (human colorectal carcinoma) cellular responses evoked by lectins of dietary origin, Jacalin of Artocarpus integrifolia (native jacalin; nJacalin), peanut agglutinin (PNA) of Arachis hypogea, and recombinant single-chain jacalin (rJacalin), which has the same protein backbone but ;100-fold less affinity for carbohydrates than nJacalin. All three lectins (nJacalin, rJacalin, and PNA) are cycotoxic inhibitors of proliferation of A431 cells. However, cells recover once jacalin but not PNA have been removed from the growth medium. Treatment of nJacalin results in morphologically visible cell rounding while retaining the membrane integrity when treated at 40 mg ml21, but treatment with PNA did not induce such changes. The observed cell rounding was found to be due to stress as the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (at tyr14), p38 but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase were up-regulated, while PNA did not up-regulate the phosphorylation of the same. Jacalin also down-regulated the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular signal regulated kinase in contrast to PNA, which failed to down-regulate the same. Confocal microscopic studies reveal that jacalin is not internalized, unlike the lectin of Agaricus bisporous. Analysis of the proteins that bind to an nJacalin-sepharose column revealed the binding of six to eight proteins, and significant among them is a protein at ;110 kDa, which appears to be oxygen-regulated protein 150 (ORP150) (endoplasmic reticulum chaperone) as identified by its isoelectric point, two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate– polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. This 110-kDa band is detectable with anti- Hsp70 antibody because ORP150 has homology with Hsp70. Confocal microscopic studies reveal the presence of Hsp70- like proteins on the surface of A431 cells as revealed by immunostaining with anti-Hsp70 antibody. Moreover, overexpression of ORP150 in A431 cells has resulted in a dramatic protection of A431 cells against jacalin-induced toxicity, confirming that the jacalin-induced cytotoxicity is mediated through ORP150, and impairment of ORP150 functions with the help of jacalin makes the cells more susceptible to death due to stress. Our studies suggest that the cellular responses, as a consequence of lectin binding, may not be exclusively mediated by carbohydrate binding property alone, but other factors such as protein-protein interactions may also contribute to the observed cellular responses.
Article
This study aimed to observe the immunomodulatory effects of oligopeptides derived from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) (JOPs). 200 female BALB/c mice in five groups were respectively given deionized water (control), whey protein (0.20 g per kg body weight (BW)) and JOPs at doses of 0.20, 0.40, and 0.80 g per kg BW by intragastric administration on a daily basis. 7 tests were conducted to determine the immunomodulatory effects of JOPs on immune organ indexes, cellular and humoral immune responses, macrophage phagocytosis, and natural killer (NK) cell activity. Spleen T lymphocyte sub-populations and serum cytokine and immunoglobulin levels were tested to study how JOPs improved the immune system. We found that JOPs could significantly enhance innate and adaptive immune responses in mice by the improvement of cell-mediated and humoral immunity, macrophage phagocytosis capacity and NK cell activity. The immunomodulatory effects may be based on increased T and Th cell percentages, serum interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, production of immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG, and IgA, and depressed interferon (IFN)-γ secretion. These results suggest that dietary JOPs could be valuable as potential immunomodulators.
Article
The CD3 complex is an important cell surface marker of T lymphocytes and essential for T lymphocytes activation in higher vertebrates. In the present work, the CD3ε of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was recombinantly expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and used as an immunogen to produce mouse anti-rCD3ε polyclonal antibodies, which could specifically recognize a 20 kDa protein in the membrane proteins of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of Japanese flounder by co-immunoprecipitation assay. Mass spectrometric analysis showed the 20 kDa protein was the native CD3ε of Japanese flounder. Both the flow cytometric analysis and double immunofluorescence assay (DIFA) showed that the CD3(+) T lymphocytes could be identified specifically by the mouse anti-rCD3ε polyclonal antibodies, which didn't cross-react with the sIgM(+) lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry showed that CD3(+) T lymphocytes could be detected in gill, skin, stomach, intestine, spleen, liver, head-kidney and mid-kidney. Flow cytometric analysis showed the percentages of CD3(+) T lymphocytes in the PBL, spleen lymphocytes (SL) and head-kidney lymphocytes (HKL) of Japanese flounder increased rapidly after immunization with formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda, and reached their peak levels at 5th day with 12.6%, 9.7% and 8.7%, respectively, and then decreased gradually. These results suggested that CD3(+) T lymphocytes play important roles in mucosal and cell-mediated immunity, and the results would deepen our understanding on the roles of teleost T lymphocytes in the immune response.
Article
Immunology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of medical biotechnology research and has great promises with regard to the prevention and treatment of a wide range of disorders such as the inflammatory diseases of skin, gut, respiratory tract, joints and central organs. In addition, infectious diseases are now primarily considered immunological disorders, while neoplastic diseases and organ transplantation and several autoimmune diseases are involved in an immunosuppressive state. Immunomodulators are natural or synthetic substances that help regulate or normalize the immune system. Immunomodulators correct immune systems that are out of balance. Natural immunomodulators are less potent than prescription immunomodulators and also less likely to cause side effects. Prescription synthetic immunomodulator medications, such as azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil, work by suppressing the immune system and decreasing inflammation in the digestive tract in people with inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. The benefits of immunomodulators stem from their ability to stimulate natural and adaptive defense mechanisms, such as cytokines, which enables the body to help itself. There are two types of immunomodulators: immunosuppressants and immunostimulants. Immunosuppressants are the agents which suppress the immune system and are used for the control of pathological immune response in autoimmune disease, graft rejection etc. Immunostimulants are the agents which are envisaged to enhance body's resistance against infections; they enhance the basal levels of immune response, and in individuals with impairment of immune response as immunotherapeutic agent. A number of disorders such as immunodeficiency state, autoimmune disease, cancer and viral infection can be treated with immunostimulants drugs. Immunomodulators are becoming a viable adjunct to established modalities offering a novel approach for the treatment of infectious disease in the coming decades of 21 st century.
Article
Article
Objective: The current study focuses on the anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities of aqueous seed extract of Jackfruit (AqSEJ). Methods: Anticoagulant effect of AqSEJ was tested using plasma recalcification time, mouse tail bleeding time, Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT). Antiplatelet activity was examined by platelet aggregation studies using agonists such as ADP, Collagen and Epinephrine. Results: The AqSEJ enhanced the clotting time of citrated human plasma from control 200±10 s to 740±14 s. The anticoagulant activity of AqSEJ was further strengthened by in-vivo mouse tail bleeding assay. The i. v. injection of AqSEJ significantly prolonged the bleeding time in a dose dependent manner. The recorded bleeding time was>10 min (P<0.01) at the concentration of 30 μg against the PBS treated control of 1.48±0.10 min with the IC50 values 37.5 μg/ml and 47.5 μg/ml respectively. Interestingly, AqSEJ specifically prolonged the clot formation process of only APTT but not PT, revealing the anticoagulation triggered by the extract could be due to its interference in an intrinsic pathway of the blood coagulation cascade. Furthermore, AqSEJ inhibited the agonists such as ADP, epinephrine and collagen induced platelet aggregation of about 66.7%, 39.2% and 37.0% respectively at the concentration of 200 μg. Conclusion: AqSEJ showed anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities. Hence, it may serve as a better alternative for thrombotic disorders. © 2015, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. All rights reserved.
Article
Prebiotics are functional foods with health-promoting properties that are currently used in many developed countries, such as the United States, Japan, and the EU. The synthesis method is still the main commercial production method. There are only a few direct extractions of natural oligosaccharides from plants in Thailand due to the lack of extraction devices. This research aims to design and construct the continuous extractor and study the optimum conditions of prebiotics extraction from jackfruit seed. Jackfruit seeds were extracted with 50% ethanol as a solvent. The response surface methodology was applied for experimental design to study the effects of temperatures (40-60°C), extraction times (15-45 min), and L/S ratios (6:1-10:1 v/w) in laboratory scale continuous extraction. The extraction efficiency was based on the extraction yield and the amount of nonreducing sugar, which is expected to be prebiotics. The optimum condition was the extraction time of 15 min at 60°C and L/S ratio 10:1 (v/w), which gave the maximum non-reducing sugar content of 491.70 mg/g extract from RSM modeling. This optimum condition was applied for pilot scale continuous extraction. The pilot scale continuous extraction unit composes of three 70-L stainless steel extraction tanks equipped with an indirect steam chest for process heating. The heating tank is an 88-L stainless steel vessel. Each extraction pot is connected to a solution pot. After extraction the solution was pumped to a large evaporation tank (60 L) and a small evaporation tank (7 L), respectively. With three-stage extraction the average extraction yield was 20.25% and the average non-reducing sugar content was 400 mg/g extract.
Article
The CD4 molecule plays an essential role in mediating the transduction of intracellular signals by functioning as a coreceptor for the complex T cell receptor/CD3 and also acts as the primary receptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Several authors have shown evidence that jacalin, a plant lectin, binds to CD4 and inhibits in vitro HIV infection. We analyzed jacalin-induced intracellular signaling events in CD4⁺ T cells and have shown that cell activation resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular substrates p56lck, p59fyn, ZAP-70, p95 vav, phospholipase C-γ1, and ras activation, as assessed by conversion of ras guanosine 5′-diphosphate to ras guanosine 5′-triphosphate. We further examined extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation following stimulation with jacalin. The data indicate that the kinetics of JNK phosphorylation is delayed. Optimum phosphorylation of ERK2 was observed by 10 min, and that of JNK was observed by 30 min. Pretreatment with gp120 followed by stimulation with jacalin resulted in marked inhibition of all of the aforementioned intracellular events. The data presented here provide insight into the intracellular signaling events associated with the CD4 molecule–jacalin–gp120 interactions and HIV-induced CD4⁺ T cell anergy. Jacalin may be used as a possible tool for the study of CD4-mediated signal transduction and HIV-impaired CD4⁺ T cell activation.
Article
The paper describes the isolation and screening of plant polysaccharides namely tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) and jackfruit seed starch (JFSS) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) seeds, respectively. The yields of isolated dried TSP, FSM and JFSS were 47.00%, 17.36% and 18.86%, respectively. Various physicochemical properties like colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity of these isolated plant polysaccharides were assessed. Isolated polysaccharide samples were subjected to some phytochemical identification tests. FTIR and (1)H NMR analyses of isolated polysaccharides were performed, which suggest the presence of sugar residues. Isolated TSP, FSM and JFSS can be used as pharmaceutical excipients in various pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Article
A proteinaceous inhibitor against trypsin was isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. The trypsin inhibitor, named as AHLTI (A. heterophyllus Lam. trypsin inhibitor), consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa, which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of AHLTI was DEPPSELDAS, which showed no similarity to other known trypsin inhibitor sequence. AHLTI completely inhibited bovine trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (AHLTI:trypsin) analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, inhibition activity assay, and gel-filtration chromatography. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were carried out to understand the inhibition mechanism of AHLTI against trypsin. Results showed that AHLTI was a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.7 × 10−8 M. However, AHLTI showed weak inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin and elastase. AHLTI was stable over a broad range of pH 4–8 and temperature 20–80°C. The reduction agent, dithiothreitol, had no obvious effect on AHLTI. The trypsin inhibition assays of AHLTI toward digestive enzymes from insect pest guts in vitro demonstrated that AHLTI was effective against enzymes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). These results suggested that AHLTI might be a novel trypsin inhibitor from A. heterophyllus Lam. belonging to Kunitz family, and play an important role in protecting from insect pest.
Article
We have identified and purified a novel cytokine, NK cell stimulatory factor (NKSF), from the cell-free supernatant fluid of the phorbol diester-induced EBV-transformed human B lymphoblastoid cell line RPMI 8866. NKSF activity is mostly associated to a 70-kD anionic glycoprotein. The purified 70-kD protein, isolated from an SDS-PAGE gel, yields upon reduction two small species of molecular masses of 40 and 35 kD, suggesting that this cytokine is a heterodimer. When added to human PBL, purified NKSF preparations induce IFN-gamma production and synergize with rIL-2 in this activity, augment the NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity of PBL preparations against both NK-sensitive and NK-resistant target cell lines, and enhance the mitogenic response of T cells to mitogenic lectins and phorbol diesters. The three activities remain associated through different purification steps resulting in a 9,200-fold purification, and purified NKSF mediates the three biological activities at concentrations in the range of 0.1-10 pM. These data strongly suggest that the same molecule mediates these three activities, although the presence of traces of contaminant peptides even in the most purified NKSF preparations does not allow us to exclude the possibility that distinct biologically active molecules have been co-purified. The absence of other known cytokines in the purified NKSF preparations, the unusual molecular conformation of NKSF, the high specific activity of the purified protein, and the spectrum of biological activities distinguish NKSF from other previously described cytokines.
Article
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is an ancient fruit that is widely consumed as a fresh fruit. The use of jackfruit bulbs and its parts has also been reported since ancient times for their therapeutic qualities. The beneficial physiological effects may also have preventive application in a variety of pathologies. The health benefits of jackfruit have been attributed to its wide range of physicochemical applications. This review presents an overview of the functional, medicinal, and physiological properties of this fruit.
Article
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam, commonly known as the jackfruit tree and belonging to the family Moraceae, is an exotic tree originally native to the Western Ghats of India. The fruits are of dietary use and are an important source of carbohydrate, protein, fat, minerals and vitamins. The heart wood is a very durable timber and is used in the preparation of furniture. The bark, roots, leaves, and fruit are attributed with diverse medicinal properties and are used in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine to treat a range of ailments. Preclinical studies have shown that jackfruit possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticariogenic, antifungal, antineoplastic, hypoglycemic, wound healing effects and causes a transient decrease in the sexual activity. Clinical studies have also shown that the decoction of the leaves possesses hypoglycemic effects in both healthy individuals and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Phytochemical studies have shown that jackfruit contains useful compounds like the flavonoids, sterols and prenylflavones which may have been responsible for the various pharmacological properties. The present paper reviews the nutritional value, culinary uses, the phytochemical compounds, traditional usage and validated pharmacological properties of jackfruit.
Article
Starches used in food industry are extracted from roots, tubers and cereals. Seeds of jackfruit are abundant and contain high amounts of starch. They are discarded during the fruit processing or consumption and can be an alternative source of starch. The starch was extract from the jackfruit seeds and characterised to chemical, morphological and functional properties. Soft and hard jackfruit seeds showed starch content of 92.8% and 94.5%, respectively. Starch granules showed round and bell shape and some irregular cuts on their surface with type-A crystallinity pattern, similar to cereals starches. The swelling power and solubility of jackfruit starch increased with increasing temperature, showing opaque pastes. The soft seeds starch showed initial and final gelatinisation temperature of 36°C and 56°C, respectively; while hard seeds starch presented initial gelatinisation at 40°C and final at 61°C. These results suggest that the Brazilian jackfruit seeds starches could be used in food products.
Article
From the root bark of Artocarpus Heterophyllus, a novel phenolic compound, heterophylol, was isolated and determined by spectroscopic methods.
Article
The effect of dietary peptides derived from soybean and casein on the immune responsiveness of Fisher rats has been investigated. The protein efficiency ratio of these diets was similar. The phagocytosis of opsonized sheep red blood cells by alveolar macrophages (AMø) and the mitogenic activity of rats fed both peptides, particularly soybean peptide, were found to be significantly greater than those of rats fed the corresponding proteins of soybean and casein. Furthermore, in the pair-feeding experiment using both peptides, a comparable enhancement of the phagocytic activity of AMø was seen in the rats given the peptides, but little difference in the natural killer cell activity was noted among rats fed each diet. It was suggested that immune activating factors would be presented in the soybean peptide.
Article
The total antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of edible portions and seeds of avocado, jackfruit, longan, mango and tamarind were studied. In addition, the relationship between antioxidant activity, phenolic content and the different degrees of heating of mango seed kernel was investigated. The seeds showed a much higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content than the edible portions. The contribution of all the fruit seed fractions to the total antioxidant activity and phenolic content was always >70%. ABTS cation radical-scavenging and FRAP assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity; FCR assay was used to measure the total phenolic content. The AEAC and FRAP of ethanolic extracts of MSKP products increased to a maximum after heating to 160 °C. The total phenolic content in extracts of MSKP products increased from 50.3 to 160 mg/g GAE with an increase in heating temperature to 160 °C.
Article
Jacalin, a tetrameric two-chain lectin (66,000 M r ) from jackfruit seeds, is highly specific for the tumour associated T-antigenic disaccharide. The crystal structure of jacalin with methyl-α-D-galactose reveals that each subunit has a three-fold symmetric β-prism fold made up of three four-stranded β-sheets. The lectin exhibits a novel carbohydrate-binding site involving the N terminus of the α-chain which is generated through a post-translational modification involving proteolysis, the first known instance where such a modification has been used to confer carbohydrate specificity. This new lectin fold may be characteristic of the Moraceae plant family. The structure provides an explanation for the relative affinities of the lectin for galactose derivatives and provides insights into the structural basis of its T-antigen specificity.
Article
To observe the immunomodulatory effects of marine oligopeptide preparation (MOP) from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) by the method of enzymatic hydrolysis, female ICR mice (6–8 weeks old) were administered the MOP for four weeks with the dose of 0, 0.22, 0.45 and 1.35g/kg/body weight. In comparison with the control group, the MOP could significantly enhance the capacity of lymphocyte proliferation induced by the mitogen concanavalin A, the number of plaque-forming cells, natural killer cell activity, the percentage of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells in spleen and the secretion of Th1 (IL-2, IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-5, IL-6) type cell cytokines. Nevertheless, no significant differences in weight gain, lymphoid organ indices and phagocytosis capacity were observed in our study. These results suggest that MOP is a possible immune stimulant and may strengthen the immune response of its host.
Article
Chemical composition of bulbs from 24 different firm-type jackfruit clones was analyzed to study the variability. These jackfruits were selected for dessert purposes through an extensive survey in Western Ghats, part of India, presumably the centre for origin and diversity of jackfruit. A wide variation in the TSS, acidity, TSS:acid ratio, sugars, starch and carotenoid contents was observed in the bulbs of jackfruit types considered in the present investigation. The results of the study are helpful for attempting crop improvement and selection of superior desirable jackfruit genotypes for bringing to cultivation.
Article
Soft and firm varieties of jackfruit of three stages of maturity (7–8, 10–12, and 14–16 weeks), harvested from the central, western and eastern parts of Bangladesh, were analysed. The dry matter content of perianth and seed of the soft and firm varieties increased from 10.0 to 32.0% and 19.0 to 52.0%, respectively, while the ash content decreased from 5.7 to 2.0% and 4.9 to 1.5%, respectively, on a dry matter basis. The free sugars of jackfruit samples increased with maturity from 1.5 to 10.5% and 1.4 to 5.2% of their dry matter for the soft and firm varieties, respectively. In all cases varying proportions of glucose, fructose and sucrose were the major sugar constituents. The starch content of the perianth samples increased from 7.8 to 47.0% and from 9.0 to 50.5%, on a dry matter basis for the soft and firm varieties, respectively, whereas, that for seed increased up to 65.0 and 59.0%, respectively. Microscopic examination of the samples showed the perianth to contain thin-walled cells packed with starch granules, some organized into distinct clusters. From both the chemical and histological studies, it appeared that the starch content of both perianth and seed of soft and firm varieties of jackfruit samples gradually increased with the increase of maturity. The total dietary fibre varied from 42.0 to 55.0% in the perianth. However, that of seed changed very little. The results show that the starch and total dietary fibre contents of jackfruit are higher than those of other fruits and vegetables of Bangladesh. ©
Article
The intestinal mucosa contains the largest population of antibody-secreting plasma cells in the body, and in humans several grams of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) are released into the intestine each day. In the gut lumen, SIgA serves as a first-line barrier that protects the epithelium from pathogens and toxins. Recently, next-generation sequencing has revolutionized our understanding of the nature of the intestinal microbiota and has also shed new light on the important roles of SIgA in the regulation of host-commensal homeostasis. Here, I discuss pathways of IgA induction in the context of SIgA specificity and function.
Article
A fruit leather was developed from the unfertilised floral parts of jackfruit. The characteristics of the leather were as follows: moisture 12·26%, fat 0·26%, protein 2·85%, crude fibre 6·27%, ash 0·87%, pH 4·8, titratable acidity 0·0005 meq NaOH g−1, vitamin C 0·023 mg ascorbic acid per 100 g, caloric value 440 kcal per 100 g and water activity 0·6. The colour was bright yellow. Microbial count of the leather was low throughout the storage period. The fruit leather was most stable when packaged in laminated aluminium foil (LAF) during storage. Sensory evaluation showed that samples were acceptable by the panelists. A market survey showed that the fruit leather was slightly better accepted by the consumer at large than laboratory sensory panelists, especially by male respondents and from ethnic Indians. However, more work is needed to further improve the new fruit leather. © 1997 SCI.
Article
Jacalin is a plant lectin known to specifically induce the proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes in human. We demonstrate here that jacalin completely blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro infection of lymphoid cells. Jacalin does not bind the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Besides other T cell surface molecules, it interacts with CD4, the high-affinity receptor to HIV. Binding of jacalin to CD4 does not prevent gp120-CD4 interaction and does not inhibit virus binding and syncytia formation. The anti-HIV effect of the native lectin can be reproduced by its separated a-subunits. More importantly, we have defined in the a-chain of jacalin a 14-amino acid sequence which shows high similarities with a peptide of the second conserved domain of gpl20. A synthetic peptide corresponding to this similar stretch also exerts a potent anti-HIV effect. This peptide is not mitogenic for peripheral blood mononuclear cells and does not inhibit anti-CD3-induced lymphocyte proliferation. These results make jacalin a chain-derived peptide a potentially valuable therapeutic agent for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Article
The four different extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Manilkara zapota seeds were undertaken and studied for their total phenolics and flavonoids contents, reducing power and antioxidant activity. Total phenolic contents were determined spectrometrically by using Folin-Coicalteu method and were calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Flavonoids and reducing power were also determined spectrometrically using standards methods. The antioxidant capacity was studied using DPPH radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical scavenging assay methods. Plants containing phenols and flavonoids have been reported to possess strong antioxidant properties. The results of antioxidant activity showed high effect in both extracts. From the present study, it can be concluded that Artocarpus heterophyllus and Manilkara zapota seed extract has effective antioxidant activity due to the presence of high amounts of phenolic compounds. The results revealed that the extracts showed high flavonoids content and reducing potential. Both extracts may therefore be a good functional medicine as well as pharmaceuticals plant-based products.