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Assessing PM 2.5 in Bahrain From the DPSIR Framework Perspective

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Fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) is the most commonly measured ambient air pollutant worldwide on account of its adverse health effects. In 2008 the US Embassy in Beijing started monitoring PM2.5 on the embassy premises to provide US citizens in the area with actionable health information related to ambient air pollution. By May 2019 the United States Department of State ambient air quality monitoring network had expanded to 43 cities in 27 countries. This provided a reliable source of near-real-time PM2.5 data to fill data gaps in previously under-served countries. This manuscript describes data analyses of seasonal, diurnal and meteorological trends which can be used for air quality planning and awareness in 29 of the embassies host cities. People living, working, traveling or considering relocating to those areas can gain a better understanding of the air quality they are exposed to. Potential explanations are offered for sites that deviate from expected trends: Addis Ababa experiences high PM2.5 during the rainy season probably due to widespread biomass burning and light winds; Manama has high PM2.5 throughout the day on summer weekends because widespread air conditioner usage causes coal-fired power plants to operate at high capacity to meet the electricity demand; Pristina experienced very high PM2.5 during winter weekend nights, which turned out to be very cold and stagnant periods and likely increased wood and coal combustion for home heating. Although Chinese sites consistently exceed the country's annual PM2.5 standards, analysis of long term trends confirm steady improvements in air quality. These improvements cannot be attributed to favorable meteorological conditions alone and are likely due to reductions of emissions. Since random forest-based machine learning methods explained >90% of the variability in PM2.5 concentrations at 21 locations, they can be used in conjunction with meteorological models for air quality forecasting.
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Much of the previous literature has identified limited influencing factors in relation to industrial SO2 emissions while ignoring the dynamic trends of these factors. Therefore, this paper promotes a Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework to investigate the critical socioeconomic influencing factors of SO2 emissions in China at the city level. To solve the heteroscedasticity of the data, this paper analyzes multiple time points (two-year periods) from 2004 to 2016 based on the WLS model to capture the variations of these factors. The empirical results reveal that, during the study period, the urbanization process continuously contributes to the reduction of SO2 emissions in China through the scale effect of population aggregation; the positive contribution made by economic growth has steadily risen; and the optimization of the industrial structure has gradually decreased emissions, demonstrating the benefits of implementing effective desulfurization policies. The positive contribution of industrial land-use intensity is shown to have gradually decreased due to improvements in energy efficiency. The current government policies such as command-controlled environmental regulation and biased government technical input are found to have increased SO2 emissions. Improvements at the corporate level are shown to have helped to improve environmental pollution. The positive contribution effect of markets on SO2 emissions shows a decreasing trend with a degree of fluctuation. These findings provide a comprehensive insight into the task of understanding the key socioeconomic impact factors of industrial SO2 emissions and their dynamics against the backdrop of sustainable development.
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Cancer is a major contributing cause of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The aim of the current study was to estimate the cancer burden attributable to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors. We used age‐, sex‐ and site‐specific incidence estimates for 2012 from IARC's GLOBOCAN, and assessed the following risk factors: smoking, alcohol, high body mass index, insufficient physical activity, diet, suboptimal breastfeeding, infections, and air pollution. The prevalence of exposure to these risk factors came from different sources including peer‐reviewed international literature, the World Health Organisation, NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Sex‐specific population‐attributable fraction was estimated in the 22 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region based on the prevalence of the selected risk factors and the relative risks obtained from meta‐analyses. We estimated that approximately 33% (or 165 000 cases) of all new cancer cases in adults aged 30 years and older in 2012 were attributable to all selected risk factors combined. Infections and smoking accounted for more than half of the total attributable cases among men, while insufficient physical activity and exposure to infections accounted for more than two‐thirds of the total attributable cases among women. A reduction in exposure to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors could prevent a substantial number of cancer cases in the Eastern Mediterranean. Population‐based programmes preventing infections and smoking (particularly among men) and promoting physical activity (particularly among women) in the population are needed to effectively decrease the regional cancer burden. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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This study provides the first empirical analysis of the direct impact of PM2.5, one of the primary pollutants of haze, on China's agricultural output. An econometric model is estimated using panel data on three of the most commonly grown crops (wheat, rice, and corn) from 303 perfectural level administrative divisions in 25 provinces and autonomous regions in China from 2001 to 2010. The interaction effect between PM2.5 and climatic factors, the nonlinear effect of PM2.5 and climatic factors, and the possible endogeneity between PM2.5 and agricultural production are taken into account. PM2.5 concentrations have significant adverse effects on average yields of wheat and corn, suggesting that the reduction of PM2.5 can contribute to the yields of these two crops. Similar to climatic factors, such as temperature, precipitation, and the sunshine, PM2.5 has a quadratic effect on the average yields of wheat and corn. In the future, it remains a continuing challenge to develop effective long-term strategies in the face of air pollution represented by PM2.5 and the hazards of PM2.5 to agricultural production and food security.
Article
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has the potential to diminish solar energy production by direct and indirect radiative forcing as well as by depositing to solar panel surfaces, thereby reducing solar energy transmittance to photovoltaics (PVs). Worldwide solar energy production is expected to increase more rapidly than any other energy source into the middle of this century, especially in regions that experience high levels of dust and/or anthropogenic particulate pollutants, including large areas of India, China, and the Arabian Peninsula. Here we combine field measurements and global modeling to estimate the influence of dust and PM related to anthropogenic sources (e.g. fossil and biomass fuel combustion) on solar electricity generation. Results indicate that solar energy production is currently reduced by ~ 17-25% across these regions, with roughly equal contributions from ambient PM and PM deposited to photovoltaic surfaces. Reductions due to dust and anthropogenic PM are comparable in Northern India, whereas over eastern China anthropogenic PM dominates. Based on current solar generation capacity, PM is responsible for ~780 MW and ~7400 MW of solar power reduction in India and China, respectively, underscoring the large role that PM plays in reducing solar power generation.
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Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM_(2.5)) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM_(2.5) pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM_(2.5) pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM_(2.5) pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.
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The intranasal pathway is a direct route of communication between the environment and the brain. This pathway is currently used for the delivery of several experimental therapeutic peptides and vaccines because it bypasses the blood brain barrier. It is also a route of entrance to the brain for several viruses and toxic substances. Airborne infectious, allergic and pollution agents are among the most common inflammatory factors which may affect brain function via the brain-nose interface. The inflammatory processes triggered in the upper respiratory tract by these agents are positioned to influence the immune response of the brain and therefore, influence its function and alter behavior. Several clinical and epidemiological studies find an association between inflammatory factors affecting the intranasal pathway and neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases as well as mental disorders including anxiety and mood disorders. However the mechanisms of interaction between the immune response in the nasal epithelium and the brain are poorly understood. This article discusses current evidence about these mechanisms and associations with neurological and mental diseases.
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