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Developed and crafted in Madagascar, the Raseta pump is a novel hydraulic ram (hydram) pump using a springs system. It operates differently from other pumps by the exclusive use of water energy due to the water hammer phenomenon induced by the sudden stop of the water flow. The present study initiates the investigation of the environmental impacts of this new type of hydram pump through a life cycle analysis using OpenLCA 1.8. It was found that, when operating in a small-scale water pumping system, the choice of the pump supply pipe material has small differences of environmental impacts, whether the material is made of steel or polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Moreover, compared to a solar pump for the same pumping flow rate, the use of the Raseta pump is more environmentally friendly and less harmful to human health. However, the actual advantageous utilization of such a system needs further studies such as social and techno-economic analysis.

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Water pumps, which usually require fuels or power, are for carrying water from water sources to a facility, generally a household or a farm in the countryside. The present study consists of conducting an experimental validation of a mathematical model that was developed in a previous work for simulating the functioning of a new form of the hydraulic ram pump, also known as the hydram pump. This new configuration differs from the conventional ones in that a springs system is incorporated. As this type of pump uses only water energy to operate, thanks to an overpressure called the «water hammer» phenomenon, the experiment could be carried out on a small scale in Antananarivo, Madagascar. Hence, this paper opens new research perspectives on the hydram pump. The recalibration of the model according to its experimental validation allows the dimensioning of any system, in any field, using this type of water pump.
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A new type of hydraulic ram pump, called "Raseta pump", was invented, patented and crafted in Madagascar. The peculiarity of this hydram pump over conventional ones is that there is a spring in each of the waste and delivery valves. In addition, the usual air balloon is replaced by a balloon with 4 springs. Thus, this paper aims at theoretically studying the behaviour of this hydram pump equipped with a system of springs. For that purpose, a model associated with the studied hydram pump was developed and coded on Matlab. Then, a global sensitivity analysis was carried out for identifying the most influential parameters of this model while successively considering as the surveyed model outputs: the amount of wasted water, the amount of pumped water and the efficiency of the pump. As results, the most dominating parameters are relatively the same as those found by previous works on the conventional hydram pump without springs: height of the water column in the delivery pipe, the height of supply tank, the weight of the waste valve, and the length of the waste valve stroke. However, there are 3 other parameters that the present study exceptionally found as among the most influential ones as well, namely: the stiffness of the spring in the waste valve, the modulus of elasticity of the fluid, and the radius of the waste valve disk. In addition, similar to the case of air balloon, the effect of the spring balloon is not relevant. An extension work could be a techno-economic investigation of a pump system constituted by a number of hydram pumps similar to the one studied here for increasing water head in a pico hydropower plant.
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Environmental protection becomes a global challenge currently. Green roof is one of the innovative concepts to face this battle. An increase in its use is noticed in urban areas worldwide. But a question arises: what are the environmental consequences of the green roofs’ life cycle? In this paper, the environmental performance of two complete systems of lighter and heavier green roofs implemented in a global south low-income country are analyzed and compared in order to determine the potential impacts of both types of green roof systems. For proposing solutions aiming at reducing environmental loads of green roofs, Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach was used in the present study. For this purpose, the approach consists of the following phases: definition of the objective, life cycle inventory, characterization of impacts, and interpretation of results. LCA calculations were done with the help of OpenLCA software. Results show that, non treated materials and / or imported ones are more environmentally impactful. Hence, it is profitable to reduce the use of cement, gravel, virgin plastics, and soil as well as imported materials whose transport is done by plane. In addition, use of natural fertilizer for amending the growth substrate and water from well for watering the green roof, is also recommended.
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The largest Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) databases contain about 10,000 unit process datasets. Assuming that updating one dataset would, on average, require one working day, then updating the entire database would roughly require the continuous work of five workers for ten years. Methods are therefore needed to prioritize datasets to be updated, and such a method should be able to identify the unit processes that contribute the most across different Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. To date, such prioritization methods are not available.
Ce manuel traite du choix des sites, de la conception des évacuateurs de crues et des ouvrages annexes, de la conception des barrages en remblais, en maçonnerie, en béton et des structures en gabions, puis du chantier de construction en détaillant l'excution de chaque type d'ouvrage. Un dernier chapitre est consacré à la surveillance et à l'entretien des barrages en service. Destiné aux concepteurs et maîtres d'oeuvre, il pourra être utilement consulté par les services techniques des maîtres d'ouvrages.
In this chapter, a wide range of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods, new initiative for reducing emissions and improving resource efficiency, and Product Environmental Footprint are examined, in order to introduce the research tendency in this filed and clarify the differences among these Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. The LCIA methods are broadly categorized as resource based and emission based. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) database are also investigated, and the features of the generic LCI database are presented. The data formats of the ecoinvent database are deeply examined, with the aim of clarifying the attributes, types of each data components to help users to understand the role of inventory database in the practices.
Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess the environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle, i.e., from raw material acquisition, via production and use phases, to waste management. The methodological development in LCA has been strong, and LCA is broadly applied in practice. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of recent developments of LCA methods. The focus is on some areas where there has been an intense methodological development during the last years. We also highlight some of the emerging issues. In relation to the Goal and Scope definition we especially discuss the distinction between attributional and consequential LCA. For the Inventory Analysis, this distinction is relevant when discussing system boundaries, data collection, and allocation. Also highlighted are developments concerning databases and Input-Output and hybrid LCA. In the sections on Life Cycle Impact Assessment we discuss the characteristics of the modelling as well as some recent developments for specific impact categories and weighting. In relation to the Interpretation the focus is on uncertainty analysis. Finally, we discuss recent developments in relation to some of the strengths and weaknesses of LCA.
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