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While formal features constituting the outer form of the poem in Spanish, such as the stress pattern or the rhyme, are usually the most evident to the reader and may be particularly relevant to the translator, other mechanisms based on repetition are essential in the rhythmic configuration of the poem. Based on a corpus of sixty-two Spanish translations of Shakespeare's Sonnets, this article analyses how anaphoras, alliterations and parallelisms have been translated and highlights the significant role that some of these figures play in the target poems.
HERMĒNEUS, 23 (2021): págs. 151-186
ISSN: 2530-609X
The Translation of Repetition in Shakespeare’s
La traducción de figuras de repetición en los Sonetos
de Shakespeare
Tallinna Ülikool / Tallinn University. Tallinn University. School of Humanities. Narva
mnt 25, 10120, Tallinn. Estonia.
Dirección de correo electrónico:
Recibido: 7/1/2021. Aceptado: 19/10/2021.
Cómo citar: Escudero, Tanya, «The Translation of Repetition in Shakespeare’s
Sonnets», Hermēneus. Revista de Traducción e Interpretación, 23 (2021): 151-186.
Abstract: While formal features constituting the outer form of the poem in Spanish, such as the
stress pattern or the rhyme, are usually the most evident to the reader and may be particularly
relevant to the translator, other mechanisms based on repetition are essential in the rhythmic
configuration of the poem. Based on a corpus of sixty-two Spanish translations of Shakespeare's
Sonnets, this article analyses how anaphoras, alliterations and parallelisms have been translated
and highlights the significant role that some of these figures play in the target poems.
Keywords: Parallelism, anaphora, alliteration, figures of speech, poetry translation.
Resumen: Pese a que las características formales que constituyen la forma externa del poema
en español, como el patrón rítmico o la rima, suelen ser los más evidentes para el lector y
pueden tener una especial relevancia para el traductor, otros mecanismos basados en la
repetición resultan esenciales en la configuración rítmica del poema. A partir de un corpus de
sesentaidós traducciones al español de los Sonetos de Shakespeare, este artículo analiza cómo
se han traducido anáforas, aliteraciones y paralelismos y pone de relieve el gran peso que
poseen algunas de estas figuras en los poemas meta.
Palabras clave: Paralelismo, anáfora, aliteración, figuras retóricas, traducción poética.
Summary: Introduction; 1. Definitions of anaphora, parallelism and alliteration; 2. Corpus and
method; 3. Results; Conclusions; Primary sources; References; Appendix.
Sumario: Introducción; 1. Definiciones de anáfora, paralelismo y aliteración; 2. Corpus y método;
3. Resultados; Conclusiones; Fuentes primarias; Referencias bibliográficas; Apéndice.
Verse poetry is generally based on repetition, either the recurrence of
a stress pattern, of a syllabic count, or of certain sounds. Therefore,
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rhyme, which consists of the use of the same sounds at the end of several
lines, is not the only mechanism that makes use of repetition to achieve
euphony. Within the line itself, we can find other formal elements that
contribute to enhancements in its rhythm, although these elements are
less obvious than rhyme and metre (Hejinian, 1999: p. 102). In this
paper, I will focus on those figures of speech that, through phonic
repetition (sometimes combined with syntactic repetition), contribute to
euphony, namely anaphora, parallelism and alliteration. My aim is to
observe the significance of other formal elements that are less obvious
than those constituting the outer form of the poem, but still belong to its
rhythmic dimension. For this purpose, I will draw on a corpus of verse
translations of Shakespeare's sonnets, a work which has been widely
translated into Spanish, both in Latin America and in Spain (Escudero,
2021b) allowing for a rich study that includes a wide range of
alternatives regarding the translation of formal elements.
As far as translations of Shakespeare's Sonnets are concerned,
although research has sometimes focused on other relevant aspects, such
as wordplay and puns (Sánchez García, 1993; Marín Calvarro, 2000,
2009), it has also dealt with the poetic form. However, the prescriptive
nature of these works is also made manifest on many occasions. As
Pujante concedes, the aim of some previous studies on these translations
seems to have been “to examine the translations and respond with a list
of ‘infidelities”. What Pujante proposes is “to approach such versions
with broad criteria that, integrating the linguistic ones, overcome the
notions of betrayal and loss” (2009: p. 14), which is what I have tried to
do in the following pages.
The most exhaustive study on the translations of the Sonnets into
Spanish was carried out by Muñoz Calvo in her doctoral thesis (1986).
She provides, for the first time, a detailed analysis of ten sonnets and a
comparative study of their translations into Spanish published from 1877
to June 1985.1 In this work, Muñoz Calvo describes the semantical
structure, the lexical, graphical and grammatical aspects, the syntactic
structure and phonetical aspects and tries to discern the degree of
1 Muñoz Cavo deals with the translation of sonnets 2, 18, 29, 66, 71, 104, 116, 127, 129
and 146 translated (when applicable) by 24 translators; 14 of them included also in the
present article that examines 62 translations. These are those of Armas y Cárdenas,
Maristany, Rivas, Vedia y Mitre, Gannon, Damians de Bulart, Mujica Lainez, Basileo
Acuña, García Calvo, Talens, Auad y Mañé, Méndez Herrera, Elvira-Hernández and
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approximation of the translations to the original. MacCandless (1987), on
the other hand, devoted his doctoral thesis to poetry translation strategies
based on the study of six translations of the Sonnets into Spanish and
conducted a more detailed study of the formal mechanisms. Both
researchers, however, stress the idea of fidelity and therefore preservation
and loss.
In addition, in Pujante’s (2009) introduction to Sonetos Escogidos he
comments on the forms used by the early translators of the sonnets
(1877-1922), while some articles devoted to the Spanish translations of
Shakespeare's sonnets have focused on just one of the translations, such
as Pujante's article on the translation of Reyes Suárez (1989). Zaro also
discusses some translations, including those of Montezanti (2011) and
Damians de Bulart (2016), in the form of a brief review.
Several translators of this corpus have also discussed their own or
others' translations in the form of an article. Siles Artés (1994), in a very
brief study, discusses eight translations of sonnet 60, although he only
addresses some issues such as the syllable count, the rhyme and the word
count in prose translations. Additionally, Santamaría López (2010) gives
his opinion on poetic translation and how the sonnets should be translated
and illustrates his view with some examples of previous translations,
before moving on to his translation of some of the sonnets. Meanwhile,
Montezanti (2005) analyses eight translations, and, although he discusses
some formal features, the aim of his paper is “to detect the most
successful translations as regards the production of wordplays
corresponding to the ST (Source Text) ones” (2005: p. 85). Also, Pérez
Romero (1988) and Pérez Prieto (2020) explain the wordplay in the
translations of the Sonnets; while the former comments not only on her
own translation, but also on those of three other translators, the latter
draws only on his own experience. Finally, in his article, Gutiérrez
Izquierdo (2005) sets out his perspective on poetic translation and
includes comments on other Spanish translations, which he refers to as
“unsatisfactory models”.
Therefore, figures of speech based on repetition, such as anaphora,
alliteration or parallelism, in the Sonnets have not been given a great deal
of attention, although they are incredibly prevalent in Shakespeare’s
work (for a more in-depth analysis of the outer form in the translations of
these Sonnets, see Escudero, 2021a).
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What is understood in both English and Spanish by these notions is
similar. For Adams, anaphora is the “repetition of a word or phrase in an
initial position” (1997: p. 114), so too for García Barrientos (2000: p.
36), although the latter specifies that such repetition may occur “at the
beginning of several syntactic sequences or verses”. The initial position
to which they refer, therefore, does not necessarily coincide with the
beginning of the verse, since this mechanism can also be used when
writing in prose. In fact, the Oxford Dictionary describes anaphora as
“the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive
clauses”. However, since I am discussing poems and, in this context, this
figure of speech is usually related to the repetition of words at the
beginning of the verse, I will refer to anaphora in this sense only.
Shakespeare generally links this resource to subsequent parallelism, and
the lines he connects with this figure of speech range from two to ten (as
in sonnet 66, which I will discuss later on).
The most sweet-favoured or deformed’st creature,
The mountain, or the sea, the day, or night,
The crow, or dove, it shapes them to your feature.
(Sonnet 13)
Nor are mine ears with thy tongue’s tune delighted,
Nor tender feeling to base touches prone,
Nor taste, nor smell, desire to be invited.
(Sonnet 141)
Although parallelism is also based on repetition, it is syntactic in
nature. It is a figure of speech “where corresponding lines must be
composed of syntactic constituents of the same kind” (Fabb and Halle,
2008: p. 1). However, this parallelism does not necessarily involve an
entire verse or more, since it can be used within a single line. Adams
understands the term more broadly when he explains that this mechanism
“sets corresponding ideas in similar syntactic forms” (1997: p. 109), and
it is this interpretation that I will use throughout this study. Shakespeare’s
use of parallelisms in his poems is immense, and they are often
antithetical in nature:
Then being asked, where all thy beauty lies,
Where all the treasure of thy lusty days
(Sonnet 2)
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Who plead for love, and look for recompense,
(Sonnet 23)
Reserve them for my love, not for their rhyme
(Sonnet 32)
He lends thee virtue, and he stole that word
(Sonnet 79)
Finally, alliteration is based on phonic repetition and may be the
least clear or easily identified of the three figures of speech that I have
mentioned, especially in those cases where the frequency of the repeated
phoneme in the line is in the lower range. Since the English language
“uses approximately forty-five phonemes, the letters and phonemes are
bound to recur” (Adams, 1997: p. 33). In Spanish, the number of
phonemes is even lower and can be reduced to 29, although in some
dialects, certain phonemes can be added or others substituted. Therefore,
it is logical to think that the recurrence of certain phonemes in Spanish
may be even greater than their recurrence in English. In both languages,
therefore, “the recurrence must be foregrounded, made more prevalent or
prominent than random expectation, before it merits attention” (Adams
1997: 33).
Moreover, this figure of repetition is understood differently by
various scholars. Oliver states that “strictly speaking, (alliteration) is the
repetition of the initial sound of words in a line or lines of verse” (1994:
p. 29), although she later remarks that sometimes repetition occurs both
at the beginning of and within words (30). Levý also believes that
“alliteration at the beginning of the word is very expressive in English
verse” (2011: p. 273), although he does not imply that this method is the
only possible method. For Fabb and Halle, the repetition must occur in
“either two or three of the stressed syllables”, and they explain that “only
certain patterns of alliterating and non-alliterating syllables are
permitted” (2008: p. 264). These definitions are, however, more
restrictive than those found in Spanish manuals of rhetoric, where
alliteration is usually understood as the “repetition of the same phoneme
(or letter) which, occupying any position in the word, is relevant in a
limited context” (García Barrientos 2000: p. 17). In his definition,
Domínguez Caparrós does not even refer to the repetition of phonemes,
but instead focuses on “acoustically similar sounds in a word or in a
fragment of the text” (2016: p. 37), thus widening the range of
possibilities. This difference between the conception of this repetition
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device in both languages may be due to the length of English and Spanish
words. Spanish is mainly a polysyllabic language, which has an effect on
the number of words contained in a single line; for example, a
hendecasyllabic line may not contain more than four words, so a
recurrence of the same phoneme at the beginning of three of them may
not be an obvious alliteration. Intermediate and final syllables play a
fundamental role in Spanish metre, meaning that they cannot be ignored.
In practically all Shakespeare’s sonnets, we can find some kind of
alliteration, although of varying intensity (for an in-depth study of
alliteration in Shakespeare’s Sonnets, see Goldsmith, 1950). The
following lines provide some examples of this practice:
Cheerèd and checked even by the selfsame sky
(Sonnet 15)
And stops her pipe in growth of riper days:
(Sonnet 102)
When tyrants’ crests and tombs of brass are spent.
(Sonnet 107)
A torment thrice threefold thus to be crossed
(Sonnet 133)
In this analysis, I will focus solely on consonant alliteration and not
on the repetition of vowels (or assonance). Oliver explains that due to its
use inside words, assonance is “less obvious than alliteration” (1994: p.
31). This statement refers to the English language, which has 12 simple
vowel phonemes; Spanish, however, has only five vowel phonemes
which will inevitably repeat throughout a verse. Therefore, achieving an
assonant alliteration in Spanish would imply a manifest repetition of
vowels, such as the one Miguel Hernández strung together in the
following verse, which combines assonance with an alliteration of the
phoneme /l/:
A las aladas almas de las rosas
Despite their high frequency, these rhetorical devices for repetition,
with few exceptions, do not carry as much weight in the overall rhythm
of the poem as their outer form; therefore, we will see here to what extent
an attempt is made to recreate these devices in the translations. To this
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end, I will study different sonnets that include these mechanisms and
have been translated by a variety of translators.
Although it was intended that only complete translations would be
used in this study in order to include the same translators in all sections
of the analysis, I believe that doing so would have meant excluding too
many cases, especially from the first decades of this corpus. Ultimately,
from all the verse translations I was able to locate (see Escudero, 2021b),
I chose those that were written in verse and included at least seven
sonnets (listed under “Primary sources”), that is the minimum number of
sonnets contained in a book edition devoted exclusively to the translation
of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (as opposed to anthologies of various authors,
journal articles or translations found in magazines). Interestingly, certain
sonnets are recurrent in these partial translations, and this allowed me to
use some poems as prototypes for this study (see Appendix for a
complete list of translators translating the sonnets used for this analysis).
To study the recurrence of anaphora in translations, I will use two
sonnets, 18 and 66, which contain anaphoras of different lengths, to see
how this device is addressed when it involves vastly different number of
lines. The first sonnet contains three double anaphoras (linking verses 6
and 7, 10 and 11 and 13 and14), as seen below:
Sonnet 18
Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer’s lease hath all too short a date;
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed:
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st,
Nor shall Death brag thou wand’rest in his shade,:
When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st.
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
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Sonnet 66 undoubtedly presents the clearest case of anaphora in the
entire book, which extends over ten verses (from 3-12). Moreover, most
of these lines share the same syntactic structure, thus creating an
unmistakable parallelism.
Sonnet 66
Tired with all these, for restful death I cry:
As to behold desert a beggar born,
And needy nothing trimmed in jollity,
And purest faith unhappily forsworn,
And gilded honour shamefully misplaced,
And maiden virtue rudely strumpeted,
And right perfection wrongfully disgraced,
And strength by limping sway disablèd,
And art made tongue-tied by authority,
And folly (doctor-like) controlling skill,
And simple truth miscalled simplicity,
And captive good attending captain ill.
Tired with all these, from these would I be gone,
Save that to die, I leave my love alone.
For the analysis of the parallelism, I have chosen sonnets 27 and 29.
Both employ a parallelistic structure based on antithesis, which gives
even more force to repetition and may motivate a greater desire to
reproduce it in translation. In sonnet 27, we can find two parallelisms in
the final couplet:
Sonnet 27
Weary with toil, I haste me to my bed,
The dear repose for limbs with travel tired,
But then begins a journey in my head
To work my mind, when body’s work’s expired;
For then my thoughts (from far where I abide)
Intend a zealous pilgrimage to thee,
And keep my drooping eyelids open wide,
Looking on darkness which the blind do see;
Save that my soul’s imaginary sight
Presents thy shadow to my sightless view,
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Which like a jewel (hung in ghastly night)
Makes black night beauteous, and her old face new.
Lo thus by day my limbs, by night my mind,
For thee, and for myself, no quiet find.
Meanwhile, in sonnet 29, I will focus on the repetition in the seventh
line, which, although not so intense, it is equally obvious:
Sonnet 29
When in disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes,
I all alone beweep my outcast state,
And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries,
And look upon myself and curse my fate,
Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,
Featured like him, like him with friends possessed,
Desiring this man’s art, and that man’s scope,
With what I most enjoy contented least;
Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising,
Haply I think on thee, and then my state
(Like to the lark at break of day arising
From sullen earth) sings hymns at heaven’s gate,
For thy sweet love rememb’red such wealth brings
That then I scorn to change my state with kings.
Finally, to analyse alliteration, I will also look at two examples. The
first appears in verses 9-10 of the above-mentioned sonnet 27, with an
evident repetition of phonemes /s/ /z/ and /ʃ/:
Save that my Soul’S imaginary Sight
PreSents thy SHadow to my SightleSS view,
The second example occurs in the third verse of sonnet 106, where
the alliterative purpose is achieved through the repetition of words with
the same lexeme, a figure of speech also referred to as a ‘paregmenon’.
Sonnet 106
When in the chronicle of wasted time
I see descriptions of the fairest wights,
And beauty making beautiful old rhyme
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In praise of ladies dead and lovely knights,
Then in the blazon of sweet beauty’s best,
Of hand, of foot, of lip, of eye, of brow,
I see their antique pen would have expressed
Even such a beauty as you master now.
So all their praises are but prophecies
Of this our time, all you prefiguring,
And for they looked but with divining eyes,
They had not skill enough your worth to sing:
For we, which now behold these present days,
Have eyes to wonder, but lack tongues to praise.
Although some of the figures of speech are clear, in others, the
boundaries are hard to define and therefore difficult to measure. Thus,
although I will provide some specific data regarding the frequency of
certain devices in translations, this analysis is mostly qualitative. In
addition, on occasion, other strategies are used in the translations to
achieve the melody, such as exchanging anaphora for parallelism or
employing alliteration in verses other than those corresponding to the
original. To observe these repetitions, I will analyse not only the lines
that correspond to the original in the translations (most translators, with
the exception of Ehrenhaus in his haikus, have used the same number of
lines as the source text) but also the surrounding lines. Furthermore, I
will pay attention not only to the mechanisms of repetition present in the
source text, but also to other possible mechanisms of repetition used in
these translations.
As I mentioned in the previous section, the first sonnet chosen to
study the recreation (or not) of the anaphoras present in the source text is
sonnet 18, which includes three of them: in the first one, the word “And”
is used in lines 6 and 7; in the second, “Nor” is used in lines 10 and 11;
and in the third, “So long” is used in lines 13 and 14. It should be noted
that a more literal translation could easily reproduce the first two
anaphoras (y... y and ni... ni). However, reproducing the third one is more
difficult, as a literal translation of the structure “so long” into
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Spanish would not imply repetition, but would involve the use of a
connector in the first segment, which would then be separated from the
second segment by a comma (mientras X, Y; en tanto que X, Y, and so
on). In addition, as we shall see, the use of rhyme or the need to adjust to
a fixed syllable count can make the use of such mechanisms in
translation extremely difficult.
In fact, none of the translators have replicated the three anaphoras in
the lines corresponding to those of the source poem, and, most probably
due to the reason given above, it is the third one (“so long... so long”)
that the translators recreate the least, although some of them have
adopted other alternatives, such as Jofré, who introduces by
compensation an anaphora in lines 11─13 of his translation:
Que no podrá alardear de ser tan fuerte
Que estos eternos rasgos desvanezca.
Que en tanto en forma humana alma resida
Scott also includes an anaphora in the last two lines of his
Hasta que los hombres puedan respirar, o los ojos puedan ver
Hasta que pueda ello vivir, y te dé vida.
A different solution is adopted by Reyes Suárez, who, despite not
reproducing the anaphora in the last couplet, introduces parallelism and
alliteration by repeating some words and lexemes (paregmenons) in lines
13 and 14:
que vivirá mientras la vida aliente,
y hará que alientes mientras ella viva
On the other hand, de Vedia y Mitre (1929) use an anaphoric
structure within line 13, although, as it is a fourteen-syllable line divided
into hemistiches, it can well be considered as a combination of two
simple verses that repeat the same initial word and the same structure
(syntactic parallelism):
Mientras los ojos vean, mientras el hombre aliente
Vives also does this:
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Mientras los hombres vean, mientras rían
It is more frequent, however, to find the first and second anaphora in
the translations, with the second one generally using the ni... ni
construction, as Gannon and Méndez Herrera do:
ni perderás la gracia que te inviste,
ni ha de lograr la muerte tu conquista
ni perderse las gracias que hoy ostentas;
ni de hundirte la muerte ha de jactarse
(Méndez Herrera)
Finally, the translators of this corpus have tried to recreate the first
anaphora (And... And) using different methods. The most frequent
recreation in these translations involves the use of the conjunction y in
Spanish, as seen in Gutiérrez Izquierdo’s version:
y a veces se oscurece su gran fulgor dorado,
y aún lo más hermoso algún día declina
Nevertheless, other translators choose a different word to initiate
their lines and achieve repetition:
o bien del cielo suele arder la pupila
o también opacarse su áureo fulgor
(Bingham Powell, lines 6-7)
La pupila del cielo es harto cálida;
La faz de oro amenudo palidece;
La más pura belleza queda pálida,
(Maristany, lines 5-7)
Meanwhile, Basileo Acuña, García Calvo and Rutiaga move the
anaphora to verses 5 and 6:
A veces arde el sol como de fuego
a veces nubla su esplendor de oro
(Basileo Acuña)
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tal vez de sobra el ojo de los cielos arde,
tal vez su tez de oro borrones empaña
(García Calvo)
Ya el rubio ojo del cielo nos abrasa,
ya su áurea faz es opacada,
The syllable count, which can compel translators to reduce this type
of mechanism in order to spare syllables, seems to be a determining
factor in the incorporation of anaphoras into the target text. In fact, out of
the 19 translators who do not reproduce any anaphoras in their poems, 12
use the hendecasyllable, which, in most cases, is rhymed. On the other
hand, there are 21 translators who only integrate one anaphora into their
poem, and most of these translators (18) also adjust the eleven-syllable
verse. As can be deduced, then, most translators who introduce at least
two anaphoras use free blank verse, which allows them to pursue
solutions that are not available to those who must conform to metre
As I previously pointed out, the clearest anaphoric structure in
Shakespeare’s sonnets is found in sonnet 66, where the anaphora extends
over 10 lines (from the third to the twelfth). Among the 42 translations of
sonnet 66 that I have considered in this part of the analysis, 37 reproduce
an anaphora similar to that of the source text, which, in most cases, also
continued for 10 lines, with some exceptions (Álvarez, Vives, Law
Palacín and Talens). Most of them repeat the conjunction “And” at the
beginning of these verses, followed on many occasions by a syntactic
parallelism, as in the translations by Maristany, Dieste and Adúriz and
Adúriz Bravo; the latter, moreover, use a different disposition than their
regular one to present this sonnet, which is no longer divided visually
into three quatrains and a couplet, as in the rest of their translations, but
rather into three blocks of two, ten and two lines respectively, isolating
all the lines joined by the anaphora in the same block:
Y al mendigo, vestido de bufón,
Y a la fe más sincera, escarnecida;
Y a la virtud ingenua, maltratada,
Y a par de los honores la falsía,
Y a la estricta justicia, relajada,
Y obstada por los necios la energía;
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Y al arte, por quien rige, enmudecido,
Y al ingenio, cual fiebre doctoral,
Y al sincero por cándido tenido,
Y al Bien, cautivo de su jefe el Mal
Y la necesidad no compensada por la alegría,
Y la más pura fe que el infortunio traiciona,
Y el honor ilustre cínicamente pospuesto,
Y el candor, incentivo de groseras ansias,
Y el espíritu recto, sin razón ultrajado,
Y la fuerza claudicar, por débiles influjos,
Y el pensamiento, reprimido por los déspotas,
Y la sandez, doctorada, rectora del ingenio,
Y la simple verdad, tomada por simpleza,
Y buen cautivo, al servicio de mal capitán;
Hastiado de todo, clamo por la muerte descansada:
como quien contempla al mérito nacer para mendigo
y la menesterosa nada - disfrazada de goce
y la fe más pura - traicionada tristemente
y el brillo del honor - vergonzosamente desplazado
y la virtud virginal - brutalmente prostituida
y la recta perfección - agraviada aviesamente
y la fuerza - contrahecha por un tranco de cojera
y el arte mejor- amordazado por la autoridad
y la tontería doctoral - controlando el talento
y la simple verdad - reputada de simpleza
y el bien cautivo - sirviendo al mal triunfante:
hastiado de todo esto, de todo me alejaría
si no fuera que mi amor al morir yo queda solo.
(Adúriz and Adúriz Bravo)
Álvarez and Marrufo, however, have favoured the repetition of other
words at the beginning of their verses, namely the conjunction ni in
Álvarez’s case and the preposition a followed by an article in Marrufo’s:
Ni el alto honor con deshonra pagado,
Ni el pudor virginal brutalmente humillado,
Ni la justicia verdadera como la injusta vista,
Ni el poder destruido por un torpe ejercicio,
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Ni al arte amordazado por la autoridad,
Ni al talento censurado por la estupidez,
Ni a la lealtad por transparente vista como simpleza,
Ni al bien cautivo de la fuerza del mal;
(Álvarez, lines 5-12)
Yo moriría con gusto, por no ver
Al espíritu rico hecho mendigo,
Al necio recubierto de saber,
A la fe despreciada y sin abrigo;
Al honor hecho menos o burlado,
A la virtud violada sin ambages,
A los buenos deseos calumniados;
Al mérito moral sufrir ultrajes;
Al arte verdadero disminuido,
(Marrufo, lines 1-11)
Gamen, meanwhile, despite not including anaphoras in his poem,
develops a parallelism throughout lines 5-11:
el oropel se encumbra a los más altos cargos;
la inocencia más pura se vende y prostituye;
los valores auténticos vilmente deshonrados;
el poder maniatado por leyes que lo obstruyen;
el arte amordazado por gobernantes déspotas;
la idiotez, investida de sabio, censurando
al talento; la honradez, mal llamada simpleza;
y el bien, del mal cautivo, al servicio de su amo.
It is for this sonnet that the clearest attempts to achieve similar
repetitions at the beginning of the lines in the translations are made. The
possibility of joining the initial conjunction with the word that follows,
usually the preposition a, creating a synalepha e.g. “Yˬel vil perjurio de
la fe más pura” (Rivero Taravillo, 2004); “yˬa la más pura fe sucia y
rastrera (Montezanti, 2011)─ may have encouraged many of the
translators conforming to a more “restrictive” count of eleven syllables to
incorporate the anaphora in their poems as well.
Although we have already seen some instances of parallelism in
these poems, I will now focus on specific segments that use this
mechanism to achieve rhythm.
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In sonnet 27, there are two parallelisms in the last two lines of the
source poem that are highly visible and have an antithetical effect (day /
night, limbs / mind, thee / myself):
Lo thus by day my limbs, by night my mind,
For thee, and for myself, no quiet find.
Out of the 44 translators who translate this sonnet in verse, 36
reproduce some kind of parallelism in the final couplet. This high
frequency may be due to the fact that, in this poem, the parallelism is
based on an antithesis. As Adams explains, the antithesis is based on
opposition, but “grammatical parallelism is still obligatory”, as its effect
“is of point, condensation, clarity, memorability” (1997: p. 111).
Parallelism, therefore, makes it possible to emphasise this opposition,
and its antithetical value is evident. Some translators only include the
parallelism in one of the two ending lines, such as Damians de Bulart and
Gray, who reproduce it in the thirteenth line:
Más mi cuerpo o mi amante pensamiento
(Damians de Bulart)
y ni cuerpo ni mente noche y día
While others include it only in the last line of the poem:
Por ti o por mí, de paz danme un momento
por ti, por mí, no hallo la paz que debía
(Vives Heredia)
Most translators, however, employ parallelism in the two verses of
the couplet. Although words such as día / noche, cuerpo / alma and por ti
/ por are usually repeated, the structure varies in all of them. Here are
some examples:
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Tal, de día y de noche, en cuerpo o alma
Por mí, por ti, no encuentro paz ni calma.
Mira, pues: de día mis miembros y de noche mi mente,
por ti y por mí mismo no encuentran quietud
(Auad and Mañé)
Ya ves: de día mi cuerpo y de noche mi alma
no hallan reposo gracias a ti y a mí.
Así el cuerpo de día y la mente de noche
por tu causa y mi causa nunca tienen quietud
Así, por ti y por mí, nunca encuentran reposo
ni de día mis miembros, ni de noche mi mente,
Así de día mis piernas, de noche mi mente,
Para ti y para mí no encuentran sosiego.
The last case I would like to comment on here is that of Ehrenhaus
and his haikus. Although no correspondence can be established between
the lines of the target text and those of the source text in his translations,
we can see how he introduces an anaphora (which continues with a
parallelism) in the first two lines of haiku number 27:
de día viajo,
de noche, en cama, pienso.
no tengo tregua
With regard to the repetition in sonnet 29, while I will focus on the
translations of the seventh line of this poem (Desiring this man’s art,
and that man’s scope), the previous line (Featured like him, like him
with friends possessed) also includes a lexical repetition that has been
recreated in different ways. Some translators, such as Auad and Mañé,
Méndez Herrera, Bros and Gutiérrez Izquierdo, only use repetition in the
seventh line:
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envidiando el talento de éste, el poder de aquél
(Auad and Mañé)
de aquél ansiando el don, de éste el sentido
(Méndez Herrera)
y envidio de ése el arte o de aquél el poder
ansiando de este el rango, de aquel la maestría
(Gutiérrez Izquierdo)
However, most of them reproduce some kind of parallelism in lines
6 and 7, turning the lexical repetition in line 6 into a syntactic one:
bello como éste, como aquél rodeado
deseando el arte de uno, el poder de otro
(Mujica Lainez)
favor, con sus amigos, con su parecido,
envidiándole el arte a éste, a aquél el cargo
(García Calvo)
tener sus mismos rasgos y sus mismos amigos,
deseando el talento de uno, el poder de otro
deseo su riqueza y sus amigos,
codicio su maestría y su bonanza
(Basileo Acuña)
In Basileo Acuña’s translation, the parallelism extends throughout
the two lines. This is not the only case in which there is an extension of
this resource, since some translators achieve repetition through
enjambments between several lines, as is the case with Armas y Cárdenas
and Law Palacín:
envidio a éste su arte, a aquél su osado
ademán, a uno su rostro, a otro su cuna
(Armas y Cárdenas, lines 7-8)
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tener los rasgos de este, los amigos
de aquel, el arte de uno, los recursos
del otro, indiferente a mis placeres
(Law Palacín, lines 6-8)
Finally, some translators use anaphora in these verses:
como el que es más apuesto y talentoso,
como el que amigos o poder alcanza
(Montezanti, 1987 / 2003)
como el galán y el bien relacionado,
como el que es competente o poderoso
(Santano Moreno)
Rivas does so, as well. However, in his translation, the anaphora is
developed over five lines (2-7):
y, a solas, lloro pobre desterrado,
y al sordo cielo impreco, de contino,
y ante tan gran dolor maldigo al hado,
y envidio a aquel que más dichoso espera
y a quien amigos cercan cariñosos,
y trocar por los suyos yo quisiera
As was the case for the anaphora, the length of the verse does not
seem to be an obstacle to recreate parallelism in the poem. Among the 44
translations of sonnet 27, 36 incorporate a parallelism, generally in the
last two lines, and most of these translations (26 of them) are written in
hendecasyllables, which are generally rhymed. The data resulting from
the analysis of the translations of sonnet 29 are very similar: 36
translations include either parallelism or another repetition device in one
or two of the lines examined, out of a total of 42 translations. In addition,
the majority of the translations that integrate this figure of speech use the
hendecasyllable (27 of them).
However, here again, the need to reduce the number of syllables
means that the parallelism affects a smaller number of words and is less
distinct. This effect is clearly noticeable in the two translations of de
Vedia y Mitre (1937 and 1954), in which different syllable counts are
used (14 and 11 syllables, respectively):
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Poseer de éste el arte, de aquel otro el talento
(de Vedia y Mitre, 1927)
Tener de otros el arte y el talento
(de Vedia y Mitre, 1954)
As we observe, a higher syllabic count allows greater freedom when
incorporating certain figures of speech, especially in the case of free
blank verse, as seen in translation of Gómez Gil:
He aquí que mis miembros por el día, mi mente por la noche,
por ti, y por mí, reposo nunca encuentran
However, it is undeniable that translations employing fixed metres or
syllabic counts and / or rhyme rely on other mechanisms to achieve
rhythm in their poems.
For the study of alliteration, as indicated above, I have chosen
sonnets 27 and 106, two of the many that employ it. Regarding sonnet
27, the repetition to which I will refer is found in lines 9 and 10 of the
source text:
Save that my Soul’S imaginary Sight
PreSentS thy SHadow to my SightleSS view,
In these lines, Shakespeare not only resorts to alliteration, but
highlights, once again, an opposition; as Vendler explains, “the words
see, soul, sight, shadow, sightless view form a minor strain of music in
the counterpoint, within which the negatives shadow and sightless
frustrate the full seeing of the soul’s sight (1999: p. 153, emphasis in
The peculiarity of this alliteration when translated into Spanish is
that the most usual translations of some of these words have a common
feature, namely the phoneme /s/. For example, the following words are
frequent in the translations of the above-mentioned lines (although
sometimes the alliteration is limited to only one of these verses): Sombra,
Sin, viSta, viSión, ojoS. The following lines illustrate this trend:
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Surge tu Sombra en mi viSión Sin viSta
(Vives Heredia, line 10)
a mi ojo Sin la viSta tu Sombra le preSenta
(Pérez Romero, line 10)
preSenta tu fantaSma ante miS ojoS Sin viSta
(Auad and Mañé, line 10)
However, most often, the alliteration is found expanded to include
verse 9, as we see in the following examples:
Sólo que eSa viSión de mi eSpíritu tiende
a miS ojoS Sin viSta tu Sombra y tu idea
(García Calvo)
Salvo que eSta imaginaria viSión del alma
preSenta tu Sombra a miS ojoS Sin viSta
(Gómez Gil)
Salvo que una viSión mi alma imagina
y tu Sombra a miS ojoS ciegoS mueStra
(Pérez Prieto)
Solo que mi viSión imaginaria
trae tu Sombra haSta miS ojoS CiegoS,
(Mujica Lainez)
De Vedia y Mitre, meanwhile, extends the alliteration from the
seventh to the tenth line of the poem.
Y ábrenSe miS párpadoS y miS ojoS atentoS
TraS laS eSpeSaS Sombras como los CiegoS miran.
EntonCes de mi alma como viSión flotante
Tu Sombra ante mi viSta Sin ojoS, apareCe
These examples show that the phoneme /s/ is not the only phoneme
to be repeated, as nasal consonants are often present, mainly /m/, but also
/n/ as in Pérez Prieto’s mi alma imagina. Some translators play more
visibly with these phonemes (imaginaria / imagen, mirada, mi alma,
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sombra, and so on), at times alongside the alliteration in /s/ or other
MaS eNtoNCeS loS ojoS de Mi alMa
deliNeaN tu iMageN eN las SoMbraS,
MaS Mi alMa, cuya viSta conjetura
tu SoMbra, Se la MueStra a Mi Ceguera
MueStra tu SoMbra a Mi viSN oCioSa
(Montezanti, line 10)
MaS la ViSta iMagiNaria de Mi alMa
tu SoMBra a Mi ViSN NuBlada MueStra
(Rivero Taravillo)
Rivero Taravillo, in this last example, combines the repetition of
different phonemes, namely the nasals /m/ and /n/, /s/ and /b/, thus
achieving a highly alliterative verse. Others have opted for other
phonemes in their translations, for example, Gutiérrez Izquierdo and
Gamen repeat the /l/ in the ninth line, with the former including it in
syllables ending in a consonant preceded by a vowel (al / el / il), while
the latter combines it with the phoneme /d/:
SALvo quE La ILusoria visión dEL ALma mía
(Gutiérrez Izquierdo)
Entonces La miraDA DELirante DEL ALma
In contrast to these solutions, Pombo introduces in his lines 10-11 a
somewhat different repetition (pro / gro / bro / bra) and a combination of
the phonemes /k/ and /l/ (colmar, aquel, cual):
COLmar COntigo aQUEL neGROr PROfundo;
BROtas de mí, CUAL globo deslumBRAnte
Hence, the inclusion of alliterative devices in these verses of sonnet
27 is frequent in translations. Of the 44 that include this sonnet, 32 used
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alliterations. Although, as I commented earlier on, some of the usages
could be unconscious (but not undeliberate) and simply due to the
presence of the same phonemes in the most common words used to
translate some of the expressions in the source text (for example,
Sombra, Sin, viSta, viSión, ojoS), the truth is that most of these examples
go beyond mere coincidences and look for combinations that emphasise
this phonetic repetition still further.
The repetition that takes place in sonnet 106 has both a phonetic and
lexical basis, as the reiteration of sounds derives from the use of two
words with the same root (or paregmenon). Despite being an obvious
repetition, only 22 of the 43 translators who translate this sonnet
reproduce it; most of those who do not, however, use the
hendecasyllable, which may explain the need for condensation.
Nevertheless, 14 of the translators introduce a paregmenon, generally
based on a combination of words with the lexeme bell- (bello-belleza-
embellecer), as we see in the following examples:
y a la Belleza embellecer la rima
(Mujica Lainez)
lo bello embellecer los madrigales
(Basileo Acuña)
y en bellas rimas bellos homenajes
con lo bello en belleza bien rimada
baladas con belleza embellecidas,
(Santano Moreno)
Of this group of translators, only Maristany opts for repeating a
different lexeme:
Y, en rimas ensalzadas, ensalzados
Also, the combination bello-belleza-embellecer is preferred by those
who use longer verse, such as Falaquera, Carugati, Luciano Garcia and
Y a su belleza dando belleza a viejas rimas
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Y a la Belleza embellecer las viejas estrofas
Y a la belleza loar, en verso bello y anticuado
(Luciano García)
Y a la belleza embellecer la antigua rima
However, the possibility of using longer verse has allowed other
translators to resort to repetitions involving a greater number of syllables
como hace hermosura hermoso el viejo verso
(García Calvo)
Lo hermoso haciendo hermosas esas viejas tonadas
Finally, Marrufo includes an alliteration in this same verse, although
without repeating the lexeme:
De mozos agraciados y aguerridos
As noted, alliteration is more often introduced in sonnet 27 than in
this second example. In the latter, the repetition might be more striking,
but it also requires the use of a greater number of syllables, which limits
the possibilities for translators who use fixed patterns.
Although the verse length, its rhythm or its rhyme do not seem to be
determining factors when including devices of repetition in the target
poems, they usually do influence the density of these figures. A clear
example is the thirteenth line of Gómez Gil’s sonnet 27 (He aquí que mis
miembros por el día, mi mente por la noche), in which the same
structure consisting of five words (and 14 syllables) is repeated,
something that is impossible to accomplish in a shorter line. Gómez Gil,
however, uses blank and free verse, where “parallelisms, repetitions and
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contrasts play a major role; they may be lexical, semantic or syntactic”
(Levý, 2011: p. 295), therefore, his repetition is more patent.
We must also bear in mind that the lines analysed in this paper, and
the examples provided, are isolated segments and that some translators
may have tried to achieve a phonic effect based on repetition in other
parts of the poem through various devices. For example, Gray, in sonnet
29, does not include any parallelism in verses 6 or 7, but he does
introduce an alliteration emphasized by a paregmenon in line 8 (y cuanto
yo anhelaba ya no anhelo). Compensation strategies are common in
poetic translation, and the translators who make up this corpus often
employ repetition in their poems, as can be seen in the verses of sonnet
18 translated by Pérez Prieto (tiembla el brote de mayo bajo el viento)
and Rivero Taravillo (Más hermoso eres muy más templado), both
with manifest alliteration. Others rely at the end of sonnet 18 on a
repetition based on the common root of the words vivir and vida,
combining them with others that also include the phoneme /b/, as in
Gamen ‘s translation (puedan ver, estos versos vivirán y en ellos). At
the end of sonnet 18, Méndez Herrera introduces, instead of the anaphora
found in the source text, an alliteration /r/-/t/, which gives even further
emphasis to the content expressed in the verse: Ni de hundirte la muerte
ha de jactarse. Although it is sometimes denied that sounds have
inherent properties and some scholars point to the arbitrary relationship
between signifier and signified, “it is hard to deny that poets consistently
foreground particular sound fields for particular contexts” (Adams, 1997:
p. 37). This claim seems to fit perfectly with Méndez Herrera’s distinctly
deliberate solution. However, I have indicated above that some of the
results proposed by the translators in which a repetition can be observed
may have been produced unconsciously, but not undeliberately. A poet or
metapoet who has the necessary skills to write formal poetry can
unconsciously achieve certain phonic effects through his or her poetic
experience. In the same way that tennis players do not need to think
about how to position their feet when they hit the ball ─something
unconscious, but clearly deliberate, that requires specific skills and years
of practice─ poets or metapoets possessing the right competencies do not
need to count their syllables to know that a line had grown too long or
count their phonemes to realise that their verse has acquired a melody
through the repetition of sounds.
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(siglos XIV al XX), L’Eliana, Ajuntament de L’Eliana, pp. 27-30.
Shakespeare, William (2007a), Sonetos, trans. Gustavo Falaquera,
Madrid, Hiperión.
Shakespeare, William (2007b), Sonetos, trans. Manuel Mujica Lainez
and Pablo Ingberg, Buenos Aires, Losada.
Shakespeare, William (2008), Sonetos, trans. Pedro Pérez Prieto, Tres
Cantos, Nivola.
Shakespeare, William (2009a), Sonetos, trans. Christian Law Palacín,
Madrid, Bartleby.
Shakespeare, William (2009b), Sonetos de amor, trans. Ignacio Gamen,
Sevilla, Renacimiento.
Shakespeare, William (2009c), Sonetos y Lamento de una amante,
trans. Andrés Ehrenhaus, Barcelona, Círculo de Lectores Galaxia
Shakespeare, William (2010), Tiempo de Shakespeare: vuelta de
tuerca a la traducción de sus sonetos”, trans. José Miguel
Santamaría López, in Rosa Rabadán, Trinidad Guzmán González,
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Shakespeare, William (2013b), Sonetos y querellas de una amante,
trans. Luciano García García, Valencia, JPM.
Shakespeare, William (2014a), Nueve sonetos de Shakespeare, trans.
Álvaro García, Málaga, El Toro Celeste.
Shakespeare, William (2014b), Sonetos, trans. Jenaro Talens and
Richard Waswo, Madrid, Cátedra.
Shakespeare, William (2016a), Ocho sonetos”, trans. Gabriel Jiménez
Emán, Arquitrave, 63, 6-13.
Shakespeare, William (2016b), Sonetos, trans. William Ospina,
Barelona, Navona.
Shakespeare, William (2016c), Sonetos de amor, trans. Salvador D.
Insa, Madrid, Poesía Eres Tú.
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Gutiérrez Izquierdo, Madrid, Visor Libros.
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Translator, year
S. 18
S. 27
S. 29
S. 106
J. de Armas y Cárdenas, 1915
J. Pablo Rivas, 1916
R. Pombo, 1917
F. Maristany, 1918
M. de Vedia y Mitre, 1929
P. Gannon, 1940
E. Dieste, 1944
A. Damians de Bulart, 1944
Á. Johan, 1945
M. Manent, 1947
M. de Vedia y Mitre, 1954
A. M. Howard & M. Howard, 1961
The Translation of Repetition in Shakespeare’s Sonnets 185
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M. Mujica Lainez, 1963
O. de Bingham Powell, 1964
A. García Calvo, 1974
F. Auad & Pablo Mañé, 1975
J. Méndez Herrera, 1976
J.F. Elvira-Hernández, 1977
E. Sordo, 1982
P. Vives Heredia, 1985
C. Pérez Romero, 1987
M. Bros, 1987
C. Pujol, 1990
G. Falaquera, 1993
J. Arecha, 1997
A. Rodríguez López, 1997
M. Jofré, 1997
M. Reyes Suárez, 1998
J. Capriata, 1999
J. M. Álvarez, 1999
J. R. Blanco & G. Freijo, 1999
A. Carugati, 1999
J. Basileo Acuña, 1999
A. Gómez Gil, 2000
J. Adúriz & A. Adúriz Bravo, 2000
A. Rupérez, 2000
T. Gray, 2002
186 Tanya Fernández Escudero
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L. Rutiaga, 2002
F. Marrufo, 2002
G. Vives, 2003
M. A. Montezanti, 2003
D. Fábrega, 2004
A. Rivero Taravillo, 2004
C. Gardini, 2004
L. Tacoronte, 2005
M. Pellegrini, 2006
J. Siles Artés, 2006
P. Ingberg, 2007
P. Pérez Prieto, 2007
C. Law Palacín, 2009
A. Ehrenhaus, 2009
I. Gamen, 2009
J. M. Santamaría López, 2010
R. Gutiérrez Izquierdo, 2011
M. A. Montezanti, 2011
L. García, 2013
B. Santano Moreno, 2013
J. Talens, 2014
A. García, 2014
W. Ospina, 2016
S. D. Insa, 2016
G. Jiménez Emán, 2016
The Translation of Repetition in Shakespeare’s Sonnets 187
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E. Scott, 2018
A. Ehrenhaus, 2018
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
This work provides a compilation of Spanish translations of William Shake-speare's Sonnets published between 1877, when the first translation of the work appeared, and 2019. Although the original book, published in 1609, did not enjoy great popularity in its early days (Blakmore Evans, 2006: 2), from the beginning of the 19 th century, the Sonnets were a source of speculation regarding biographical questions (Burrow, 2002: 2), which may have led to a greater impact of the work in recent centuries, not only in the English-speaking world, but also in the Spanish-speaking world, as shown by this paper. In addition to the translators of this work into Spanish and the dates and countries of publication, this article indicates some relevant characteristics of each of the translations, such as the form used to translate the sonnets, the presence of prologues and other paratexts, or the bilingual/monolingual nature of the editions. Resumen Este trabajo ofrece una recopilación de traducciones al español de los Sonetos de William Shakespeare publicadas entre 1877, fecha en que apareció la primera traducción de la obra, y 2019. Pese a que la obra original, publicada en 1609, no gozó de gran fama en sus inicios (Blakmore Evans, 2006: 2), a partir de principios del siglo XIX, los Sonetos fueron una fuente de especulación sobre asuntos biográficos (Burrow, 2002: 2), lo que pudo desembocar en un mayor impacto de la obra en los últimos siglos, no solo en el ámbito anglosajón, sino también en el hispanohablante, como lo de-muestra este trabajo. En él se indican, además de los traductores de esta obra al español y las fechas y países de publicación, algunas características relevantes de cada una de las traducciones, como la forma empleada para traducir los sonetos, la presencia de prólogos y otros paratextos o el carác-ter bilingüe/monolingüe de las ediciones.
William Shakespeare (1564-1616), actor, poeta y dramaturgo inglés del período isabelino, encarna literariamente el cambio de la Edad Media al Renacimiento. Considerado el escritor más importante en lengua inglesa, es sin duda, junto con Cervantes, uno de los referentes cumbre de la literatura universal, a la que dotó de personajes que se convertirían en arquetipos de la cultura occidental y que, en sí mismos, representan un microcosmos. Escritor con gran poder de síntesis, profundo conocedor del idioma, escribió poemas narrativos y mitológicos extensos, pero en su obra poética sobresalen los sonetos puramente líricos; la crítica destaca, en su obra dramática, una marcada distancia e indiferencia del autor con respeto a sus personajes: plantea las angustias fundamentales de la condición humana (sentimientos, dolor, ambiciones) sin moralizar, predicar o proponer un juicio ético. Sus obras históricas tienen como objetivo fomentar el patriotismo y la cultura inglesa, a la vez que justifican el poder de la monarquía. No existen documentos personales escritos por Shakespeare, por lo que algunos acontecimientos de su vida y aún la autoría de muchas de sus obras se han puesto en tela de juicio a lo largo de los años; se sabe que antes de conocerse como autor en Londres, se destacó como actor. La crítica reconoce como suyas catorce comedias, diez tragedias y diez dramas históricos; se sabe que escribió algunas otras con John Fletcher. Entre otras, es autor de las tragedias Romeo y Julieta, Julio César, Hamlet, Otelo, El rey Lear, Macbeth; de las comedias Los dos hidalgos de Verona, A buen fin no hay mal principio, El sueño de una noche de verano, Mucho ruido y pocas nueces, La fierecilla domada, El mercader de Venecia, Las alegres comadres de Windsor, Trabajos de amor perdidos; los dramas históricos Ricardo III, Ricardo II, Enrique IV, Enrique V, Enrique VIII y la comedia de fantasía La tempestad, considerada su testamento dramático.
Los juegos de palabras, ya sea en el ámbito de la polisemia, la homonimia u otro tipo de ambigüedad, siempre han atraído la atención de quiénes practican la traducción y quienes reflexionan sobre ella. Por otra parte, es usual suponer que una traducción en verso restringe más las posibilidades de la llamada fidelidad" que la prosa. El articulo examina algunas traducciones castellanas de los sonetos de Shakespeare a efectos de determinar cuáles son más exitosas en la producción de juegos de palabras presentes en el texto de origen.
Sonetos de Shakespeare. Segunda serie", trans. Mariano de Vedia y Mitre
  • William Shakespeare
Shakespeare, William (1929), "Sonetos de Shakespeare. Segunda serie", trans. Mariano de Vedia y Mitre, Verbum, 73, pp. 165-176.
Diez sonetos de Shakespeare, trans. Patricio Gannon
  • William Shakespeare
Shakespeare, William (1940), Diez sonetos de Shakespeare, trans. Patricio Gannon, Buenos Aires, Francisco Colombo.
Sonetos", trans. Marià Manent
  • William Shakespeare
Shakespeare, William (1947), "Sonetos", trans. Marià Manent, in Marià Manent (ed.), La poesía inglesa. De los primitivos a los neoclásicos, Madrid, Lauro, pp. 42-45.
Selección de los sonetos de Shakespeare, trans. Mariano Bros
  • William Shakespeare
Shakespeare, William (1987b), Selección de los sonetos de Shakespeare, trans. Mariano Bros, Barcelona, Albatros.
Veinte sonetos de Shakespeare
  • William Shakespeare
Shakespeare, William (2004c), "Veinte sonetos de Shakespeare", trans. Carlos Gardini, Ideas, 1 (2), pp. 45-75.