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First record of Violet Dropwing Trithemis annulata (Palisot de Beauvois, 1807) (Odonata: Libellulidae) in Slovenia

Authors:
  • Slovene dragonfly Society
  • Center za kartografijo favne in flore/Centre for Cartography of Fauna and Flora

Abstract and Figures

One adult male dragonfly Violet Dropwing Trithemis annulata was recorded at Lake Vogršček in the Vipava Valley (W Slovenia) during the Biological Students Research Camp – Otlica 2021. This first record for the country is presented and the species’ distribution in Europe outlined. Behavioural observations and data on the accompanying Odonata fauna are included. This widespread Afrotropical species has rapidly expanded its range in south and south-western Europe in the recent two decades, with global warming apparently being the main driver of this expansion. Hence, 73 Odonata species belonging to 29 genera and nine families are now reported for Slovenia. Trithemis is the seventh genus to be added to the family Libellulidae for the country. The discovery of T. annulata in the Vipava Valley in Slovenia is significant for the fact of being the northernmost observation on the Balkan Peninsula to date.
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NATURA SLOVENIAE 23(2): 25-37 Prejeto / Received: 10. 11. 2021
SCIENTIFIC PAPER Sprejeto / Accepted: 13. 12. 2021
Biotehniška fakulteta Univerze v Ljubljani in Nacionalni inštitut za biologijo, Ljubljana, 2021
First record of Violet Dropwing
Trithemis annulata
(Palisot de Beauvois, 1807) (Odonata: Libellulidae) in
Slovenia
Damjan VINKO1*, Ali ŠALAMUN1,2
1Slovene Dragonfly Society, Verovškova 56, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; E-mail: nabiralnik@odonatolosko-drustvo.si
2Centre for Cartography of Fauna and Flora, Ljubljana office, Tacenska 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia;
E-mail: ali.salamun@ckff.si
*corresponding author; E-mail: damjan.vinko@gmail.com
Abstract. One adult male dragonfly Violet Dropwing
Trithemis annulata
was recorded at Lake Vogršček in the
Vipava Valley (W Slovenia) during the Biological Students Research Camp Otlica 2021. This first record for the
country is presented and the species’ distribution in Europe outlined. Behavioural observations and data on the
accompanying Odonata fauna are included. This widespread Afrotropical species has rapidly expanded its range in
south and south-western Europe in the recent two decades, with global warming apparently being the main driver
of this expansion. Hence, 73 Odonata species belonging to 29 genera and nine families are now reported for
Slovenia.
Trithemis
is the seventh genus to be added to the family Libellulidae for the country. The discovery of
T. annulata
in the Vipava Valley in Slovenia is significant for the fact of being the northernmost observation on the
Balkan Peninsula to date.
Key words: dragonfly, Violet Dropwing,
Trithemis annulata
, first record, Slovenia, Vipava Valley, Lake Vogršček,
climate change, Biological Students Research Camp
Izvleček. Prva najdba ciklamnega telovnikarja
Trithemis annulata
(Palisot de Beauvois, 1807)
(Odonata: Libellulidae) v Sloveniji Na Raziskovalnem taboru študentov biologije Otlica 2021 je bil na jezeru
Vogršček v Vipavski dolini (Z Slovenija) zabeležen odrasel samec kačjega pastirja ciklamnega telovnikarja
Trithemis
annulata
. Prva najdba vrste v Sloveniji je predstavljena skupaj s pregledom razširjenosti v Evropi. Dodani so opis
vedenja opazovanega samca ter podatki o favni kačjih pastirjev na jezeru. Ta široko razširjena afrotropska vrsta
kačjih pastirjev je v zadnjih dveh desetletjih občutno povečala območje razširjenosti, predvsem v južni in
jugozahodni Evropi, kar se zdi zlasti posledica globalnega segrevanja. Skupaj je tako za Slovenijo znanih 73 vrst
kačjih pastirjev, uvrščenih v 29 rodov iz devetih družin, rod telovnikarjev pa je sedmi rod družine ploščecev v državi.
Odkritje
T. annulata
v Vipavski dolini v Sloveniji je pomembno, saj gre za najsevernejše opazovanje na Balkanskem
polotoku doslej.
Ključne besede: kačji pastir, ciklamni telovnikar,
Trithemis annulata
, prvi podatek, Slovenija, Vipavska dolina, jezero
Vogršček, podnebne spremembe, Raziskovalni tabor študentov biologije
26 Damjan VINKO & Ali ŠALAMUN: First record of Violet Dropwing
Trithemis annulata
in Slovenia / SCIENTIFIC PAPER
NATURA SLOVENIAE 23(2): 25-37
Introduction
Several dragonfly species (Insecta: Odonata) are strong fliers, able to cover long distances
as occasional vagrants or regular true migrants, especially when supported by favourable winds
(Corso et al. 2012, Dijkstra et al. 2020). Global warming is influencing also the distribution range
of numerous Odonata species, causing northward expansions, while a tendency towards an
increasing range of movements in their migratory patterns has been noticed as well (Boudot et
al. 2009, Ott 2010a, b, Termaat et al. 2019). Some dragonfly species are spreading north from
Africa or southern Europe, and are rapidly colonising new areas in central Europe, too. Violet
Dropwing
Trithemis annulata
(Palisot de Beauvois, 1807) is also among such examples (Bonet
Betoret 2000, Ott 2010a, Gheza et al. 2019, Dijkstra et al. 2020).
Trithemis annulata
is common throughout most of Africa, except in areas with closed tropical
forests, and widespread in most of the Arabian Peninsula, extending to eastern Iran and
southern Turkey and rapidly colonizing south and south-western Europe (Kalkman et al. 2015).
This ubiquitous and pioneer species inhabits a wide variety of sun-exposed, stagnant and slow-
flowing waters, including freshwater lagoons, sluggish streams and rivers, as well as artificial
water bodies like ditches, reservoirs, gravel pits, quarry lakes and barrage lakes (Kalkman et al.
2015, Wildermuth & Martens 2019, Dijkstra et al. 2020). For Europe, quarry lakes and large
reservoirs are reported as the main reproductive habitats of
T. annulata
(Brochard & van der
Ploeg 2013, Ottonello & Oneto 2013, Cabana et al. 2014, Fabbri et al. 2016, Gheza et al. 2019).
The species is bivoltine in the Mediterranean area (Boudot et al. 2017). It can develop in waters
with low oxygen concentrations (Balzan 2008) and neutral or slightly alkaline pH (Bonet Betoret
2000). The larvae show fast development of about 78 weeks (Boudot et al. 2017), being able
to colonize also temporary water bodies (Wildermuth & Martens 2019). Imagoes can be easily
identified by abdomen colour and patterning, thorax patterning and wing coloration. Its size is
the same as that of the medium-sized
Sympetrum
species (3238 mm) (Dijkstra et al. 2020).
The flight season of
T. annulata
in Europe is reported to range from February to November
(Kalkman et al. 2015, Chiari et al. 2020). It is a good flier and is able to cover even long
distances; although it is not considered a true migratory species (Wildermuth & Martens 2019),
its movements are essentially erratic or nomadic (Gheza et al. 2019).
In Europe, 163 species of Odonata have been recorded together with species that
occasionally migrate from other continents, especially Africa (Dijkstra et al. 2020). Observation
of the first individual of
T. annulata
in Slovenia was an expected surprise in 2021. Until recently,
72 Odonata species belonging to 28 genera and nine families were reported from Slovenia
(Kotarac 2015), although some species have not been recorded in the last decades (Vinko et al.
2020).
With this contribution, the first observation of
T. annulata
in Slovenia at Lake Vogršček in
the Vipava Valley is presented together with information about the species’ distribution in
Europe. Slovene name for
T. annulata
has already been provided
ciklamni telovnikar
(Geister
1999);
ciklama
cyclamen (from its colour),
telovnik
vest. English name is Violet Dropwing
(Dijkstra et al. 2020). Odonate fauna of the Vipava Valley has been fairly well studied, with 53
species reported for the region (Vinko 2016). Considering dragonflies, some abandoned claypits
and Lake Vogršček are biodiversity hotspots in the region. As regards dragonflies, the Vipava
Valley is the second richest region in Slovenia (Vinko 2016).
Damjan VINKO & Ali ŠALAMUN: First record of Violet Dropwing
Trithemis annulata
in Slovenia / SCIENTIFIC PAPER 27
NATURA SLOVENIAE 23(2): 25-37
Materials and methods
The north-eastern inlet of Lake Vogršček (45°54'40.1" N, 13°45'06.0" E, 100 m alt., Fig. 1)
in the Vipava Valley (W Slovenia) was investigated on 22. and 24.7.2021 during the field work
carried out by the odonatological group at the Biological Students Research Camp (
Raziskovalni
tabor študentov biologije
, RTŠB) Otlica 2021, organized by the Biological Students’ Society
(
Društvo študentov biologije
). Due to the observation of
T. annulata
on 24.7.2021, targeted
short trips to the same site were conducted by the first author also on 25. and 31.7.2021. Apart
from observations of adult dragonflies (imagoes), search for larval skins was also performed at
the spot. No voucher specimens of adults were taken and no larvae were sampled. The weather
was sunny and hot.
Study area
The Vipava Valley is one of the warmest parts of Slovenia. Climate is sub-Mediterranean.
Annual average temperature is 12°C, 21°C in July; the number of hot days with above 25°C is
far above the Slovenian average (Pavšič 2013). Compared to the rest of the country, except for
the coastal areas of Slovenian Istria, the insolation is significantly higher and the vegetation
period is longer (Pavšič 2013).
Lake Vogršček, situated near the village of Šempas, is the largest water body in the Vipava
Valley. This approximately 4 km long and 82 ha large reservoir was made between 1985 and
1989 upon eponymous stream, primarily for irrigation (Pavšič 2013). The lake is managed by
the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, Slovenian Water Agency (
Direkcija
Republike Slovenije za vode
). It is divided into three separate parts, with the two northern
smaller inlets being more interesting for nature conservation. Here the depth of the lake reaches
6 m; on the surface, the water temperature reaches 28°C in summer (Mrzelj et al. 2020). Fishing
as well as some water sports take place throughout the lake. The two northern smaller inlets,
bounded by a highway embankment, are characterized by flat and overgrown shores, while in
the rest of the lake the shores are barer and steeper. Thus, the diversity of microhabitats at
northern inlets is greater, mainly owing to the better developed plant stands. Due to fishery,
the vegetation at the north-eastern inlet is cut on several places (Fig. 1b), which in addition to
the presence of fish also affects the lake’s dragonfly distribution and diversity. Due to the dam
maintenance on the western edge of the southern inlet and its surroundings, the largest inlet
was almost dry during our visit. This somehow controversial maintenance, which is supposed to
be finished by spring 2022, had no significant visual effects on the north-eastern inlet at the
time of our fieldwork, although more than 12 tons of fish were transferred from southern to
northern inlets in November 2021.
The lake has no conservation status; its shore borders Natura 2000 site Dolina Vipave
(SI3000226) (Ur. l. RS 2004a, b). Prior to our field trips in 2021, a total of 37 dragonfly species
had been recorded from both northern inlets (34 from north-eastern inlet alone) (Vinko 2016),
with
Ceriagrion tenellum
(de Villers, 1789) being the most interesting as an endangered and
nationally protected Odonata species (Vinko 2016).
28 Damjan VINKO & Ali ŠALAMUN: First record of Violet Dropwing
Trithemis annulata
in Slovenia / SCIENTIFIC PAPER
NATURA SLOVENIAE 23(2): 25-37
Figure 1. North-eastern inlet of Lake Vogršček, Vipava Valley, Slovenia (photo: D. Vinko, ac July 2021,
d July 2011).
Slika 1. Severovzhodni krak akumulacijskega jezera Vogršček, Vipavska dolina, Slovenija (foto: D. Vinko,
ac julij 2021, d julij 2011).
Results
During four field trips in July 2021, 18 Odonata species were recorded at north-eastern inlet
of Lake Vogršček (Tab. 1). One singular vagrant male of
T. annulata
, detected on 24 July 2021
(around 15:10 hrs), was the most interesting observation, representing the first record for the
species in Slovenia (Figs. 2, 3). No additional
T. annulata
individuals were found during other
field trips (22, 25, 31 July 2021), nor on 3 and 11 August, when other field trips were taken
(Kovačič S. unpubl., Kogovšek P. & Tivadar N. unpubl.).
Damjan VINKO & Ali ŠALAMUN: First record of Violet Dropwing
Trithemis annulata
in Slovenia / SCIENTIFIC PAPER 29
NATURA SLOVENIAE 23(2): 25-37
Table 1. List of 18 Odonata species recorded at the north-eastern inlet of Lake Vogršček (Vipava Valley, western
Slovenia) in late July 2021 (22, 24, 25, 31 July 2021). A total of 39 Odonata species have been recorded from Lake
Vogršček to date [legit. & det. D. Vinko].
Tabela 1. Seznam 18 vrst kačjih pastirjev, zabeleženih na severovzhodnem kraku akumulacijskega jezera Vogršček
(Vipavska dolina, zahodna Slovenija) konec julija 2021 (22., 24., 25., 31. 7. 2021). Skupno je bilo doslej na jezeru
zabeleženih 39 vrst kačjih pastirjev [legit. & det. D. Vinko].
Species
Slovene name
Chalcolestes viridis
(Vander Linden, 1825)
zelena pazverca
Calopteryx splendens
(Harris, 1780)
pasasti bleščavec
Platycnemis pennipes
(Pallas, 1771)
sinji presličar
Coenagrion puella
(Linnaeus, 1758)
travniški škratec
Erythromma lindenii
(Sélys, 1840)
prodni paškratec
Erythromma viridulum
(Charpentier, 1840)
mali rdečeokec
Ischnura elegans
(Vander Linden, 1820)
modri kresničar
Ceriagrion tenellum
(de Villers, 1789)
rdeči voščenec
Anax imperator
Leach, 1815
veliki spremljevalec
Anax parthenope
(Sélys, 1839)
modroriti spremljevalec
Somatochlora meridionalis
Nielsen, 1935
sredozemski lesketnik
Crocothemis erythraea
(Brullé, 1832)
opoldanski škrlatec
Orthetrum albistylum
(Sélys, 1848)
temni modrač
Orthetrum cancellatum
(Linnaeus, 1758)
prodni modrač
Orthetrum coerulescens
(Fabricius, 1798)
mali modrač
Sympetrum fonscolombii
(Sélys, 1840)
malinovordeči kamenjak
Sympetrum sanguineum
(Müller, 1764)
krvavordeči kamenjak
Trithemis annulata
(Palisot de Beauvois, 1807)
ciklamni telovnikar
The male individual at Lake Vogršček was observed while engaged in territorial behaviour
with
Crocothemis erythraea
(Brullé, 1832) and
Orthetrum albistylum
(Sélys, 1848), utilising
small black alder bush
Alnus glutinosa
(L.) and surrounding plants on the bank (Fig. 1b) as
perching sites. Besides the aforementioned territorial behaviour, the individual was performing
rapid flights low over the water before caught by the first author. Obelisk position with drooped
wings on a twig about 1 m above the water level was also observed.
All found Libellulidae exuviae belonged to
C. erythraea
,
O. albistylum
,
Orthetrum
cancellatum
(Linnaeus, 1758) and
Sympetrum fonscolombii
(Sélys, 1840).
Calopteryx splendens
(Harris, 1780)
was recorded at Lake Vogršček for the first time and
Chalcolestes viridis
(Vander Linden, 1825) for the first time at its north-eastern inlet.
30 Damjan VINKO & Ali ŠALAMUN: First record of Violet Dropwing
Trithemis annulata
in Slovenia / SCIENTIFIC PAPER
NATURA SLOVENIAE 23(2): 25-37
Figure 2. Male
Trithemis annulata
recorded at north-eastern inlet of Lake Vogršček (Vipava Valley, western Slovenia).
Mature males are unique in Europe due to their cyclamen and wine-red colour combination, which makes them
unmistakable. Vertex and dorsum of frons are violet-reddish metallic. The wing veins are red, base of the wings is
amber orange (photo: D. Vinko, 24.7.2021).
Slika 2. Samec ciklamnega telovnikarja
Trithemis annulata
, zabeležen na severovzhodnem kraku jezera Vogršček
(Vipavska dolina, zahodna Slovenija). Spolno zreli samci so zaradi ciklamne in vinsko rdeče barve v Evropi nezamenljivi
z drugimi vrstami. Teme in dorzalni del čela sta kovinskega sijaja vijolično-rdeče barve. Žile na krilih so rdeče, baza kril
pa je jantarno oranžna (foto: D. Vinko, 24. 7. 2021).
Discussion
Trithemis annulata
favours warm conditions and shallow waters (Dijkstra et al. 2020). This
widespread Afrotropical generalist species has in recent decades rapidly expanded its range in
south and south-western Europe. Global warming seems to be the main driver of this expansion
(Boudot et al. 2009, Ott 2010a).
Damjan VINKO & Ali ŠALAMUN: First record of Violet Dropwing
Trithemis annulata
in Slovenia / SCIENTIFIC PAPER 31
NATURA SLOVENIAE 23(2): 25-37
Figure 3. Observations of
Trithemis annulata
in Slovenia and nearest neighbouring countries (sources cited in
Discussion).
Slika 3. Najdbe ciklamnega telovnikarja
Trithemis annulata
v Sloveniji in bližnjih državah (viri navedeni v Razpravi).
First recordings of
T. annulata
in Europe date back to the mid-19th century from southern
Italy and Cyprus (Kalkman et al. 2015). However, it remained rare and local until the second
half of the 20th century, when it expanded across the Mediterranean basin (Boudot et al. 2009).
It colonised the entire Iberian Peninsula from 1978 onwards, was found on Corsica for the first
time in 1988 and in continental France in 1994 (Bonet Betoret 2000, Boudot et al. 2009, Kalkman
et al. 2015, Lohr 2021). In the following decade,
T. annulata
continued its expansion towards
the western Mediterranean basin at progression rate of around 20 to 30 km per year (Renoult
2013), colonizing several waterbodies in a single flight season. Its colonisation in France is well
documented, spreading separately on Atlantic and Mediterranean front (Deliry 2010), with
records from the Loire River catchment representing the species’ northern limit in Europe to
date (GBIF 2021). Until the late 20th century, the distribution of
T. annulata
was limited in Italy
to its southern regions Sicily, Sardinia, Calabria, Basilicata, Apulia, Campania, Lazio (Conci &
Nielsen 1956, Battaglini & Percuoco 1967, Carchini et al. 1985) and Tuscany (Terzani 1991),
while in the last two decades it colonised Abruzzo, Marche, Umbria, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria
(Fabbri 2011, La Porta et al. 2013, Ottonello & Oneto 2013, Fabbri et al. 2016). Now it is
widespread mostly in the areas with the Mediterranean bioclimate (Gheza et al. 2019, Odonata.it
2019). It was recently reported from Lombardy, these records being the northernmost for the
country, with abundant populations during the summer of 2018 in Milan and Brescia cities and
their surroundings (Gheza et al. 2019, Chiari et al. 2020). Since several records of
T. annulata
32 Damjan VINKO & Ali ŠALAMUN: First record of Violet Dropwing
Trithemis annulata
in Slovenia / SCIENTIFIC PAPER
NATURA SLOVENIAE 23(2): 25-37
were made in this region also in the ensuing years (iNaturalist 2021, GBIF 2021), it seems
possible that its eggs or larvae are able to survive the winter season in more northern latitudes,
or that imagoes migrate to these Italian northern provinces each year separately. In Lombardy,
which is at about the same latitude as the Vipava Valley,
T. annulata
imagoes were observed
from mid-June to early November (Gheza et al. 2019, Chiari et al. 2020, iNaturalist 2021).
Closest to Slovenia, from the Veneto region, there are records of mature imagoes of
T. annulata
near Padua and Treviso (Odonata.it 2019, Chiari et al. 2020, iNaturalist 2021, Observation.org
2021). Records date from 2018 onwards with the nearest record from about 120 km away from
Lake Vogršček. Single record in Hungary at the Danube’s oxbow in the Tolna Region (Farkas
2017) is the species’ north-eastern limit in Europe to date, indicating at least occasional
migration of the species to the east as well. Prior to the species’ observation in Slovenia, the
record from Hungary was several hundred kilometres away from the closest known sites
(Fig. 3). In south-eastern Europe,
T. annulata
is rare (Kalkman et al. 2015) or at least less
documented. There are only few records from Montenegro, Albania and Bulgaria (Gligorović et
al. 2010, De Knijf et al. 2013, Pešić et al. 2017, Shkëmbi et al. 2018, Shkëmbi 2019, iNaturalist
2021, Observation.org 2021). In Montenegro, the species successfully reproduces at Lake
Skadar (De Knijf et al. 2013). Although it was officially recorded in Montenegro for the first time
in 2008 (Gligorović et al. 2010), an older observation dating to August 1990 from a single locality
south of Ulcinj is mentioned as in need of confirmation in Jović et al. (2008). In Greece, it is
quite common on most of the islands and on the Ionian coast (Lopau 2010), with several
thousand individuals reported on some sites (Brochard & van der Ploeg 2013). Records from
Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Northern Macedonia are to be expected.
The discovery of
T. annulata
in the Vipava Valley in Slovenia is significant as being the
species’ northernmost observation on the Balkan Peninsula (Fig. 3). As its expansion in Europe
originates from the Iberian and Apennine peninsulas (Ott 2010a), and with the species current
distribution in mind, we assume that the recorded individual wandered to Lake Vogršček from
Italy rather than from the south of the Balkans. The finding of only one imago at Lake Vogršček
suggests that our record concerns a wandering specimen not belonging to a local population.
We can exclude that the species has been previously overlooked, given that the Vipava Valley
has been fairly well investigated in the recent past (Vinko 2016).
Trithemis annulata
is rather territorial and often extremely aggressive towards both
conspecifics as well as considerably larger species (Balzan 2008, Corso et al. 2012, Gheza et al.
2019). This behaviour, as well as the persistent territory defence, may have helped this species
to establish itself in fairly wide ranges. In order to investigate the ecological consequences of
the species’ expansion, further monitoring of Odonata populations is required. It is known that
in some cases habitat colonisation by
T. annulata
resulted in local decline of the formerly
abundant
C. erythraea
(Bonet Betoret 2000), which is also widely present at Lake Vogršček. To
mitigate the impacts of global and local alterations and to develop sustainable management
strategies, there is a need for biodiversity monitoring as well as for assessing and understanding
the consequences of ecosystem changes (Ott 2010b, Hooper et al. 2012, Termaat et al. 2019).
Bio-assessments of Odonata provide cost-effective and sensitive tool to monitor the
consequences of human activities (Kalkman et al. 2010).
Damjan VINKO & Ali ŠALAMUN: First record of Violet Dropwing
Trithemis annulata
in Slovenia / SCIENTIFIC PAPER 33
NATURA SLOVENIAE 23(2): 25-37
Within the last decade, two new Odonata species have been discovered in Slovenia,
Selysiothemis nigra
(Vander Linden, 1825) (Šalamun 2012) and
T. annulata
, both assumingly
arriving to Slovenia from Italy (Vinko 2019). Global warming has clearly favoured the expansion
of both species during the last years (Boudot et al. 2009, Lohr 2021) and due to their ecological
characteristics, further records, including proof of breeding, are to be expected at least in the
Primorska region, western Slovenia. As recent changes in distributions of both species among
others show, Odonata are regarded as a good indicator group for climatic change as well (Ott
2010a, Termaat et al. 2019). Contrary to other insect taxa (e.g., butterflies, grasshoppers), they
depend mostly on aquatic ecosystems and their expansion is not directly aided by humans
depending only on their own dispersal and migration behaviours. With only rare exceptions,
they do not depend on the presence of other species, thus representing a unique climate change
indicator (Ott 2010b).
Together with
T. annulata
, 73 Odonata species belonging to 29 genera and nine families are
now reported for Slovenia.
Trithemis
is the seventh genus to be added to the family Libellulidae
in Slovenia. For the Vipava Valley, 54 Odonata species have been recorded.
Consequently, a total of 39 Odonata species have been recorded for both northern inlets of
Lake Vogršček, which represents 53 % of this insect group fauna for Slovenia. Apart from
T. annulata
and
C. tenellum
, the Odonata assemblage observed at Lake Vogršček during our
field trips is composed by species which are widespread in the Vipava Valley (Vinko 2016).
Povzetek
Kačji pastirji so učinkovita bioindikatorska skupina za ocenjevanje sprememb v okolju (Kalkman in sod.
2010) ter tudi dober kazalnik za spremljanje podnebnih sprememb in ugotavljanje njihovih vplivov
(Ott 2010a). Podnebne spremembe med drugim vplivajo na območje razširjenosti številnih vrst kačjih
pastirjev in na njihove selitvene vzorce (Ott 2010b, Termaat in sod. 2019). Nekatere vrste se širijo na sever
iz Afrike ali iz južne Evrope in hitro kolonizirajo nova območja tudi v srednji Evropi (Bonet Betoret 2000,
Gheza in sod. 2019, Dijkstra in sod. 2020). Med njimi je tudi ciklamni telovnikar
Trithemis annulata
(Palisot
de Beauvois, 1807). Ta široko razširjena afrotropska vrsta kačjih pastirjev je v zadnjih dveh desetletjih
občutno povečala območje razširjenosti, kar se zdi zlasti posledica globalnega segrevanja (Boudot in sod.
2009). Vrsta naseljuje najrazličnejše soncu izpostavljene, počasi tekoče in stoječe vode (Kalkman in sod.
2015). Spolno zreli samci so zaradi ciklamne in vinsko rdeče barve telesa v Evropi nezamenljivi z drugimi
vrstami.
V prispevku poročamo o prvi najdbi ciklamnega telovnikarja za Slovenijo. Dne 24. 7. 2021 smo na
Raziskovalnem taboru študentov biologije – Otlica 2021 na severovzhodnem kraku jezera Vogršček v
Vipavski dolini (zahodna Slovenija) popisali odraslega samca (Sl. 2). Med sicer štirimi obiski Vogrščka (Sl. 1)
konec julija 2021 smo vrsto zabeležili le enkrat. Dodan je opis vedenja zabeleženega samca ter združbe
kačjih pastirjev na jezeru (Tab. 1).
V prispevku predstavljamo razširjenost vrste v Evropi, kjer je kljub prvim podatkom za celino iz sredine
19. stoletja vrsta ostala redka in lokalno razširjena vse do druge polovice 20. stoletja, ko se je v večji meri
razširila predvsem v južni in jugozahodni Evropi (Kalkman in sod. 2015). Z izjemo večine grških otokov in
tamkajšnje ionske obale je na Balkanu redka, z le nekaj najdišči v Črni gori, Albaniji in Bolgariji (Gligorović
in sod. 2010, De Knijf in sod. 2013, Pešić in sod. 2017, Shkëmbi in sod. 2018, Shkëmbi 2019,
34 Damjan VINKO & Ali ŠALAMUN: First record of Violet Dropwing
Trithemis annulata
in Slovenia / SCIENTIFIC PAPER
NATURA SLOVENIAE 23(2): 25-37
iNaturalist 2021, Observation.org 2021). Odkritje
T. annulata
v Vipavski dolini, ki je ena najtoplejših regij v
Sloveniji (Pavšič 2013), je pomembno, saj gre za najsevernejše opazovanje na Balkanskem polotoku doslej
(Sl. 3). Sklepamo, da je zabeleženi samec priletel iz Italije, kjer je vrsta bolj razširjena (Odonata.it. 2019).
Zaradi ekoloških značilnosti vrste je v prihodnje pričakovati nove podatke o pojavljanju ciklamnega
telovnikarja najmanj na Primorskem (zahodna Slovenija), vključno s potrditvijo razvoja.
Za Slovenijo je tako znanih 73 vrst kačjih pastirjev, uvrščenih v 29 rodov iz devetih družin, rod
telovnikarjev je sedmi rod družine ploščecev v državi. V Vipavski dolini je skupno z novo najdbo doslej
zabeleženih že 54 vrst kačjih pastirjev, z jezera Vogršček pa je znanih 39 vrst.
Acknowledgements
Our cordial thanks to Mark Plut, Anže Nemec, Aleksander Kozina, Marisa Schlamberger, Ana Tratnik, Adrian Samuel
Stell Pičman, Leja Piko, Nik Šabeder and Anja Bolčina for their participation in the fieldwork, and to A. T., N. Š., L. P., A. K.
for their help with the transport. Branka Trčak identified vegetation at perching site. Peter Kogovšek, Nika Tivadar and
Simon Kovačič gave information on their field trips to Lake Vogršček in August 2021. We are grateful to both reviewers for
constructive suggestions, which improved the manuscript.
The work implemented by the odonatological group at the Biological Students Research Camp Otlica 2021 was
partially supported by the Student Organisation of University of Ljubljana and Fundacija Študentski tolar, ustanova ŠOU v
Ljubljani as part of the project Sustainable Digitalization Goals with YOUth, co-financed by the European Commission under
the Erasmus+ program (project leader: Knowledge Infusion from Serbia).
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Osservazioni ecologiche sulla fauna limnologica del lago-craterico di Astroni (Campi Flegrei)
  • P Battaglini
  • G Percuoco
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