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Sustainable development concept has been associated with many things, as in this situation with “Payment for Environmental Services [PES]”; a modern invention craving attention across the world, and more so for the benefit of those in developing nations around Asia, Latin America and Africa. Financing of sustainable development schemes require scope for enhancing sustained maintenance of basic livelihoods for everyone [both in the present and future], but more so for those whose lives have been heavily dependent on renewable forest resources. The concept of PES has been exemplified in a simple way to enable readers [of all types, ranging from professionals, academics to non-professionals] to grasp basic concepts that bothers on economics and natural resource concepts, and their application in understanding the varied sources of funding sustainable means of livelihoods, while at the same time ensuring the environment is securely protected for the benefit of both present and future generations. To start with, an introduction to the concept of sustainable development is addressed in line with REDD/REDD+ schemes, followed by detailed background information about Sierra Leone as a nation [including the geography. Pre and Post-colonial management of forests, and political economy dimension]. Secondly, there is a focus on the concept of PES, and backed by ways of financing it, particularly in the context of Sierra Leone. Thirdly, there is discussion surrounding the case for PES, challenges and associated benefits. Lastly, the document concludes with an overview of the study and recommendations to address the situation in the context of Sierra Leone.

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This article addresses philosophical discourses (ontology and epistemology), framing researchers’ position on topical issues relating to sustainable development, particularly in relation to Sierra Leone. The country is a nation full of memories; that which has brought lasting pain in the minds of people and the use of philosophical concepts has helped to throw light on areas pertaining to the country’s scope for achieving its SDGs, while at the same time, engaging with the reality of issues through open discourses. Relevant methodologies have also been addressed with the hope of bringing to the fore ontological discourses required to foster epistemic dialogue for the sustained development of the country as a whole (more so in areas like health calamities and civil crisis the country have battled itself with in the past decade). Relevant recommended points have been proposed as a way of supporting forward thinking discourses in ensuring the country is able to progress well with its planned SDGs targets.
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This report is based on a qualitative investigation carried out to unearth people’s perceptions in the Goderich Village community of the causes / drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. It has explored the historical background with regard to culture / tradition and economic activities. Regeneration has surely made an impact in beautifying the entire community, but at the expense of the demise of cultural values, and also future environmental risks. Ethnographic methodology was used as the main approach to investigating opinions and with more open-ended style questions used to help explore deeper understanding of people’s perceptions about common drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. Views on people’s perception about the way forward in cushioning future disaster were also addressed in the conclusion.
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FLEGT is an acronym in reference to the global monitoring of timber trade. This paper has explored the initiative by reviewing laws relating to the protection of forest resources through illegal timber trading activities. Cooperation with countries in all the four stages of the VPA have made it possible to unearth illegal activities perpetrated by high profile government officials around the world and in particular, Sierra Leone which is the focus of this paper. The paper also explore discourses about the possible cooperation with EU-FLEFT and officials in countries engaged at some point in one of the four stages of the VPA to request technical assistance in the monitoring of timber trade deals and the reforestation of deforested lands. The conclusion in this paper have addressed the need for local community initiatives like community forestry and agroforestry as a possible means of enhancing skills and job prospects by residents in rural communities.
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Goderich is a community that lies within strategic position in the Western Area Peninsula Forest [WAPFoR]. It has a fast growing population, fuelled by a regeneration of new building construction projects but at a cost to the depletion of forest reserve and ultimately, mobility /extinction of biodiversity. In addition to these developments, it also lies in the heart of a fishing community where demand for fuel wood is always on the high due to demands for smoked fish. Primary survey was conducted to address opinions about the current state of deforestation and biodiversity loss, with mixed opinions emanating from the analysed results. Reference was also linked to safeguarding as an important aspect to be considered when dealing with measures to curb deforestation, particularly for people in dependant forest communities like Goderich. The way forward was addressed with discourses pointing around possible initiatives like community forestry and agroforestry to bolster community cohesion aimed at empowering people.
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This commentary is a reflection of the outcome of an online conference organized by the Food and Agricultural Organisation [FAO] on the 13th February 2015, and for which pertinent questions about on-going issues relating to the economics of climate change mitigation were addressed (Appendix 1). A very interesting session that captured scholarly debates around issues dealing with the ‘cost and benefits’ of ongoing steps to avoid future catastrophe in biodiversity existence and the natural ecosystem.
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Forest is a good source of livelihood for majority of people in developing nations, particularly in Sierra Leone, where ruralpoor are seeking for their daily means of survival through hunting, wood fetching, quarrying and in some cases, tree falling for herbs. Sierra Leone as a nation is striving hard in meeting international standards in reducing carbon emission from deforestation and forest degradation, an initiate of REDD+ agenda. In order for this to be achieved, the country with the support of administrative bodies have adopted legislative measures with the aim of curbing illegal deforestation that has been going on before the brutal civil war. The introduction of REDD/REDD+ strategies seemed to have made stride in providing support to communities in cushioning the impact of hard core legislations. This on its own is not sufficient in mitigating basic livelihood problems experienced by people in poor rural communities. The paper have addressed some critical aspects that needs to be taken into consideration in allowing policies such as REDD+ agenda to work successfully for community members affected.
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This article examines the issue of deforestation on Sierra Leone's Freetown Peninsula, specifically analysing the gap that exists between the rhetoric surrounding the problem of deforestation and the subsequent policies and projects that are implemented to address it. It is argued in this paper that this gap can be better understood by examining how different actors involved in policy and projects interact over the issue of deforestation. Such an examination reveals how these actors produce discourses of blame towards poorer, politically weaker groups, which ultimately results in deforestation 'solutions' that intervene into their lives. These prescriptions of blame and subsequent solutions for deforestation are negotiated through a combination of local realities, which includes the occurrence of deforestation, and global influences such as development discourses and interventions. The analysis here reflects a political ecology framework that also draws from post-structuralist insights and reveals how underlying discourses, actions and actors across a broad political, social and economic spectrum ultimately play a role in influencing the causes, perceptions and solutions relating to deforestation. Keywords: Deforestation, Political Ecology, Freetown, Discourses, Development, Sierra Leone, Africa
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This year presents us with two important opportunities to influence the direction of sustainable development financing - the UN Summit on Financing for Development and the World Summit on Sustainable Development. We may ultimately remember both as missed opportunities. We need to take a fresh look at the entire system of financing for development and reorient it towards a sustainable development orientation. This requires focusing on questions of legitimacy, accountability and capacity. Such action would challenge the now entrenched orientation of the regime as a 'financing' regime. It will require a re-examination of the institu- tions that are entrusted with the agenda and will find nearly all lacking in necessary capacities. An expanded institutional framework that incorporates intermediary and local non-government organizations (NGOs) would be absolutely critical. Finally, institutions (at all levels) will need to be invested in with a different set of performance metrics; measures which gauge the ability of institutions to deliver on their developmental goals, rather than focus only on financial accounting.
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Is it coincidence that of all the conflicts of the twentieth century at least half have been in forested areas? Some people have been asking if this is happenstance or whether there is something about forests that attracts discord. The phenomenon is not only widespread but very worrying, both from the perspective of the threat to the unique ecosystems affected as well as the communities involved. Given these circumstances, a better understanding of the linkages between tropical forests and extreme conflict could assist policymakers and practitioners alike in grappling with the major issues associated with conflict resolution and environmental conservation. Better informed decision makingwould contribute greatly to addressing security concerns, a key issue on the agenda of many governments and international agencies and organizations around the world today.
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This dissertation evaluates environmental and social change in southwestern Sierra Leone, West Africa as a consequence of externally generated trade in timber in the 19th century and rutile (titanium dioxide) mining in the 20th century. Using a conceptual model based on world-systems theory it sought to investigate interactive connections between external trade, social change and environmental change. A mixed method approach was used in a primarily qualitative case study of context bound information. Archival records and tabular analysis of data in the form of export figures revealed that timber extraction caused environmental deterioration locally but did not support the widespread deforestation proposed by earlier research work. Further, earlier analyses were based on a limited sample of timber export figures. These studies did not take into account timber exports recorded in forms other than timber logs/loads such as a variety of dimensions, monetary value and ship tonnage. Nor did they give ample consideration to the significant amounts of other tree species destroyed to facilitate the export trade but not accounted for in export records. In the 20th century, reservoir construction for mining caused flooding of fertile alluvial agricultural land, deforestation, and the creation of tailings piles over a portion of the mine lease area. In both time periods, extraction areas were characterized by a complex political ecology with profound changes to the traditional social hierarchy. New social structures emerged from an influx of in-migrants or "strangers" some of whom acquired the means of production to become power figures in local communities. In the 19th century the colonial government intervened forcefully to modify traditional political systems to facilitate trade. Opportunities presented by new land-use practices like logging and mining led to rivalries over land rights within ethnic groups which frequently escalated into full-scale war more commonly in the volatile and diffuse atmosphere in the 19th century than in the 20th century nation-state of Sierra Leone. In the mining era conflict was over land ownership for the benefits of surface rent payments and royalties and in-migrant hegemony. Historical records from the timber era and production and financial data from mining rutile confirm unequal exchange between core countries to which raw materials were exported and Sierra Leone. These extraction industries linked the labor of indigenous people in southwestern Sierra Leone to a global market. In addition to such core-periphery inequities on a global scale, core-periphery microcosms were reproduced locally. Local agency facilitated and perpetuated exploitation of dependent and slave labor in the 19th century and cheap wage-labor in the 20th century. Transportation networks in this region were constructed primarily to remove raw materials from extraction site to port for export to core countries. Comparative case studies on the extent to which extraction and production processes for the benefit of core countries cause environmental and social change in peripheral areas of the world-system will inform the conceptual model by providing more empirical evidence to substantiate the theory.
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The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has facilitated the detection of unculturable microorganisms in virtually any environmental source and has thus been used extensively in the assessment of environmental microbial diversity. This technique relies on the assumption that the gene sequences present in the environment are complementary to the "universal" primers used in their amplification. The recent discovery of new taxa with 16S rDNA sequences not complementary to standard universal primers suggests that current 16S rDNA libraries are not representative of true prokaryotic biodiversity. Here we re-assess the specificity of commonly used 16S rRNA gene primers and present these data in tabular form designed as a tool to aid simple analysis, selection and implementation. In addition, we present two new primer pairs specifically designed for effective "universal" Archaeal 16S rDNA sequence amplification. These primers are found to amplify sequences from Crenarchaeote and Euryarchaeote type strains and environmental DNA.
Given the extent of problems that pandemic like COVID-19 has brought to the world economy, it is worthwhile for a focus of the sustainable livelihood to incorporate risk factors that inclusive of people’s state of vulnerability, irrespective of status in society.Onthat note, the author has thought it worthwhile to expand on Scoones’ (1998) definition by incorporating risk factor, thereby bringing to the fore a refined definition as specified here: “Sustainable livelihoods is the opportunities / capabilities for living beings (more so humans) to access much needed assets / capitals without prejudice, which are necessary for survival without recourse to measures that would be detrimental to the unstained depletion of assets in time of shock, while taking account of risks associated with unforeseen events to nature”.
ABSTRACT This paper examines the assertion of twin deficit hypothesis as an indication of government (policy) failure in Sierra Leone through the utilisation of relevant variables from 1980 – 2018. The paper is considered very important, with its application to the economy of Sierra Leone, which seems to have battled with structural problems, particularly policy failures, as manifested through over-burdened current account and fiscal deficit, which is presently overshadowing efforts of changedregime to make headway with planned developmental goals. Theoretical and empirical literature was reviewed in relation to the twin deficit hypothesis. Empirical outcome using the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) failed to reject the twin deficit hypothesis; an indication that fiscal deficit is partly responsible for the negative current account position in Sierra Leone. Evidence from the outcome is consistent with expectation for a small open economy [Sierra Leone], burdened with failed institutional governance policies in areas connected with unproductive real sector and high lending rates, considered as disincentive to private sector investments. To address the problem, policy recommendations have been proposed, pointing to a boost in real sector activities – this will help facilitate growth and mobilisation drive to improve domestic revenue collection, also channelled through the Treasury Single Account (TSA) for effective monitoring. Conscious efforts should be made to step-up operations that deter corruption, while firming up efforts to to boost exports through competitive business operations
1 In this manuscript, a companion to Acemoglu, Reed and Robinson (2012), we provide a detailed history of Paramount Chieftaincies of Sierra Leone. British colonialism transformed society in the country in 1896 by empowering a set of Paramount Chiefs as the sole authority of local government in the newly created Sierra Leone Protectorate. Only individuals from the designated "ruling families" of a chieftaincy are eligible to become Paramount Chiefs. In 2011, we conducted a survey in of "encyclopedias" (the name given in Sierra Leone to elders who preserve the oral history of the chieftaincy) and the elders in all of the ruling families of all 149 chieftaincies. Contemporary chiefs are current up to May 2011. We used the survey to re-construct the history of the chieftaincy, and each family for as far back as our informants could recall. We then used archives of the Sierra Leone National Archive at Fourah Bay College, as well as Provincial Secretary archives in Kenema, the National Archives in London and available secondary sources to cross-check the results of our survey whenever possible. We are the first to our knowledge to have constructed a comprehensive history of the chieftaincy in Sierra Leone.
Thomas F. Homer-Dixon is an Assistant Professor at University College, University of Toronto, and Coordinator of the College's Peace and Conflict Studies Program. He is co-director of an international research project on Environmental Change and Acute Conflict sponsored jointly by his Program and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. This article is an abridged version of a paper prepared for the Global Environmental Change Committee of the Social Science Research Council and for a conference on "Emerging Trends in Global Security" convened by York University in October, 1990. The full paper is available from the author. Portions have appeared in "Environmental Change and Economic Decline in Developing Countries," International Studies Notes, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Winter 1991), pp. 18-23; "Environmental Change and Human Security," Behind the Headlines, Vol. 48, No. 3 (Toronto: Canadian Institute for International Affairs, 1991); and "Environmental Change and Violent Conflict," American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Occasional Paper No. 4 (June 1990). For their helpful comments, the author is grateful to Peter Cebon, William Clark, Daniel Deudney, Darya Farha, Peter Gleick, Ernst Haas, Fen Hampson, Roger Karapin, Jill Lazenby, Vicki Norberg-Bohm, Ted Parson, George Rathjens, James Risbey, Richard Rockwell, Thomas Schelling, Eugene Skolnikoff, Martha Snodgrass, Janice Stein, Urs Thomas, Myron Weiner, and Jane Willms. Financial support for research and writing was received from The Royal Society of Canada, the Donner Canadian Foundation, and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. 1. See, for example, Janet Welsh Brown, ed., In the U.S. Interest: Resources, Growth, and Security in the Developing World (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1990); Neville Brown, "Climate, Ecology and International Security," Survival, Vol. 31, No. 6 (November/December 1989), pp. 519-532; Peter Gleick, "Climate Change and International Politics: Problems Facing Developing Countries," Ambio, Vol. 18, No. 6 (1989), pp. 333-339; Gleick, "The Implications of Global Climatic Changes for International Security," Climatic Change, Vol. 15, No. 1/2 (October 1989), pp. 309-325; Ronnie Lipschutz and John Holdren, "Crossing Borders: Resource Flows, the Global Environment, and International Security," Bulletin of Peace Proposals, Vol. 21, No. 2 (June 1990), pp. 121-33; Jessica Tuchman Mathews, "Redefining Security," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 68, No. 2 (Spring 1989), pp. 162-177; Norman Myers, "Environment and Security," Foreign Policy, No. 74 (Spring 1989), pp. 23-41; Michael Renner, National Security: The Economic and Environmental Dimensions, Worldwatch Paper No. 89 (Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute, 1989); and Arthur Westing, ed., Global Resources and International Conflict: Environmental Factors in Strategic Policy and Action (Oxford: New York, 1986). For a skeptical perspective, see Daniel Deudney, "The Case Against Linking Environmental Degradation and National Security," Millennium, Vol. 19, No. 3 (Winter 1990), pp. 461-476. 2. Readers interested in a careful argument for an expanded notion of security that includes environmental threats to national well-being should see Richard Ullman, "Redefining Security," International Security, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Summer 1983), esp. pp. 133 and 143. 3. For example, see David Wirth, "Climate Chaos," Foreign Policy, No. 74 (Spring 1989), p. 10. 4. Robert Heilbroner, An Inquiry into the Human Prospect (New York: Norton, 1980), pp. 39 and 95; William Ophuls, Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity: A Prologue to a Political Theory of the Steady State (San Francisco: Freeman, 1977), pp. 214-217. 5. Fen Hampson, "The Climate for War," Peace and Security, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Autumn 1988), p. 9. 6. Jodi Jacobson, Environmental Refugees: A Yardstick of Habitability, Worldwatch Paper No. 86 (Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute, 1988). 7. Peter Gleick, "Climate Change," p. 336; Malin Falkenmark, "Fresh Waters as a Factor in Strategic Policy and Action," in Westing, Global Resources, pp. 85-113. 8. Peter Wallensteen, "Food Crops as a Factor in Strategic Policy and Action," Westing, Global Resources, pp. 151-155. 9. Ibid., p. 146-151. 10. Ted Gurr, "On the Political Consequences of Scarcity and Economic Decline," International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 1 (March 1985), pp. 51-75. 11. "The disappearance of ecological abundance seems bound to make international politics even more tension ridden and potentially violent than it already is. Indeed, the pressures of ecological scarcity may embroil the world in hopeless strife...
Access to natural resource is governed by competition and conflicts all the over the world. I Alternative approaches to conflict resolution require assets provided by social negotiation, mediation and other types of social tools. This paper is based on a case of conflict of access to forest and on the use of social negotiation to solve it. It shows how a facilitation process enabled village communities of East Cameroon to secure a portion of forest in the northern part of the already classified Dimako council forest. The most meaningful result of this case study is the recognition and the rehabilitation, or the validation, of a community-based tool of social negotiation known as palabre traditionnelle (traditional arrangements and mediation), not recognized until now by mainstream science, conventional methodologies, forestry experts and policy makers in Cameroon.
An erroneous analysis of environmental change has informed environmental policy in part of Guinea for a century. Using this case study, the relationship between the production of information about environmental problems and external institutions which address them, is examined. To see how certain analyses of change have gained credence and validity, while others - including local people's own - have been excluded from investigation, the relative dominance of particular disciplines, of methods and data sets within them, and of deductive theories guiding data interpretation, are considered. Such dominance depends on the socio-political and financial structures within which environmental policy institutions have evolved and operate. -Authors
Focusing on a particular field-soil-vegetation complex (tombondu), this article considers how changing patterns of gendered resource use impact on its prevalence within overall land use patterns, and hence on the environment. Ruined settlements, offering improved land productivity on "ripened' soils, provide Kuranko farmers in Guinea with a potent metaphor for the effects of new gardening on their savannas. Farming patterns have come to incorporate more "gardening-like' practices, largely carried out by women, concentrating agriculture in particular places and enduringly improving their soils and vegetation. This overturns conventional wisdom that farming only degrades soils and vegetation in the forest-savanna transition zone. Within it, conceptual links between women and gardens have been re-worked, and socially-differentiated experiences engender different opinions about the basis of land productivity and use entitlements. -from Authors
The establishment of statutory marketing for British West African produce exports at the end of the second world war represented a major departure from prewar practice and had long-term effects on the economic development of the region. The accepted view of Prof. Peter Bauer was that this revolution in marketing resulted from prewar abuses in the marketing system and from the experience of bureaucratic control during the war. This study, however, explains the change in terms of a convergence of Britain's economic and political interests: the economic value to Britain of state marketing and the political role of marketing boards in colonial reform and the beginning of decolonization. This article also presents new material on the profit-maximizing policy of the Produce Control Board and on official thinking about the mechanics of price "stabilization".
Political decentralization and local, participatory control of natural resources number among the development trends of the 1990s and the early 2000s. Where they have initially assumed an undifferentiated local community and a free flow of commonly understood information about environments and resources, they are potentially flawed. The devolution of natural-resource management authority to local communities raises questions about who participates in decision making and how state and local institutions work together. This article provides a historical perspective based on archival records that show how state forestry management in colonial Mali reflected the interests of the French administration, in contrast to those of the peasantry. The precolonial peasantry was internally differentiated, and change in the colonial political economy favored certain social groups. In the 1990s, Mali began to reform forestry policy so that forest resource user-groups could have a greater role in management. Data on income and expenditures from a periurban fuelwood-producing village show differential access to and dependence on forest resources for livelihood. Current natural-resource management reforms will do well to consider the role in local society of chiefs and representation of excluded groups.
Payments for environmental services (PES) are often promoted as a mechanism for alleviating poverty and providing environmental benefits. This chapter analyzes PES design in a context where actors such as forest-dependent communities have only weak property rights over the forest, and where firms interested in commercial resource exploitation are present. A game-theoretical model of community-firm interactions is applied to the Indonesian setting where communities have been observed to negotiate logging deals with firms. As an alternative, PES design could focus on those communities with the lowest expected payments from logging deals. But these communities may not be able to enforce a PES agreement, while others would conserve the forest anyhow. Most importantly, the introduction of PES may increase a community’s expected payoff from a logging deal. A failure to consider this endogeneity in expected payoffs would lead to communities opting for logging deals despite PES, simply allowing communities to negotiate better logging deals. Potential trade-offs are shown to exist between maximizing environmental benefits and poverty alleviation, which implies the need for two policy tools, and not just one.
Decentralization of natural resource management is often presented as a novelty. However, successive attempts to decentralize authority were undertaken during the development of forest policy in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony between the 1930s and 1950s. From 1960, however, this was rolled back. Forest policy was thenceforth characterized by centralization, exclusion, and restrictive legislation. New forest policies of local management from the 1990s attempt to change this but differ from “colonial decentralization” in terms of institutional fragmentation and the absence of effective fiscal decentralization. The assumed illegality of people’s use of the resources and the non-enforcement of the law provides a context for monetary and political rent seeking for political agents.
We introduce a new hybrid approach to joint estimation of Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) for high quantiles of return distributions. We investigate the relative performance of VaR and ES models using daily returns for sixteen stock market indices (eight from developed and eight from emerging markets) prior to and during the 2008 financial crisis. In addition to widely used VaR and ES models, we also study the behavior of conditional and unconditional extreme value (EV) models to generate 99 percent confidence level estimates as well as developing a new loss function that relates tail losses to ES forecasts. Backtesting results show that only our proposed new hybrid and Extreme Value (EV)-based VaR models provide adequate protection in both developed and emerging markets, but that the hybrid approach does this at a significantly lower cost in capital reserves. In ES estimation the hybrid model yields the smallest error statistics surpassing even the EV models, especially in the developed markets.
Many influential analyses of West Africa take it for granted that 'original' forest cover has progressively been converted and savannized during the twentieth century by growing populations. By testing these assumptions against historical evidence, exemplified for Ghana and Ivory Coast, this article shows that these neo-Malthusian deforestation narratives badly misrepresent people-forest relationships. They obscure important nonlinear dynamics, as well as widespread anthropogenic forest expansion and landscape enrichment. These processes are better captured, in broad terms, by a neo-Boserupian perspective on population-forest dynamics. However, comprehending variations in locale-specific trajectories of change requires fuller appreciation of social differences in environmental and resource values, of how diverse institutions shape resource access and control, and of ecological variability and path dependency in how landscapes respond to use. The second half of the article présents and illustrates such a "landscape structuretion" perspective through case studies from the forest-savanna transition zones of Ghana and Guinea. Copyright 2000 by The Population Council, Inc..
Conflict Timber, Conflict Diamonds: Parallels in the Political Ecology of 19th and 20th Century Resource Exploitation in Sierra Leone
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