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Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA) and
Fractal Antenna
Mr. Priya Ranjan Meher
Ph.D. Research Scholar
Department of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering
International Institute of Information Technology Bhubaneswar, Odisha
Presentation Outline
Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA)
oIntroduction
oFundamentals of DRA
oPublished Works
oAdvantages and Disadvantages of DRA
oApplications
Fractal Antenna
oIntroduction
oFractal Geometry
oTypes of Fractal Antenna
oPublished Works
Antenna Fabrication Process
Related Books
Introduction
Antenna
Antenna
Microstrip
Antenna
Wire
Antenna
Log-
Periodic
Antenna
Dielectric
Resonator
Antenna
Travelling-
Wave
Antenna
Wideband Characteristics
High Radiation Efficiency
No Metallic Losses
Minimum Surface Wave
Shape Flexibility
Electrical Signal Radio Frequency
Radio Frequency Electrical Signal
Fundamentals of DRA
A dielectric resonator (DR) is a piece of dielectric material, that radiates EM wave / radio
waves, generally in the radio frequency.
Input
Excitation
Dielectric Resonator
Substrate
Ground Plane
DRAs depend on characteristics
of “radiating resonators”
The resonant frequency is
determined by the overall
physical dimensions of the
resonator and the dielectric
constant of the material.
Fundamentals of DRA
Fundamentals of DRA
Types of DRA
DRA structure can be divided into different geometries such as
Hemispherical shaped
Cylindrical shaped
Rectangular shaped
Half-split cylindrical shaped
Spherical shaped
Triangular shaped
(Different shapes of DR)
General Shaped
Fundamentals of DRA
Rectangular DRA
Where, fGHz is resonant frequency, F is normalized frequency,
𝜖
r, dra is permittivity of cubic
DR and Wdra, Ldra & Hdra are width, length & height of the DR in cm.
Fundamentals of DRA
Cylindrical DRA
(Different shapes of DR)
Published Work (Glueless DRA)
A broadband CP edge feed rectangular DRA using effective glueless technique is proposed
for C-band and X-band in satellite applications.
(With Glue DRA)
(Glueless DRA) (Fabricated Prototype and Measurement Set-up)
[1] PR Meher, BR Behera, SK Mishra, “Broadband circularly polarized edge feed rectangular dielectric resonator antenna using effective glueless technique.”
Microw Opt Technol Lett. 2020;19.
(Compared results of CP-RDRA)
(Electric field distribution at different phases)
0° Phase 90° Phase
180° Phase 270° Phase
LHCP Radiation
LHCP
Published Work (DRA for WBAN Applications)
A compact CP-RDRA is proposed for off-body communication in WBAN applications.
Singly fed with H-shaped conformal metal strip is used to excite the DRA and generate
CP radiation.
CP bandwidth: 9.6% (7.47-8.25 GHz) & Impedance bandwidth: 20.7% (6.95-8.68 GHz)
(Geometry of CP Wearable DRA (Geometry of CP Wearable DRA on
human tissue model
Free Space
On Body
On Phantom
TExδ13 TEy1δ3
TExδ13 TEy1δ3
(Electric field distributions)
(Magnetic field distributions)
1. U. Illahi et al., “Desig of new circularly polarized wearable dielectric resonator antenna for off-body
communication in WBAN applications,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, 2019.
Specific absorption rate (SAR) is a measure of
the rate at which energy is absorbed per unit mass
by a human body when exposed to a RF
electromagnetic field.
There are two standards of SAR
European
American
Standard
SAR
Avg. mass
European
2 W/Kg
10 gm
American
1.6 W/Kg
1 gm
To check SAR on mobile
phone: dial *#07#
(1g Average SAR)
(10g Average SAR)
[2] U. Illahi et al., “Desig of new circularly polarized wearable dielectric resonator antenna for off-body communication in WBAN applications,IEEE Access,
vol. 7, 2019.
Published Work (DRA for MM-Wave Applications)
The different shaped DRAs such as cylindrical, rectangular, hexagonal, and octagonal are
proposed for mm-wave applications.
Broad impedance bandwidth is achieved due to use of double-layer substrate with
different permittivity.
(Geometry of different shaped DRAs)
Empirical formulae:
For CDRA For RDRA
For HDRA For ODRA
[3] P R Meher, B R Behera and S K Mishra, “Design and its State of the Art of Different Shaped DRAs at Millimeter Wave Frequency Band,” International
Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering (Wiley), vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1-15, 2020.
(Simulated results of different shaped DRAs)
(Electric & Magnetic field distribution of different shaped DRAs)
Advantages and Disadvantages of DRA
Low dissipation loss High radiation
efficiency (> 98%)
Low radiation Q-factor - Wide bandwidth
No surface waves
Design flexibility - Different shapes
Size control Wide range of materials
Easily integratable with other devices
Different radiation characteristics
Mechanical Simplicity
Dielectric strength (> 200V/mil) - High
power capability
Wide temperature range (-65°C to
+110°C)
Some aspects are still unknown /
unexplored.
Theoretical analysis less developed.
Not as low profile as microstrip
antenna fabrication can be challenging
Integration with circuits is a
challenging
Advanced machinable and easier to
integrate materials are needed
Advantages Disadvantages
Applications
DRA
MM-Wave
Applicatio-
ns
Medical
Applicatio-
ns
RF Energy
Harvesting
Wireless
Power
Transform
Optical
Communi-
cations
Fractal Antenna
Introduction
The term ‘Fractal’ means linguistically broken/fractured and it comes from Latin word
fractus originally proposed by mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot.
Fractal describe a family of complex shapes that possess inherent self-similarity/self-
affinity in geometrical structures.
Applications of Fractals can be applied to many fields, in the context of Medicine
(structure of lungs, intestines, heartbeat), Meteorology (clouds, vortex, ice, rogue
waves, turbulence, lightning structure) and Volcanology (prediction of the volcanic
eruptions, earthquakes).
Now a days, the phenomena of fractals can be significantly utilized in the field of RF
and Microwave domain.
Fractal Geometry
Fractal Geometry
A single normal antenna operating in two or more frequency bands i.e. multiband
operation.
In fractal antenna coupling between sharp angles produce different current paths
achieving multiband operation.
(Multiband Operation)
Types of Fractal Geometry
The different types of fractals are as follows:
Minkowski Fractal
Sierpinski fractal
Koch fractal
Tree fractal
Other Shaped fractal
Published Works on Fractal Antenna
(Minkowski Fractal DRA) (Kotch Fractal DRA) (Kotch Fractal MSA)
(Sierpinski Fractal MSA) (Tree Fractal MSA)
Fabrication Process
Fabrication (Microstrip Patch Antenna)
Using PCB Prototyping Machine Using Chemical Etching Method
Fabrication (MM-Wave Antenna)
Micro Electro Mechanical Systems
(MEMS) Technology Surface Integrated Waveguide (SIW)
Fabrication ( DRA)
DRA Fabrication Steps
Related Books
About Research Gate
About Research Gate
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/349427453_A_Chronological_Review_of_Circularly_Polarized_Dielectri
c_Resonator_Antenna_Design_and_Developments.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/349515615_Metasurface_Superstrate_Inspired_Printed_Monopole_Anten
na_For_RF_Energy_Harvesting
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/345127629_A_compact_circularly_polarized_cubic_DRA_with_unit-
step_feed_for_BluetoothISMWi-FiWi-MAX_applications
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341601254_Broadband_circularly_polarized_edge_feed_rectangular_diel
ectric_resonator_antenna_using_effective_glueless_technique
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340946006_A_compact_broadband_circularly_polarized_printed_monop
ole_antenna_using_twin_parasitic_conducting_strips_and_rectangular_metasurface_for_RF_energy_harvesting_ap
plication
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339778021_Design_and_its_state-of-the-
art_of_different_shaped_dielectric_resonator_antennas_at_millimeter-wave_frequency_band
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338508067_Microwave_antennas-
An_intrinsic_part_of_RF_energy_harvesting_systems_A_contingent_study_about_its_design_methodologies_and_
state-of-art_technologies_in_current_scenario
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335352265_A_circularly_polarized_hybrid_plasmonic_nanoantenna
About Research Gate
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339645882_Nano-
antennas_Using_Single_and_Double_Isolated_Graphene_for_Mid-infrared_Applications
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338072643_Broadband_Circularly_Polarized_Cylindrical_Dielectric_Res
onator_Antenna_for_Wideband_Applications
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333066772_Compact_and_Efficient_Printed_Monopole_Antenna_with_B
roadband_Circular_Polarization
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334705933_Design_of_Different_Shaped_DRAs_for_60_GHz_Millimete
r-wave_Applications
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339555734_A_Comparative_Study_of_CMPA_and_CDRA_at_X-Band
Journal Published by RF & Microwaves Group (IIIT Bhubaneswar)
Sl. No
Journals
Impact Factor
1
IEEE Transaction on Antenna and Propagation (1)
4.371
2
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
3.765
3
IEEE Access
3.745
4
IEEE Antenna & Wireless Propagation Letter (3)
3.726
5
IEEE Transaction of Industry Applications (1)
3.488
5
AEU - Intl. Journal of Electronics and Comm., Elsevier (1+1)
2.924
6
Progress In Electromagnetics Research (8)
1.898
7
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation
1.972
8
Intl. Journal of RF and Micro. Comp.-Aided Engg, Wiley (2+1+1*)
1.528
9
IET Electronics Letters
1.316
10
Radio engineering Journal
1.076
11
Wireless Personal Communications, Springer
1.061
13
IETE Journal of Research (1+1*)
1.030
12
Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Wiley (6)
0.957
13
International Journal of Micro. and Wireless Tech., Cambridge
0.939
14
Frequenz, De Gruyter
0.543
Student Achievements
Mr. Jyotirmaya Mohanta
Pursuing: Master of Science (MS)
Dept. of Abbe Centre of Photonics (ACP)
Friedrich Schiller University Jena
Jena, Germany
1. J Mohanta, P R Meher, B R Behera and S K Mishra, “A circularly polarized hybrid plasmonic nanoantenna,” Microw Opt
Technol Lett. (Wiley), vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 278-283, 2019.
2. J. Mohanta, P. R. Meher and S. K. Mishra, “Nano-antennas using single and double isolated graphene for mid-infrared
applications,” 2019 Photonics & Electromagnetics Research Symposium - Spring (PIERS-Spring), 17-20th June, 2019,
Rome, Italy.
3. J. Mohanta, P. R. Meher and S. K. Mishra, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide fed L-shaped optical nanoantenna for
nanophotonics applications,” PHOTONICS 2018: International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics, Dec, IIT
Delhi
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, L-shaped hexagonal patch Nano-Antennas for mid-infrared regions (75–84 THz) using single layer and double isolated layer are proposed. Graphene Nano-Antennas have advantage of frequency tunablity by using graphene chemical potential. Subsequently, a comparative study between the single layer graphene antenna (1G Antenna) and double isolated layer graphene antenna (2G Antenna) is performed. The antenna design and characterization is performed using CST Studio. The proposed antennas are designed based on the conjuncture of graphene plasmonic theory and the transmission line theory. The 1G-Antenna is fed by single graphene ([G]) layer slotted waveguide, i.e., [G]-SiO 2 -Si and 2G-Antenna is fed by the double isolated graphene ([G]) waveguide, i.e., Si-SiO 2 -[G]-SiO 2 -[G]-SiO 2 -Si respectively. The L-shaped hexagonal patch acts as a radiator element which is responsible for radiation. The comparison are done based on antenna characteristic parameters, i.e., return loss, antenna efficiency, directivity, realized gain and radiation patterns according to the graphene chemical potential. The chemical potentials used to study are 0.2 eV, 0.5 eV and 0.8 eV. Based on the simulated results, impedance bandwidth ( S11≤ −6 dB) decreases in 2G-antenna as compared to 1G-antenna, but there is enormous increase in the antenna efficiency, directivity and realized gain of the 2G-antenna. According to the application, 1G-antenna can be used for the applications requiring larger bandwidth whereas 2G antenna is preferred for better performance.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, a waveguide fed circularly polarized hybrid plasmonic nanoantenna (CP‐HPNA) is proposed for nanophotonic applications, at 1550 nm wavelength telecommunication window. Here, the concept of hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPWG) in conjunction with transmission line model is well incorporated in terms of electromagnetics. The proposed antenna geometry is an L‐hexagonal shaped patch fed by HPWG. The FDTD computational technique through CST microwave studio is used for design, simulation and characterization of CP‐HPNA. The proposed antenna exhibits an impedance bandwidth of 4.07 THz (S11 ≤ −10 dB) and prior to that, complete circular polarization is achieved, with an axial bandwidth of 5.49 THz (AR ≤ 3 dB). It shows broadside pattern with realized gain of 4.64 dB, directivity of 8.10 dBi and antenna efficiency of 63.98% at 1550 nm wavelength. With observed outcomes, the proposed antenna model finds its way‐out for many nanophotonic applications, ranging from the fields of optical sensing to lidars and in wireless optical communications from interconnects to intraconnects of chips. In correspondence to its utility, this research article, can significantly be treated as a link for visualizing the concepts of optical through classical electromagnetism.
  • G Kumar
  • K P Ray
G Kumar and K P Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antenna, Arctech Publication, 2003.
Antennas and Wave Propagation, Pearson publication
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G S N Raju, Antennas and Wave Propagation, Pearson publication, 2005.
Burns Sinusoidal Helix Antenna presented at the EUROEM
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Joseph R. Miletta, Marc Litz, Neal Tesny, Stanley L. Henriquez, and David Burns Sinusoidal Helix Antenna presented at the EUROEM 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland, 22-24 July 2008.
Hybrid plasmonic waveguide fed L-shaped optical nanoantenna for nanophotonics applications
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  • S K Mishra
J. Mohanta, P. R. Meher and S. K. Mishra, "Hybrid plasmonic waveguide fed L-shaped optical nanoantenna for nanophotonics applications," PHOTONICS 2018: International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics, Dec, IIT Delhi