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Towards Efficient Energy Management: Prediction Based Generation and Secure Trading
With the advent of the smart grid (SG), the concept of energy management flourished rapidly and it gained the attention of researchers. Forecasting plays an important role in energy management. In this work, a recurrent neural network, long short term memory (LSTM), is used for electricity price and demand forecasting using big data. This model uses multiple variables as input and forecasts the future values of electricity demand and price. Its hyperparameters are tuned using the Jaya optimization algorithm to improve the forecasting ability. It is named as Jaya LSTM (JLSTM). Moreover, the concept of local energy generation using renewable energy sources is also getting popular. In this work, to implement a hybrid peer to peer energy trading market, a blockchain based system is proposed. It is fully decentralized and allows the market members to interact with each other and trade energy without involving a third party. In addition, in vehicle to grid and vehicle to vehicle energy trading environments, local aggregators perform the role of energy brokers and are responsible for validating the energy trading requests. A solution to find accurate distance with required expenses and time to reach the charging destination is also proposed, which effectively guides electric vehicles (EVs) to reach the relevant charging station and encourages energy trading. Moreover, a fair payment mechanism using a smart contract to avoid financial irregularities is proposed. Apart from this, a blockchain based trust management method for agents in a multi-agent system is proposed. In this system, three objectives are achieved: trust, cooperation and privacy. The trust of agents depends on the credibility of trust evaluators, which is verified using the proposed methods of trust distortion, consistency and reliability. To enhance the cooperation between agents, a tit-3-for-tat repeated game strategy is developed. The strategy is more forgiving than the existing tit-for-tat strategy. It encourages cheating agents to re-establish their trust by cooperating for three consecutive rounds of play. Also, a proof-of-cooperation consensus protocol is proposed to improve agents’ cooperation while creating and validating blocks. The privacy of agents is preserved in this work using the publicly verifiable secret sharing mechanism. Additionally, a blockchain based edge and cloud system is proposed to resolve the resource management problem of EVs in a vehicular energy network. Firstly, a min-max optimization problem is formulated to construct the proposed entropy based fairness metric for resource allocation. This metric is used to determine whether users have received a fair share of the system’s resources or not. Secondly, a new deep reinforcement learning based content caching and computation offloading approach is designed for resource management of EVs. Lastly, a proof-of-bargaining consensus mechanism is designed for block’s validation and selection of miners using the concept of iterative negotiation. Besides, a survey of electricity load and price forecasting models is presented. The focus of this survey is on the optimization methods, which are used to tune the hyperparameters of the forecasting models. Moreover, this work provides a systematic literature review of scalability issues of the blockchain by scrutinizing across multiple domains and discusses their solutions. Finally, future research directions for both topics are discussed in detail. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed energy management solutions, simulation are performed. The simulation results show that the energy is efficiently managed while ensuring secure trading between energy prosumers and fair resource allocation.