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The Effectiveness of a Training Program Based on Psychological Empowerment to Reduce Future Professional Anxiety among Students

Authors:
International Journal of Instruction January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
e-ISSN: 1308-1470 www.e-iji.net p-ISSN: 1694-609X
pp. 219-236
Citation: Samawi, F. S., Al-Rimawi, S. A. K., & Arabiyat, A. A. H. (2022). The effectiveness of a
training program based on psychological empowerment to reduce future professional anxiety among
students. International Journal of Instruction, 15(1), 219-236.
https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2022.15113a
Article submission code:
20210210195341
Received: 10/02/2021
Revision: 17/06/2021
Accepted: 11/07/2021
OnlineFirst: 17/10/2021
The Effectiveness of a Training Program Based on Psychological
Empowerment to Reduce Future Professional Anxiety among Students
Fadi Soud Samawi
Assoc. Prof., of Educational Psychology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan,
fadi.samawi@bau.edu.jo
Sameer Abdelkareem Al Remawi
Assoc. Prof., of Special Education, Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan,
sameer.remawi@bau.edu.jo
Ahmed Abdel Halim Arabiyat
Prof., of Psychological and Educational Counseling, Mu'tah University, Jordan,
aarabiat55@yahoo.com
The study aimed to identify the effectiveness of a training program based on
psychological empowerment to reduce future professional anxiety among
outstanding students at Al-Balqa Applied University. The present study was a
quasi-experimental research approach. The sample of the study consisted of (60)
outstanding students who had high career anxiety, as they were distributed equally
into two experimental (received a training program based on psychological
empowerment) and control groups. To collect data, the study adopted professional
future anxiety scale to measure future professional anxiety. The scale was ensured
for validity and reliability by ensuring the facial and construct validity, in addition
to using test-retest and Cronbach's Alpha equation methods to ensure the
reliability. Descriptive statistics and independent samples ANCOVA were used to
process the study data. The results indicated that there is an impact of the
psychological empowerment program in favor of the experimental group in
improving future professional anxiety. In conclusion, the study revealed the
effectiveness of psychological empowerment program in reducing future
professional anxiety among outstanding university students. The study
recommends activating academic counseling by empowering the outstanding
student psychologically to reduce his/her stress and anxiety, whether related to his
current academic life or future career.
Keywords: psychological empowerment, future professional anxiety, outstanding
students, training program, anxiety
220 The Effectiveness of a Training Program Based on
International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
INTRODUCTION
The study is considered a new knowledge addition in psychotherapy based on
psychological empowerment techniques. It links the psychological empowerment of the
outstanding student with reducing their future professional anxiety and provides a
survey of the literature related to psychological empowerment and future professional
anxiety, especially in the aspect of available foreign studies and literature. The study
also clarifies the future professional concern of the outstanding university student,
especially that there is a shortage of Arab studies in general and local studies dealing
with these variables.
Anxiety is generally an essential aspect of personality building and mental health as it
may cause many diseases and psychological distress for the individual (Peker & Ulu,
2018). The future is also a source of anxiety for the individual as everyone faces many
doubts about it (Pittig et al., 2018). In university learning, many students face the
problem of anxiety about the future (Al-Shannaq & Leppavirta, 2020), especially
professional anxiety because of the prevalence of unemployment, lack of jobs, and
student's need to know their future destiny as the unemployment rate in Jordan, for
example, reached 25% by the end of 2019 (Majali, 2020). This applies to the
outstanding university student, who suffers from future professional anxiety more than
others because of his high expectations for his future career due to his excellence. There
is no indication of the quality and profitability of this profession (Kapanadze, 2019).
Future professional anxiety is one of the most dangerous types of anxiety that afflicts
students in general and outstanding students in particular (Trindade Júnior et al., 2021),
and this is represented in fear of the unknown and expresses past and present
experiences that they live, and their standing on the threshold of a new life and an
ambiguous future, which they expect to match their mental capabilities and academic
excellence (Al Hwayan, 2020).
Farley (2015) believes that outstanding university students possess mental,
psychological, and social characteristics that differ from other students, and these
characteristics in their entirety indicate academic and professional success. Farley
(2015) pointed out that the expectations of those around them are often high that they
will achieve professional success, as well as academic success. Thus they are subject to
future professional anxiety due to their inability to realize their expected professional
success or determine that they will succeed or not. This is consistent with what was
indicated by Ozcan (2017) that excellent students add to the complexities of their
advanced cognitive abilities; they fall under the pressures of the future, professionally
and socially, as they feel that this future must be successful due to its association with
these complexities, and the pressures surrounding them that require them to achieve
great professional achievements, as well as the lack of any indicators indicating the
quality of future professions, the methods of selecting it, and whether the student will
achieve success in it.
According to Luoma (2018: 24), future professional anxiety means: "fear and tension
resulting from the lack of clear perceptions about an individual's future career."
According to Fatiha and Lummour (2019: 61), it was defined as "The negative response
Samawi, Al-Rimawi & Arabiyat 221
International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
to fear, pressure, and uncertainty resulting from the inability to choose a future
profession or the ambiguity of the student's options."
Several studies (Vigonli, 2015; Ozcan, 2017) have shown that students who are
academically successful and who have high levels of intelligence plan to work in
specific occupations that match their capabilities; because these abilities allow them to
choose from among many professions, but this is not always in their interest, as the lack
of adequate guidance for them, the ambiguity of the future professional role and the
multiplicity of options put them in the problems of future professional anxiety (Belasco,
2013). This requires empowering them psychologically to be able to Professional
selection, which reduces their future professional anxiety. Vignoli (2015) indicated that
future professional anxiety negatively affects university students. It causes him to have
psychological and academic maladjustment, lacking self-confidence, lack of
responsibility, and low motivation for achievement. Twohig & Levin (2017) also
mentioned that future professional anxiety leads to a decline in the student's personal
and academic motivation and leaves him prey to tension and psychological pressure,
resulting in many psychological and organic disorders, the increase in negative and
irrational thoughts, the inability to live with reality present and withdraw from facing
future reality.
The role of psychological empowerment in reducing future professional anxiety among
outstanding students is evident here, as it has a potential impact and expected results that
benefit individuals. Psychological empowerment is also considered a means to
encourage and increase the ability to make the right decision in situations that need this.
Its effective role in enriching the experiences of the individual was praised for being a
multi-dimensional motivating component. According to Spreitzers, it is an internal
variable that allows the individual to feel and realizes that he has the power to get things
done, based on specific dimensions that work interacting to increase the effectiveness of
the individual, which appears on the individual's response to others and attitudes
(Nikpour, 2018).
Psychological empowerment can also help reduce anxiety and improve efficiency, as
they are forms of positive intervention that are concerned with increasing the
individual’s sense of joy and pleasure, satisfaction with various aspects of life,
enhancing and maximizing capabilities (Al-Shannaq & Leppavirta, 2020), and raising
the morale directed towards improving the quality of life. Psychological empowerment
is one of the broad concepts that accommodate many synonyms, meanings, and concepts
such as empowerment, strengthening capacity, strengthening, attribution, and improving
the situation (Singh & Singh, 2019).
The researchers believe that the importance of psychological empowerment for
outstanding students is evident in that it uses psychological interactions that highlight
competence and confidence in the ability to perform tasks, a sense of the ability to
influence work, freedom of choice in how to perform tasks, an understanding of the
meaning of work, in addition to that, they can make current and future professional
decisions clearly. Counseling and educational programs based on promoting
psychological empowerment in young people help them develop specific psychosocial
222 The Effectiveness of a Training Program Based on
International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
capabilities, such as competence, confidence, and self-efficacy, which are skills essential
for future success. By participating in programs that allow adolescents to build their own
definition of self, freely explore their life path, and implement their own change or
future plans, teens gain a better understanding of their own identity. Group counseling
programs, which aim to provide teens with a space for personal growth and support, can
facilitate areas of growth related to self-identity, self-efficacy, and self-beliefs
(Zimmerman, 2018).
In light of the importance of psychological empowerment and the problems caused by
professional anxiety, many studies were conducted on students in general and
outstanding students in particular. The study of Kong, Sun & Yan (2016) in China
aimed to reveal the effect of psychological empowerment in reducing future professional
anxiety and improving future job satisfaction for a sample of (458) students from
different disciplines and with various mental capabilities. The results showed a
significant correlation between psychological empowerment and reducing future
professional anxiety, and achieving future job satisfaction. The results indicated a need
for academic and psychological university counseling programs that include the
variables of psychological empowerment and future professional anxiety.
Ghanayem's study (2018) in Egypt examined the nature of the relationship between
future professional anxiety and satisfaction with academic specialization and academic
achievement on a sample of (136) male and female students from the Special Education
Division. The study showed that there is a negative correlation between future
professional anxiety and both satisfaction with academic specialization and academic
achievement, and future anxiety does not constitute a significant effect in predicting
academic achievement. The study of Mukhaimer and Al-Wathenani (2018) in the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which was conducted on (300) students of Umm Al-Qura
University, indicated that the level of future professional anxiety among students is high
and that there is a need for mentoring programs to reduce the level of this anxiety. Sayed
(2019) conducted a study in Egypt to discover the effectiveness of acceptance and
commitment therapy in reducing future anxiety among special education students. The
study results on a sample of (9) students showed the program's effectiveness based on
acceptance and commitment therapy in reducing students' future anxiety.
As for Al-Majali's study (2019), it was conducted on a sample of (30) university
students from the ordinary and superior to raise the level of their professional
competence and reduce their future anxiety. The results showed that cognitive,
emotional, psychological, mental, and behavioral techniques significantly reduce the
level of future anxietyand increase the efficiency of the student, whether the student is
excellent or ordinary. Also, the Dahmisheh study (2019), which was conducted on a
sample of 592 male and female students, showed that psychological empowerment
reduces students' anxiety, increases their academic efficiency, and increases their
motivation for achievement. Also, Azizi, Heiderzadi, Soeouh, Jantaolmahkhan &
Khatony, 2020 conducted a study in Iran that explored the relationship between
psychological empowerment, self-affirmation anxiety reduction among students of the
College of Nursing in Tehran. The study sample consisted of (200) female students who
answered the scale of psychological empowerment and self-affirmation. It was found
Samawi, Al-Rimawi & Arabiyat 223
International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
that there is an effective effect of psychological empowerment in increasing the student's
ability to persevere, improving self-confidence, and the profession in which she will
work in the future. Through the studies that have been presented, it is noticed that
psychological empowerment has a significant effect in reducing future anxiety, but it is
noticed that most of the studies followed relational descriptive methodologies and dealt
with university student samples without specifying the characteristics of the students.
The studies did not address the study sample of outstanding students in an experimental
study. Accordingly, the current research is distinguished by its approach to an effective
program based on psychological empowerment to reduce future professional anxiety
among outstanding students at Al-Balqa Applied University, especially in the absence of
local studies - as far as researchers are aware - that combined these two variables.
Career future anxiety is at the top of the list of future anxiety among university students,
especially the outstanding ones. This leaves negative effects on the university student in
two crucial aspects: the psychological and academic elements. These findings are
consistent with the results of many studies that have dealt with the subject, as the Yousef
et al (2018) study showed that the Jordanian university student suffers from future
professional anxiety. The study of Pulliam & Gonzalez (2018) in the United States of
America showed that high-achieving students in public universities could not determine
their professional future, which puts them in the circle of fear and tension. Sayed's study
(2019) also indicated a high level of future professional anxiety among the Faculty of
Special Education students in Egypt.
The severity of future professional anxiety is more pronounced among outstanding
students than among other students because they are quick to excite more than others
(Muhammad, 2010). This might be attributed to that their high mental traits and high
achievement, they feel the need to find outstanding work in the future (Sayed, 2019),
which increases their future professional anxiety level. Through the work of researchers
in university teaching, especially in the field of educational psychology, talent and
excellence, they noticed that the level of anxiety and tension associated with the future
profession is high among excellent students more than others; this causes them many
psychological, academic and social problems. This calls for the need to improve their
mental health and empower them psychologically by giving meaning to their work and
increasing their perseverance and persistence. Therefore, the researchers decided to
conduct this study to reveal the effect of a program based on psychological
empowerment in reducing future professional anxiety among outstanding students at Al-
Balqa Applied University. The current study tried to test the following hypothesis:
There were no statistically significant differences (α = 0.05) between the mean scores of
the treatment group based on psychological empowerment and the control group on the
scale of future professional anxiety among the outstanding students at Al-Balqa Applied
University / Center.
The Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the present study was to reveal the effectiveness of a training program
based on psychological empowerment to reduce future professional anxiety among
outstanding students at Al-Balqa Applied University.
224 The Effectiveness of a Training Program Based on
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Procedural Definitions of Terms
Psychological Empowerment: Dedoni and Bergo (2020: 48) defined it as "the intrinsic
internal stimulus that emerges through several perceptions (meaning, competence,
choice, and influence) that reflect individuals' attitudes towards the tasks they perform
and the assignments; assigned to them." It is procedurally defined as a set of
intervention strategies provided within an integrated program to reduce future
professional anxiety among outstanding students at Al-Balqa Applied University.
Career future anxiety: Bisson (2017: 22) defined it as "the feeling that afflicts the
student with anxiety, fear, and lack of reassurance due to his negative perceptions and
attitudes towards obtaining a career in the future and the fear of not achieving material
and moral returns from this profession. " Procedurally, it is defined as the degree that
the respondent obtains on the scale of future professional anxiety, which is composed of
the following dimensions (negative thinking in the future, thinking about the study and
prospects for specialization, the possibility of obtaining the profession and its
importance, achieving family and social stability used in the current study.
Outstanding Students: Bin Al-Abyad and Belmokhtar (2019: 299) defined it as "a
student who is distinguished by high academic achievement in the fields of humanities,
social sciences, natural sciences, and mathematics, and he is distinguished by mental
abilities with certain personality traits related to high academic achievement and the
possession of creative thinking skills." Procedurally, they are defined as Students with
high academic achievement and from various colleges and specialties at the Bachelor's
level, whose cumulative GPA is not less than 3.65.
METHOD
Research design
The study adopted the quasi-experimental research approach, which involves the
recruitment of a study sample and dividing the participants into a control group and an
experimental group. Quasi-experiments are generally used to demonstrate the causal
relationship.
The population of the Study
The study population consists of all the outstanding students at Al-Balqa Applied
University / Center and who have a GPA of (3.65) and above, whose number is (416)
students, according to the statistics of the Admission and Registration Unit. Outstanding
students were chosen as they are the most promising category of university students that
need to be monitored and empowered in order to prepare future leaders in the
community.
Sample of the Study
The purposive sampling procedure was used to recruit the study participants. The
professional Future Anxiety Scale was applied to all outstanding students. After
analyzing the results, those who achieved the highest score on the Future Professional
Anxiety Scale were selected, and their number reached (65) students. After consulting
with the students, (60) students agreed to participate in the program, and they were
distributed equally into two experimental and control groups.
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International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
Study Tool
First: Occupational Future Anxiety Scale:
A scale developed by Ahmad and Salmi (2015) was used, and the scale consisted of (38)
items, distributed on the following dimensions. Table (1) shows the scale domains ad the
representing items.
Table 1
The domains and the items’ distribution of the Occupational Future Anxiety Scale
Dimension
No. of items
items
Negative thinking about the future
8
1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29
Reflection on study and prospects for
specialization
9
2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30, 33
The possibility of obtaining a
profession and its importance
13
3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, 31, 34, 35,
36, 37, 38
Achieving family and social stability
8
4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32
Overall scale
38
38
The two researchers extracted the scale validity coefficients through the arbitrators'
veracity, amending the paragraphs and controlling them by applying the Lauchy
equation to calculate the arbitrators' degree of agreement. The study extracted the
discriminatory validity through a pilot sample that consists of (30) university students in
Algeria, where the calculated value of (t) was (16.72), which is greater than the
tabulated (t), which indicates the validity of the scale. The self-validity was also
extracted by calculating the square root coefficient of the test reliability coefficient,
where the self-validity reached (0.91), while the stability of the half segmentation was
done through the Pearson correlation coefficient, which reached (0.90), which indicates
the validity of the scale for application. The answer to the scale is done by placing a sign
in the box that expresses the student's answer according to the alternatives presented,
and the correction key included (agree - 3 degrees), (neutral - 2 degrees), (disagree - one
score), through the number of future occupational anxiety levels to three levels, low (38-
63), i.e., from (1-1.66), medium (64-89), i.e., from (1.67-2.33), and high (90-114), i.e.,
from (2.34-3) ) As the length of the class is 25.
Indicators of construct validity for the scale used in the current study
The validity of the arbitrators
The scale was presented to (4) arbitrators specialized in educational and counseling
psychology. They were asked to express their views on the scale's validity to measure
university students' future professional anxiety, the paragraph's clarity, and its belonging
to the field. The arbitrators agreed on all the items of the scale with some simple
language adjustments.
Internal consistency validity
The items' correlation coefficients were extracted on the overall scale and in the
dimension to which they belong to extract the indications of the validity of the scale's
internal consistency on (25) superior students from outside the study sample. The items'
correlation coefficients with the tool as a whole ranged between (0.351 - 0.765), and
226 The Effectiveness of a Training Program Based on
International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
with the dimension to which it belongs, between (0.356 - 0.730), and Table (2) shows
that:
Table 2
Correlation coefficients between the paragraphs, the dimension to which they belong,
and the total score on the study scale
Item
N.
Correlation to
the dimension
Item
N.
Correlation
to the tool
Correlation
to the
dimension
Item
N.
Correlatio
n to the
tool
Correlation to
the dimension
1.
.524**
14.
.419*
.715**
27.
.424*
.723**
2.
. 534**
15.
.765**
.375*
28.
.367*
.603**
3.
.700**
16.
.612**
.439**
29.
.672**
.454**
4.
.513**
17.
.533**
.734**
30.
.382*
.439**
5.
.530**
18.
.521**
.612**
31.
.510**
.521**
6.
.513**
19.
.630**
.530**
32.
.442*
.630**
7.
.726**
20.
.419*
.593**
33.
.351*
.555**
8.
.371*
21.
.441*
.530**
34.
.499**
.513**
9.
.622**
22.
.384*
.395*
35.
.433*
.530**
10.
.356*
23.
.593**
. 393*
36.
.455*
.513**
11.
.524**
24.
.419*
.705**
37.
.367*
.603**
12.
. 534**
25.
.760**
.376*
38.
.679**
.454**
13.
.730**
26.
.612**
.439**
* Statistically significant at the significance level (0.05).
** Statistically significant at the significance level (0.01).
It is evident from Table (2) that the items' correlation coefficients with the total score
for both dimensions to which they belong were statistically significant at the significance
levels α = 0 (0.05) and (0.01). Therefore, none of them were omitted, which indicates
that the scale is suitable for measuring the level of future professional anxiety among the
study sample, and this shows that the scale has high validity and is appropriate for the
current study.
The Reliability of the Scale
The reliability coefficient was used by the internal consistency method according to the
Cronbach-alpha equation and the instrument's return constancy to check the reliability.
Where the coefficient of total internal consistency of the Cronbach Alpha method was
(0.79), whereas it reached (0.81) using test/retest, and Table (3) shows that.
Table 3
Coefficients for the reliability of the measure of future professional anxiety using
test/retest and Cronbach alpha methods
Dimension
Test/retest reliability
Cronbach Alpha
Negative thinking about the future
0.83
0.80
Reflection on study and prospects for specialization
0.81
0.79
The possibility of obtaining a profession and its importance
0.80
0.78
Achieving family and social stability
0.82
0.77
Overall scale
0.81
0.79
Based on the results shown in table (3), it can be observed that the professional future
anxiety scale obtained a high-reliability score, which means that it could be administered
on the original study sample.
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International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
The training program: It is based on the psychological empowerment literature, a
program was developed consisting of (9) sessions, each session lasting 45 minutes, and
the following is a presentation of the program sessions:
The first session (introduction and acquaintance): included providing room for
acquaintance between the participating students and the mentor, introducing the
program, its objectives, and what could be achieved through it, and holding a group of
meetings to discuss among the participating students, and clarifying and discussing the
concept of psychological empowerment.
The second session (Future professional anxiety, its definition, causes, forms, and
effects) included giving a clear and comprehensive conception of the concept in general
and identifying its causes and forms, and the identification of its implications, and a
discussion of the psychological, physical, social and mental impacts of it.
The third session (training on learning to tolerate stress): Included changing ideas
about the concept of reaching idealism and perfection and talking about the tensions in
the lives of group members.
The fourth session (theater acting): This included helping students express their
thoughts and feelings freely, developing their skills and abilities to express and act in
difficult situations, and providing them with a store of knowledge and practical
experiences to deal with difficult situations.
Fifth session (role-swapping): It includes automaticity in representation and
improvisation in expression. It is considered a recreational activity in which students
'cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor experiences and skills are developed according
to an organized plan.
The sixth session (entertainment games, fun, and entertainment) is a way of fun and the
link between the integrity of the mind and the health of the body. In addition, it included
competition between members of the group.
The seventh session (training in the relaxation method): It included relieving stress and
anxiety, and explaining the importance of the skill of relaxation in general for the
individual in getting rid of the problems and pressures they suffer from, and clarify the
necessary conditions for the skill of relaxation, and improve future professional anxiety
in the minds of group members, especially in difficult situations.
The eighth session (problem-solving skills): Included identifying problem-solving skills
and their importance, to identify problems, goals and alternatives, their balance, and
decision-making.
The ninth session (ending and evaluating the counseling program): Which included
discussion of the group members about the pros and cons of the program, knowing the
improvement that the group members feel after completing the sessions, standing on the
strengths and weaknesses, and thanking the group participating in the program.
Study Procedures
The study procedures included reviewing the educational literature on the subject of the
study and previous studies that dealt with counseling programs, especially the programs
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International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
directed to outstanding students, and then applying the scale of future professional
anxiety to the two groups; and after that, the counseling program was applied to the
experimental group at the rate of two sessions per week, the duration of each session
(45) minutes.
Homogeneity of Groups
To verify the groups' homogeneity, the means and standard deviations of the students'
performance were extracted on the scale of future professional anxiety according to the
group variable (experimental, control). The "T" test was used to clarify the statistical
differences between the arithmetic means, and Table (4) illustrates that. The scale was
distributed on the students in both groups (control and experimental) before
implementing the training program on the experimental group. based on the responses of
the participating students, the researchers calculated the means and standard deviations
for each of the scale domains.
Table 4
Means and standard deviations of students' performance on the scale of pre-future
professional anxiety according to the group variable (experimental, control)
Dimension
Group
Mean
standard
deviation
N
T
value
Sig
Negative thinking about the future pretest
Experimental
2.45
.374
30
.517
.611
Control
2.37
.415
30
Reflection on study and prospects for
specialization pretest
Experimental
2.57
.478
30
.862
.398
Control
2.36
.469
30
The possibility of obtaining a profession
and its importance pretest
Experimental
2.38
.378
30
.339
.103
Control
2.35
.338
30
Achieving family and social stability
pretest
Experimental
2.40
.452
30
1.725
.738
Control
2.34
.554
30
Total Professional future concern pretest
Experimental
2.43
.416
30
1.162
.198
Control
2.36
.492
30
It is evident from Table (4) that there are no statistically significant differences at the
level of significance (0.05) attributable to the group in all sub-dimensions and the
overall score of the scale of future professional anxiety pretest, and this result indicates
the equality of the groups.
Data Processing
The researcher’s processed the data statistically through the Statistical Package of Social
Sciences (SPSS, v. 25, IBM corporation). First, the researchers ensured the normality of
the data using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. The Cronbach’s Alpha equation and
Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess the reliability of the study scale. In
addition, the researchers ensured the homogeneity of the study groups. Moreover,
descriptive statistics and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were determined as the
appropriate statistical tests to test the study hypothesis.
FINDINGS
The results shown in Table (5) represent the demographic characteristics of the study
participants. The results showed that there was almost equal representation of males and
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International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
females among the study groups as males constituted 46.7% (n=14) and 43.3%(n=13) of
the control and experimental groups, respectively. In addition, females constituted
53.3% (n=16) of the control group, whereas they constituted 56.7% (n=17) of the
experimental group.
Distributing the study participants based on the academic level revealed that first-year
students were 6.7% (n=2) of the total control group and 10% (n=3) of the total
experimental group. In addition, the second-year students constituted 20% (n=6) and
23.3% (n=7) of the control and experimental groups, respectively. The third-year
students were constituting 26.7% (n=8) of the total control group and 30% (n=9) of the
experimental group. Finally, the fourth-year students constituted 46.7% (n=14) of the
control group members and 11% (n=11) of the experimental group.
Table 5
Demographic characteristics of the study participants in the control group and the
experimental group
Variable
Control group (N=30)
Experimental (N=30)
N(%)
N(%)
Gender
1. Male
2. Female
14 (46.7%)
16 (53.3%)
13 (43.3%)
17 (56.7%)
Academic level
1. First
2. Second
3. Third
4. Fourth or more
2 (6.7%)
6 (20%)
8 (26.7%)
14 (46.7%)
3 (10%(
7 (23.3%)
9 (30%)
11 (11%)
The main hypothesis: There are no statistically significant differences = 0.05)
between the mean scores of the treatment group based on psychological empowerment
and the control group on the scale of future professional anxiety among outstanding
students at Al-Balqa Applied University.
To test the main study hypothesis, the researchers calculated the mean scores and
standard deviations of the participants’ responses on the future professional anxiety
scale. The mean scores and standard deviations were extracted to estimate the level of
future anxiety in the study sample, and Table (6) illustrates this.
Table 6
Means and standard deviations for the dimensions of future professional anxiety
Item N.
Rank
Dimension
Mean
standard
deviation
Level
1.
4
Negative thinking about the future
2.35
.630
High
2.
1
Reflection on study and prospects for specialization
2.44
.582
High
3.
3
The possibility of obtaining a profession and its importance
2.36
.619
High
4.
2
Achieving family and social stability
2.41
.527
High
Total Professional future Anxiety
2.39
.616
Table (6) shows that the mean scores of future career dimensions ranged between (2.35-
2.44) and high. Where, after considering the study and prospects for specialization, it
came first with the highest arithmetic average of (2.44), and in the last place after
230 The Effectiveness of a Training Program Based on
International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
negative thinking in the future, with an arithmetic mean of (2.25), and the total
arithmetic mean of future professional anxiety of (2.39) with a high level.
Table 7
Means and standard deviations of the control and experimental groups on the pre and
post measurement of the Occupational Future Anxiety Scale
Group
Mean
Standard deviation
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Experimental
44.172
39.575
8.492
5.061
Control
46.820
49.748
5.356
3.483
It is evident from Table (7) that the average of the experimental group is (39,575), and
that the average of the control group is (49,748), and to verify that the direction of the
difference between the averages of the scale of occupational anxiety scale if they are
statistically significant, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used and Table (8)
illustrates the results of covariance analysis.
Table 8
Results of the Co-variance analysis of the differences between the averages of the
experimental and control groups for the scale of future professional anxiety for the total
degree
Source of variance
Sum of squares
Degrees of freedom
Mean of squares
P
Sig
Pre- Measurement
7.934
1
7,934
0.378
0.545
Groups
634.17
1
634.17
30.024
0.000*
Error
52.14
57
2.075
Total
718.70
59
It is evident from Table (8) that the differences between the averages reached the level
of statistical significance, as the statistical (P) value reached (30.024), which is a
statistical function at a level less than (0.05). By reference to the Table of arithmetic
averages, we note that the differences favored students who received a program based
on psychological empowerment, as their level of future professional anxiety decreased
significantly. To examine this hypothesis, the arithmetic averages and standard
deviations were calculated for each of the members of the experimental group and the
control group, as Table (9) shows the arithmetic averages and standard deviations of the
scale of future professional anxiety on the dimensions on the pre and post measurement.
Table 9
Means and standard deviations of the control and experimental groups on the pre and
post measurement of the dimensions of future professional anxiety
Dimensions
Group
Mean
Standard deviation
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Negative thinking about the future
Experimental
12.134
6.401
2.476
1.869
Control
11.932
13.602
1.334
1.458
Reflection on study and prospects for
specialization
Experimental
16.000
9.872
2.803
2.657
Control
18.266
13.805
2.261
1.902
The possibility of obtaining a profession and
its importance
Experimental
14.600
6.865
2.971
2.231
Control
16.732
16.032
3.172
2.4051
Achieving family and social stability
Experimental
17.401
8.401
4.064
3.019
Control
18.936
19.613
2.681
2.584
Samawi, Al-Rimawi & Arabiyat 231
International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
It is evident from Table (9) that the average members of the experimental group for the
dimension of negative thinking in the future reached (6.401), and that the average of the
members of the control group was (13.602), and the average of the members of the
experimental group for the dimension of thinking in the study and prospects for
specialization was (9.872), and that the average of the control group members is
(13,805), the average of the experimental group members for the dimension of obtaining
a profession and its importance is (6,865), and that the average of the control group
members is (16,032), and that the average of the control group members was (13,805),
the average of the experimental group members for the dimension of achieving family
and social stability was (8.401), and that the average of the control group members was
(19,613), and to verify that the difference between the averages for the dimensions of
occupational anxiety, if they are statistically significant, an analysis of common variance
(ANCOVA) was used. Table (10) shows the results of the analysis of covariance.
Table 10
Results of the co-variance analysis of the differences between the averages of the
experimental and control groups for the dimensions of the future professional anxiety
scale
Dimensions
Source of
variance
Sum of
squares
Degrees of
freedom
Mean of
squares
P
Sig
Negative thinking about the
future
Pre-
measurement
148.083
1
148.083
13.805
0.000*
Reflection on study and
prospects for specialization
Pre-
measurement
380.037
1
680.03
30.032
0.000*
The possibility of obtaining a
profession and its importance
Pre-
measurement
298.532
1
298.532
22.655
0.000*
Achieving family and social
stability
Pre-
measurement
357.162
1
357.162
27.427
0.000*
It is evident from Table (10) that the differences between the averages for the
dimensions of the Occupational Future Anxiety Scale were statistically significant at a
level less than (0.05). Concerning the Table of arithmetic averages, we note that the
differences were in favor of students who received a program based on psychological
empowerment, as their level of future professional anxiety decreased for the four
dimensions in a statistically significant way.
DISCUSSION
The present study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of a training program based
on psychological empowerment to reduce future professional anxiety among outstanding
students at Al-Balqa University. The results of the study showed that the future career
domain was scored highest, whereas negative thinking in the future was scored lowest.
This result appears to be justified. The concern of the outstanding students caused by
their professional anxiety is justified in light of the increase in the number of graduates,
the lack of job opportunities, the exacerbation of unemployment, and the overcrowding
of specializations. Job opportunities are not related to excellence as much as they are
related to the needs of the labor market or the Civil Service Bureau's requirements,
232 The Effectiveness of a Training Program Based on
International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
which increases their anxiety, especially as they seek after graduation to work in a way
that achieves family and social stability.
In this context, Al Hwayan (2020) believes that future professional anxiety represents
one of the most dangerous types of anxiety that afflicts students in general, and
outstanding students in particular, as this is illustrated in the fear of an unknown that
denotes past and present experiences that they live, and their standing on the threshold
of a new life and an uncertain future , which they expect from it to match their mental
capabilities, and academic superiority, and this is consistent with what was indicated by
Ozcan (2017) that excellent students add to the complexities of their advanced cognitive
abilities; they fall under future pressures, professionally and socially, as they feel that
this future must be successful due to its association with these complexities, and its
connection to the pressures surrounding them, which require them to achieve great
professional achievements, and also, because there are no indicators that indicate the
quality of future professions, the methods of selecting them, and whether the student will
achieve success in them. The results of the study were in agreement with the studies of
Ghanayem (2018), Mukhaimer and Al-Wutainani (2018), and Sayed (2019), which
showed an increase in the level of anxiety for the future career of students. The
arithmetic means and standard deviations were calculated for each experimental and
control group to examine this hypothesis. Table (5) shows the arithmetic averages and
standard deviations of future professional anxiety scale on the pre and post-
measurement.
In addition, the results showed that there was a significant statistical difference between
the mean scores of the experimental and control groups for the scale of future
professional anxiety for the total degree. The study found that this difference was in
favor of the experimental students who received a program based on psychological
empowerment, as their level of future professional anxiety decreased significantly.
The results showed that the level of future professional anxiety among students of the
experimental group is low compared to their counterparts in the control group, and the
researchers attribute this result to the fact that the program applied in the study,
including its procedures and practical activities, enables to increase the rates of
satisfaction and motivation of students who are excelling in their specializations and
their future academic and professional status, the program also increased students'
awareness of the attributes and skills they possess that enable them to face future
professional pressures, in addition to providing them with the ability to self-control and
control the circumstances surrounding them, and this, in turn, increased their
psychological empowerment and reduced their future professional anxiety.
Nikpour (2018) believes that psychological empowerment contributes significantly to
lowering future professional anxiety among outstanding students, as it has a potential
impact and expected results that benefit individuals. Psychological empowerment is a
means to encourage and increase the ability to make the right decision in situations that
need this. Nikpour (2018) also cited its effective role in enriching the individual's
experiences for being a multi-dimensional motivating component, and psychological
empowerment allows the individual to feel and realize that he can accomplish tasks
Samawi, Al-Rimawi & Arabiyat 233
International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
based on specific dimensions that work interacting to increase the effectiveness of the
individual, which appears on the individual's response to others and situations.
This result is in agreement with the results of the study of Sayed (2019), Al-Dahamsheh
(2019), and the study of Azizi, Heiderzadi, Soeouh, Jantaolmahkhan & Khatony, 2020)
that there is a significant effect of psychological empowerment in increasing the
student's ability to persevere, improve self-confidence, and the profession in which she
will work in the future.
CONCLUSION
The present study sought to investigate the effectiveness of a training program based on
psychological empowerment on reducing future professional anxiety among outstanding
students. The findings of the study showed that a well-structured and designed training
program based on the inclusion of various psychological empowerment significantly
reduced the future professional anxiety among outstanding undergraduates at Al-Balqa
Applied University. The set of activities and tasks included in the training program, such
as role-play, gamification activities, relaxation activities, etc., significantly improved the
communication, interaction, and socialization of the students and reduced the negative
thoughts of the students about the future. The practical implications of this research
involve the benefits of using the tasks and activities to design psychological
empowerment programs targeting the outstanding university students in general and all
undergraduates in particular. In addition, the research implication of this study involves
that this study might be extended to include different categories of university students
and different psychological empowerment activities.
LIMITATIONS
Study limits: The current study was limited to outstanding students in various academic
years at Al-Balqa Applied University for the first semester of the academic year
2019/2020.
Study limitations: The generalization of the results of the study is determined by the
psychometric properties of the scales used, the extent to which the study sample is
serious about adhering to the training program, and their seriousness in answering the
scale.
SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The study results may benefit educational counselors and psychologists by providing an
effective counseling program based on psychological empowerment strategies,
especially since these strategies have proven effective in many other therapies and
psychological counseling areas. The findings and recommendations of the current study
may also open the door to other researchers' efforts to confront future professional
anxiety through psychology-based interventions on psychological empowerment to
provide more relevant research and studies
234 The Effectiveness of a Training Program Based on
International Journal of Instruction, January 2022 Vol.15, No.1
In light of the results of the study, the researchers recommend the following:
Inviting Al-Balqa Applied University and Jordanian universities in general to adopt
diagnostic and treatment programs related to students' future professional anxiety to help
them reduce the sense of anxiety in the future career.
Activating academic counseling by enabling the psychologically outstanding students to
reduce their stress and anxiety, whether it is related to their current academic life or
future career.
Combining a mentorship program based on psychological empowerment with a career
counseling program enables outstanding students to define their future career paths.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine relevant organizational “human” aspects that support circular economy (CE); and second, to investigate the influence of perception of organizational justice (OJ), psychological empowerment on job satisfaction (JS) through mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Design/methodology/approach The study used survey questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to test hypotheses of the study. Findings OJ positively and significantly influences psychological empowerment. Also, it was found that OCB and psychological empowerment to positively and significantly influence JS. Furthermore, OCB positively and significantly mediates the influence of OJ and psychological empowerment on JS. Practical implications Employees should be provided with fair and empowering environment to derive positive outcomes in terms of organizational citizenship behavior and JS. The study also suggests recognizing the importance of OCB in an organization to enhance JS and support CE. Originality/value The study presents empirical evidence in Indian context on how to encourage employees to display voluntary job behaviors and keep them job satisfied.
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The purpose of this study is to determine how gifted and talented students think about future careers with regard to both the awareness and especially process of such career decision-making. Particular attention is given to their perceptions about having the best career they can imagine. A qualitative research model is used in this study. The study group consists of eleven gifted and talented high school students, studying in congregative gifted class in a private college. Students were contacted via phone or email, and appointments for interviews were arranged. The interviews were conducted by the researcher within a two-month period. Participation in the study was voluntary. A semi-structured interview form was used as data-collection tool, and data analysis was conducted through a content analysis. According to the results of the research, occupation that gifted and talented students want to have mostly expressed as doctor. As factors influencing their decisions regarding preferred occupation, gifted and talented students stated that their families, academic achievements, sense of social responsibility, and desire to manage the world, are the factors affecting their career decisions. Expectations of gifted and talented students regarding the countries in which they want to work were: feeling secure, offering business environment and opportunity, being developed, economically stable, a rich history, and affordability. The meaning of having good career for gifted and talented students was stated to be spending money and having prestige. Gifted and talented students visualise themselves in terms of their career ten years later as being tortured by their occupation, becoming the leader of their occupations and working oversees. © 2017, South African Journal Of Education. All rights reserved.